Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Chapter 8
Cognition, Intelligence, and
Creativity
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Cognition: Definition of Terms
• Cognition: Mentally processing information (images,
concepts, etc.); thinking
• Images: picture-like mental representations
• Concept: Generalized idea representing a class of
related objects or events
• Language: Words or symbols, and rules for combining
them, that are used for thinking and communication
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Types of Mental Images
• Stored Image: Mental image kept in long-term memory
(LTM) and retrieved when appropriate
• Created Image: Image that has been assembled or
invented rather than remembered
• Kinesthetic Image: Created from produced,
remembered, or imagined muscular sensations
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.1
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.1 Imagery in thinking. (Top) Subjects were shown a drawing similar to (a) and
drawings of how (a) would look in other positions, such as (b) and (c). Subjects could recognize
(a) after it had been “rotated” from its original position. However, the more (a) was rotated in
space, the longer it took to recognize it. This result suggests that people actually formed a threedimensional image of (a) and rotated the image to see if it matched. (Shepard, 1975.) (Bottom)
Try your ability to manipulate mental images: Picture each of these shapes as a piece of paper
that can be folded to make a cube. After they have been folded, on which cubes do the arrow tips
meet?
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.2
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.2 When you see a flower, its image is represented by activity in the primary visual
area of the cortex, at the back of the brain. Information about the flower is also relayed to other
brain areas. If you form a mental image of a flower, information follows a reverse path. The
result, once again, is activation of the primary visual area.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Concept Formation
• Process of classifying world into meaningful categories
– Positive Instance: Object or event that belongs to the
concept class
– Negative Instance: Object or event that does not
belong to the concept class
• Conceptual Rule: Guidelines for deciding whether
objects or events belong to concept class
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.3
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.3 When does a cup become a bowl or a vase? Deciding if an object belongs to a
conceptual class is aided by relating it to a prototype, or ideal example. Subjects in one
experiment chose number 5 as the “best” cup.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Concept Formation (cont'd)
• Conjunctive Concept: Class of objects that are defined
by the presence of two or more common features (e.g.,
object is pink and soft)
• Relational Concept: Based on how an object relates to
something else or how its features relate to one another
• Disjunctive Concept: Objects that have at least one of
several possible features; either-or concept (strike in
baseball)
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
More Concept Issues and Terms
• Prototypes: Ideal model used as an example of a good
concept
• Denotative Meaning: Exact definition of a word or
concept
• Connotative Meaning: Emotional or personal meaning of
a concept
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.4
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.4 Use of prototypes in concept identification. Even though its shape is unusual, item
(a) can be related to a model (an ordinary set of pliers) and thus recognized. But what are items
(b) and (c)? If you don’t recognize them, look ahead to figure 8.6.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.5
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.5 This is an example of Osgood’s semantic differential. The connotative meaning of
the word jazz can be established by rating it on the scales. Mark your own rating by placing
dots or X’s in the spaces. Connect the marks with a line; then have a friend rate the word and
compare your responses. It might be interesting to do the same for rock and roll, classical, and
rap. You also might want to try the word psychology.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.6
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.6 Context can substitute for a lack of appropriate prototypes in concept identification.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Language
• Encoding: Translating information into symbols that are
easy to manipulate and understand
• Semantics: Study of meanings in language
• Phoneme: Basic speech sounds
• Morpheme: Speech sounds collected into meaningful
units, like syllables or words
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.8
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.6 Context can substitute for a lack of appropriate prototypes in concept identification.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Language (cont'd)
• Grammar: Set of rules for making sounds into words or
words into sentences
• Syntax: Rules for word order in sentences
• Transformation Rules: Rules that allow us to change a
declarative sentence into other voices (passive, active)
or forms
• Productivity: Ability of language to generate new
thoughts or ideas
• American Sign Language (ASL): Language used by deaf
and hearing-impaired people
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.9
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.9 Animals around the world make pretty much the same sounds. Notice, however,
how various languages use slightly different phonemes to express the sound a duck makes.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.10
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.10 ASL has only 3,000 root signs, compared with roughly 600,000 words in English.
However, variations in signs make ASL a highly expressive language. For example, the sign
LOOK-AT can be varied in ways to make it mean look at me, look at her, look at each, stare at,
gaze, watch, look for a long time, look at again and again, reminisce, sightsee, look forward to,
predict, anticipate, browse, and many more variations.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.11
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.11 Here is a sample of some of the word symbols that Sarah the chimpanzee used to
communicate with humans.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Problem Solving
• Mechanical Solution: Achieved by trial and error or by
rote
• Algorithm: Learned set of rules that always leads to the
correct solution
• General Solution: States the requirements for success
but not in enough detail for further action
• Random Search Strategy: All possibilities are tried, more
or less randomly
• Heuristic: Strategy for identifying and evaluating problem
solutions
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.12
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.12 After reading the message “Sarah insert apple pail banana dish” on the magnetic
board, Sarah performed the actions as directed. (From “Teaching Language to an Ape” by Ann J.
