The Philippine
Roadmap
to
Multi-literacy
Dina Ocampo
Leonor Diaz
Portia Padilla
Liu Vilbar
Victor Villanueva
Mark Norman Maca
Pau Fontanos
Liza Villanueva
Roberto Ruda
Foundations of the Policy
Recommendations thru BESRA
• Philippine language context and the evolution of
language use
• Cultural identity, language and social development
• How language is learned; Multilingualism
• How literacy is learned; Multiliteracy
• The Cross Linguistic Transfer of Literacy and
Thinking Skills across languages
• Global studies/experiences in bilingual education
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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We are multilingual
We are by virtue
of our geography
and history, a
multi-lingual
people.
This gift has for too
long been viewed
as a liability.
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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The Philippine Language Context

120 languages (McFarland, 1993) or 171 (Philippine
Commission on Educational Reform, 2000)

Eight major languages are Ilocano, Pangasinense,
Kapampangan, Tagalog, Bicol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon
and Waray-Samarnon (Belvez, 2002)

Filipino is the national language, and incorporates
vocabulary from the other Philippine languages and
non-local languages used in the Philippines, i.e.,
English, Arabic and Spanish (Gonzales, 1998)
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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Cultural identity, language and
literacy
• Culture is the sum total of ways of
living built up by a group of
human beings transmitted from
one generation to another. The
shared values, customs and
histories characteristic of culture
shape the way a person thinks,
behaves and views the world.
• Culture is perhaps the strongest
determinant of identity
• Language is intrinsic to the
expression of culture
• Language is fundamental to
cultural identity
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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Language Acquisition and
Learning
Language Acquisition
• the way children learn their mother
tongue
• the process of natural assimilation
of a language
• requires good models of the
language that is to be learned and
immersion in its use and function.
• all children can acquire language
ability because humans have the
capacity to learn language (Brown,
1994).
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
• Language Learning
• The process used by learners
when languages are added to
their linguistic repertoire
• Refers to second, third, nth
language learned by a person
• Can be learned (or not
learned) well by
–
–
–
–
Immersion
Structuralist or Formalist
Audiio-lingual
Communicative competence
6
Childhood Bilingualism
•
from Monolingual
Through
interactions
in the
community
Through
teaching
in
school
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
to Bilingual
Natural
Additive
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The Issue of Biliteracy
The prevailing ideas posit
that literacy is outside the
domain of bilingualism.
Bilingualism
Biliteracy
•
For our purposes, we
should look at it this way:
Bilingualism
Biliteracy
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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Therefore…..
Experience
Oral
Symbols
Printed
Symbols
In L2
Oral
Symbols
Printed
Symbols
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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Word Reading and Spelling
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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Sentence and Listening
Comprehension
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% of Schools Surpassing 60% on NAT
What’s going
on here?
50.00
50.00
45.00
40.00
35.00
30.00
25.00
2002/3
2003/4
2004/5
20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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The Reality
Experience
Oral
Symbols
in L1
Oral
Symbols
in Filipino
What’s
missing
here?
Printed
Symbols
in Filipino
SCHOOL
Oral
Symbols
In English
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
Printed
Symbols
In English
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Cross-linguistic Transfer of
Literacy Ability
• Considerable and wealthy evidence to show the literacy
transfers across languages
• Ocampo (2002) showed that cognitive & linguistic skills
used to read in one language (Filipino) were also used in
another language (English)
• Aquino (2005) reports that beginning reading instruction in
Filipino or English had positive effects on alphabetic
knowledge and phonological awareness in the other
language
• Ocampo (2005) found the ease of learning to read words
and comprehend sentences better in Filipino than in English
for elementary grade students
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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Arabic
Other
Languages
English
•A global language
•Continues to be a language
•of aspiration among Filipinos
Filipino
•Easier to learn to read
•Language of the media
•Understood by most Filipinos
Cross
Linguistic
Transfer
Of Literacy
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
Child’s Language
•Provides the foundation for additional languages
•Facilitates learning subject matter
•Increases school participation
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National Language and Literacy
Strategy #1
•
Implement a developmentally and
culturally sound programming of
language and literacy development in
schools
• Revise the implementing rules for the Bilingual
Education Policy
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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Programming of Languages
of Learning
Domains of Use
Languages of Learning
4th Yr
3rd Yr
Grade/Year Levels
2nd Yr
1st Yr
Grade 6
Grade 5
Child's Language
Grade 4
Filipino
English
Arabic/Others
Grade 3
Grade 2
Grade 1
ECCD
0
1
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
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National Language and Literacy
Strategy #2
• Create better learning environments
to support language and literacy
education of students.
1. Articulate how language and literacy will be
developed in learners at specific grade/year levels
of basic education.
2. Use children’s literature to support language and
literacy development through exposure,
immersion, and practice.
3. Support student learning through the
development, production, and distribution of
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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National Language and Literacy
Strategy #2
Ensure that teachers at different grade/year levels have
the knowledge and competencies
4.
–
–
–
5.
6.
in the languages they are supposed to use for teaching
on language and literacy education in a bilingual/multilingual
context
in the subject(s) they are supposed to teach
Match the assessment of language and literacy with
curriculum content and the languages of learning at
specific grade/year levels.
Provide students with language and literacy difficulties
remedial instruction based on assessment results.
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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Instructional Materials should be
made for:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Beginning Reading in the mother
tongue for Preschool and Grade 1.
Children’s literature in the mother
tongue for Preschool until Grade 3.
Math in the mother tongue from
Preschool until Grade 3.
Science in the mother tongue from
Preschool until Grade 3.
MAKABAYAN in the mother tongue
for Grades 1 and 2.
Filipino materials using local context
and literature (where possible) for
Preschool, Grades 1 to 6.
English materials using local context
and literature (where possible) for
Preschool, Grades 1 to 6.
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
8. Beginning Reading in Filipino for Grade
2.
9. Beginning Reading in English for Grade
3.
10. MAKABAYAN in Filipino for Grade 3
to support the transition of the language
of learning from mother tongue to
Filipino.
11. Edukasyong pangkabuhayan in Filipino
for Grades 4 onwards.
12. Math in English for Grade 4 to support
the transition of the language of learning
from mother tongue to English.
13. Science in English for Grade 4 to
support the transition of the language of
learning from mother tongue to English.
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National Language and Literacy
Strategy #3
• Enliven critical social support
structures in the community to
support learners in school.
1.
2.
Ensure maximum LGU/community participation and
support for the implementation of the language and
literacy programming strategy.
Raise critical awareness among parents about effective
language and literacy learning processes.
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education
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MARAMING
SALAMAT
PO!
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