The Philippine Roadmap to Multi-literacy Dina Ocampo Leonor Diaz Portia Padilla Liu Vilbar Victor Villanueva Mark Norman Maca Pau Fontanos Liza Villanueva Roberto Ruda Foundations of the Policy Recommendations thru BESRA • Philippine language context and the evolution of language use • Cultural identity, language and social development • How language is learned; Multilingualism • How literacy is learned; Multiliteracy • The Cross Linguistic Transfer of Literacy and Thinking Skills across languages • Global studies/experiences in bilingual education Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 2 We are multilingual We are by virtue of our geography and history, a multi-lingual people. This gift has for too long been viewed as a liability. Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 3 The Philippine Language Context 120 languages (McFarland, 1993) or 171 (Philippine Commission on Educational Reform, 2000) Eight major languages are Ilocano, Pangasinense, Kapampangan, Tagalog, Bicol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray-Samarnon (Belvez, 2002) Filipino is the national language, and incorporates vocabulary from the other Philippine languages and non-local languages used in the Philippines, i.e., English, Arabic and Spanish (Gonzales, 1998) Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 4 Cultural identity, language and literacy • Culture is the sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings transmitted from one generation to another. The shared values, customs and histories characteristic of culture shape the way a person thinks, behaves and views the world. • Culture is perhaps the strongest determinant of identity • Language is intrinsic to the expression of culture • Language is fundamental to cultural identity Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 5 Language Acquisition and Learning Language Acquisition • the way children learn their mother tongue • the process of natural assimilation of a language • requires good models of the language that is to be learned and immersion in its use and function. • all children can acquire language ability because humans have the capacity to learn language (Brown, 1994). Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education • Language Learning • The process used by learners when languages are added to their linguistic repertoire • Refers to second, third, nth language learned by a person • Can be learned (or not learned) well by – – – – Immersion Structuralist or Formalist Audiio-lingual Communicative competence 6 Childhood Bilingualism • from Monolingual Through interactions in the community Through teaching in school Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education to Bilingual Natural Additive 7 The Issue of Biliteracy The prevailing ideas posit that literacy is outside the domain of bilingualism. Bilingualism Biliteracy • For our purposes, we should look at it this way: Bilingualism Biliteracy Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 8 Therefore….. Experience Oral Symbols Printed Symbols In L2 Oral Symbols Printed Symbols Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 9 Word Reading and Spelling Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 10 Sentence and Listening Comprehension Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 11 % of Schools Surpassing 60% on NAT What’s going on here? 50.00 50.00 45.00 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 2002/3 2003/4 2004/5 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 12 The Reality Experience Oral Symbols in L1 Oral Symbols in Filipino What’s missing here? Printed Symbols in Filipino SCHOOL Oral Symbols In English Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education Printed Symbols In English 13 Cross-linguistic Transfer of Literacy Ability • Considerable and wealthy evidence to show the literacy transfers across languages • Ocampo (2002) showed that cognitive & linguistic skills used to read in one language (Filipino) were also used in another language (English) • Aquino (2005) reports that beginning reading instruction in Filipino or English had positive effects on alphabetic knowledge and phonological awareness in the other language • Ocampo (2005) found the ease of learning to read words and comprehend sentences better in Filipino than in English for elementary grade students Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 14 Arabic Other Languages English •A global language •Continues to be a language •of aspiration among Filipinos Filipino •Easier to learn to read •Language of the media •Understood by most Filipinos Cross Linguistic Transfer Of Literacy Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education Child’s Language •Provides the foundation for additional languages •Facilitates learning subject matter •Increases school participation 15 National Language and Literacy Strategy #1 • Implement a developmentally and culturally sound programming of language and literacy development in schools • Revise the implementing rules for the Bilingual Education Policy Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 16 Programming of Languages of Learning Domains of Use Languages of Learning 4th Yr 3rd Yr Grade/Year Levels 2nd Yr 1st Yr Grade 6 Grade 5 Child's Language Grade 4 Filipino English Arabic/Others Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 ECCD 0 1 Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 National Language and Literacy Strategy #2 • Create better learning environments to support language and literacy education of students. 1. Articulate how language and literacy will be developed in learners at specific grade/year levels of basic education. 2. Use children’s literature to support language and literacy development through exposure, immersion, and practice. 3. Support student learning through the development, production, and distribution of Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 18 National Language and Literacy Strategy #2 Ensure that teachers at different grade/year levels have the knowledge and competencies 4. – – – 5. 6. in the languages they are supposed to use for teaching on language and literacy education in a bilingual/multilingual context in the subject(s) they are supposed to teach Match the assessment of language and literacy with curriculum content and the languages of learning at specific grade/year levels. Provide students with language and literacy difficulties remedial instruction based on assessment results. Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 19 Instructional Materials should be made for: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Beginning Reading in the mother tongue for Preschool and Grade 1. Children’s literature in the mother tongue for Preschool until Grade 3. Math in the mother tongue from Preschool until Grade 3. Science in the mother tongue from Preschool until Grade 3. MAKABAYAN in the mother tongue for Grades 1 and 2. Filipino materials using local context and literature (where possible) for Preschool, Grades 1 to 6. English materials using local context and literature (where possible) for Preschool, Grades 1 to 6. Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 8. Beginning Reading in Filipino for Grade 2. 9. Beginning Reading in English for Grade 3. 10. MAKABAYAN in Filipino for Grade 3 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to Filipino. 11. Edukasyong pangkabuhayan in Filipino for Grades 4 onwards. 12. Math in English for Grade 4 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to English. 13. Science in English for Grade 4 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to English. 20 National Language and Literacy Strategy #3 • Enliven critical social support structures in the community to support learners in school. 1. 2. Ensure maximum LGU/community participation and support for the implementation of the language and literacy programming strategy. Raise critical awareness among parents about effective language and literacy learning processes. Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education 21 MARAMING SALAMAT PO!