Premack and David Premack. Copyright © 1972 by Scientific American, Inc. Reprinted by
permission of Eric Mose, Jr.)
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Insight
• When an answer appears suddenly in problem solving
(a-ha learning)
• Involves three abilities
– Selective Encoding: Selecting information that is
relevant to a problem while ignoring distractions
– Selective Combination: Connecting seemingly
unrelated bits of useful information
– Selective Comparison: Comparing new problems with
old information or with problems already solved
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.14
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.14 A schematic representation of Duncker’s tumor problem. The dark spot represents
a tumor surrounded by healthy tissue. How can the tumor be destroyed without injuring
surrounding tissue? (After Duncker, 1945.)
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Fixations
 Fixations: Tendency to repeat wrong solutions and to
“fixate” on them, or to become blind to alternatives
 Functional Fixedness: Inability to see new uses
(functions) for familiar objects or for things that were
used in a particular way
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.17
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.17 Four trees can be placed equidistant from one another by piling dirt into a mound.
Three of the trees are planted equal distances apart around the base of the mound. The fourth
tree is planted on the top of the mound. If you were fixated on arrangements that involve level
ground, you may have been blind to this three-dimensional solution.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Barriers to Problem Solving
• Emotional Barriers: Inhibition and fear of making a fool of
oneself or of making a mistake
• Cultural Barriers: Belief that fantasy is a waste and
feelings and humor have no place in problem solving
• Learned Barriers: Taboos; staying with conventional
uses
• Perceptual Barriers: Habits leading to a failure to identify
important elements of a problem
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
• Computers (and their programs) that perform human-like
problem solving or intelligent responding (Deep Blue, the
chess-playing supercomputer)
• Computer Simulations: Programs that attempt to
duplicate human behavior, especially thinking, problem
solving, or decision making
• Expert Systems: Computer programs that respond as an
expert human would
– Responding like a chess Grand Master
• Organized Knowledge: Systematic information
• Acquired Strategies: Learned tactics
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.19
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.19 The left chessboard shows a realistic game. The right chessboard is a
random arrangement of pieces. Expert chess players can memorize the left board at a
glance, yet they are no better than beginners at memorizing the random board (Saariluoma,
1994). Expert performance at most thinking tasks is based on acquired strategies and
knowledge. If you would like to excel at a profession or a mental skill, plan on adding to your
knowledge every day
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Defining Intelligence
• Global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and
deal effectively with the environment
• Operational Definition: Specifies what procedures we will
use to measure a concept
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Testing Intelligence
 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fifth Edition (SB5):
Widely used individual intelligence test, derived directly
from Alfred Binet’s first intelligence test; items are ageranked
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
SB5: Cognitive Factors Measured





Fluid reasoning
Knowledge
Quantitative reasoning
Visual-spatial processing
Working memory
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.22
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.22 Distribution of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test scores for 3,184 children.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Some Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Terms
• Norm: Average score for a designated group of people
• Chronological Age: Person’s age in years
• Mental Age: Average intellectual performance
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
More Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Terms
• Intelligence Quotient (IQ): Intelligence index; original
definition; mental age divided by chronological age, then
multiplied by 100
• Deviation IQ: Scores based on a person’s standing in his
or her age group; how far above or below average a
person’s score is, relative to other scores
• Average IQ in the U.S.: 100
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Wechsler Tests
• Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test, 3rd Edition (WAIS-III):
Adult intelligence test that rates verbal and performance
intelligence and abilities
– Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition
(WISC-IV): Downscaled version of the WAIS-III; for
children from 6 years to 16 years, 11 months, 30 days
• Performance Intelligence: Nonverbal intelligence
• Verbal Intelligence: Language or symbol-oriented
intelligence
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Group Tests
• These tests can be given to a large group of people with
little supervision; usually contain multiple-choice items
• Normal (Bell-shaped) Curve: Most scores fall close to
the average, and very few are found at the extremes
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
IQ Research Results, and a Few More
Terms to Know
• A strong correlation (about .50) exists between IQ and
school grades.
• IQ is NOT a good predictor of success in art, music,
writing, dramatics, science and leadership.
• Men and women do NOT appear to differ in overall
intelligence.
• Giftedness: Having a high IQ (usually above 130) or
special talents or abilities (playing Mozart at age 5).
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.23
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.23 Approximate correlations between IQ scores for persons with varying degrees of
genetic and environmental similarity. Notice that the correlations grow smaller as the degree of
genetic similarity declines. Also note that a shared environment increases the correlation in all
cases.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.24
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.24 Comparison of an adopted child and a biological child reared in the same family.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple Intelligences
• Language: Used for thinking by lawyers, writers,
comedians
• Logic and Math: Used by scientists, accountants,
programmers
• Visual and Spatial Thinking: Used by engineers,
inventors, aviators
• Music: Used by composers, musicians, music critics
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple
Intelligences (cont'd)
Chapter 8
• Bodily-Kinesthetic Skills: Used by dancers, athletes,
surgeons
• Intrapersonal Skills (Self-Knowledge): Used by poets,
actors, ministers
• Interpersonal Skills (Social Abilities): Used by
psychologists, teachers, politicians
• Naturalistic Skills (Ability to Understand Natural
Environment): Used by biologists, organic farmers
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Mental Retardation: Some Definitions
• Presence of a developmental disability or an IQ score
below 70; a significant impairment of adaptive behavior
also figures into the definition
– Adaptive Behavior: Basic skills such as dressing,
eating, working, hygiene; necessary for self-care
• Familial Retardation: Mild retardation that occurs in
homes that have inadequate nutrition, intellectual
stimulation, medical care, and emotional support
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Organic Causes of Mental Retardation
• Related to physical disorders
• Birth Injuries: Lack of oxygen to the brain, for example
• Fetal Damage: Congenital problem; prenatal damage
from disease, infection, or drug abuse by the mother
• Metabolic Disorders: Disorder in metabolism; affects
energy use and production in the body
• Genetic Abnormalities: Abnormality in the genes, such as
missing genes, extra genes, or defective genes
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Creative Thinking
• Inductive Thought: Going from specific facts or
observations to general principles
• Deductive Thought: Going from general principles to
specific situations
• Logical Thought: Going from given information to new
conclusions based on specific rules
• Illogical Thought: Thought that is intuitive, associative, or
personal
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
How to “Rate” Creative Thoughts
• Fluency: Total number of suggestions you can make
• Flexibility: Number of times you shift from one class of
possible uses to another
• Originality: How novel or unusual or unique your
suggestions are
• Convergent Thinking: Many thoughts or variations
converging on a single answer; conventional thinking
• Divergent Thinking: Many possibilities developing from
one starting point
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Tests of Creativity
• Unusual Uses Test: Find as many uses for an object as
possible (Tell me all the things you can do with this
pencil.)
• Consequences Test: List all the consequences that
would follow if a basic change were made in the world
(What would happen if we were able to read everyone’s
thoughts?)
• Anagrams Test: Make as many new words as possible
from the letters in a given word
• Often seen on puzzle pages in newspapers
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.25
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.25 Some tests of divergent thinking. Creative responses are more original and more
complex.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Stages of Creative Thought
• Orientation: Defining the problem
• Preparation: Gaining as much information as possible
• Incubation: The problem, while not appearing to be
actively worked on, is still “cooking” in the background
• Illumination: The “a-ha” experience; rapid insight into the
solution
• Verification: Testing and critically evaluating the solution
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Creative Personality
• Smarter people have a slight tendency to be more
creative.
• Creative people usually have a greater than average
range of knowledge and interests.
• Creative people have openness to experience.
• Creative people value independence and have a
preference for complex things
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Logic and Intuition
• Intuition: Quick, impulsive thought that does not make
use of formal reasoning
• Representativeness Heuristic: Giving a choice greater
weight if it seems to be representative of what is already
known
• Base Rate: Underlying probability of an event
• Framing: The way a problem is stated or the way it is
structured
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.26
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.26 (a) Nine dots are arranged in a square. Can you connect them by drawing four
continuous straight lines without lifting your pencil from the paper? (b) Six matches must be
arranged to make four triangles. The triangles must be the same size, with each side equal to
the length of one match. (The solutions to these problems appear in FIGURE 8.27.)
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 8.27
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8.27 Problem solutions. (a) The dot problem can be solved by extending the lines
beyond the square formed by the dots. Most people assume incorrectly that they may not do
this. (b) The match problem can be solved by building a three-dimensional pyramid. Most
people assume that the matches must be arranged on a flat surface. If you remembered the
four-tree problem from earlier in the chapter, the match problem may have been easy to solve.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
How to Enhance Creativity
• Break mental sets and challenge assumptions.
– Mental Set: Tendency to perceive or respond in a
certain way that blinds us to possible solutions.
• Define problems broadly.
• Restate the problem in different ways.
• Allow time for incubation.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
How to Enhance Creativity (cont'd)
•
•
•
•
Seek varied input.
Look for analogies.
Take sensible risks.
Delay evaluation.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Brainstorming
• Keeping the production of ideas separate from the
evaluation of them; producing ideas with no criticism
• Cross-Stimulation Effect: When one participant’s ideas in
a brainstorming session trigger ideas from others
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 8
Brainstorming Rules
• Criticism of ideas is absolutely barred
• Modification or combination with other ideas is
encouraged
• Quantity of ideas is sought
• Unusual, remote, or wild ideas are sought
• Record ideas as they occur
• Elaborate or improve on the most promising ideas
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Chapter 8: Cognition, Intelligence and Creativity