Music Appreciation
Class #11
The Romantic Period, Part 1
Schubert, Mendelssohn(s),
Schumann(s) and Chopin
Romantic

Upper case definition
 Reaction
against “reason”
 Aesthetics
Heightened emotion
 Nature
 Children
 Struggle with nature
 Death

Aesthetic Goals and Ideals
fantasy
 grotesque
 whimsy
 imaginative
 playful
 reaching for eternity
 longing for the unrequited
 artist and art

“The Artist”

Image
 Poverty
 Health
 Suffering
 Eccentric
 Exotic
Liebestod

Romantic ideal
 Love/death

Sturm und Drang
 Storm
and stress/urge/longing
Culture

Purpose
 “Beauty

for Beauty’s Sake”
Robert Lewis Stevenson
 Must
beauty be “beautiful?”
 Emotion

Emotionalism?
Audience

No more patronage

Middle-class
 Educated
 Musical
New terms
Artist
 Genius
 Inspiration
 Dilettante
 Professional
 Amateur

Franz Peter Schubert (1797-1828)
Influences

Beethoven
 Salieri
 Mozart
Catalogue
Nine symphonies
 Chamber music
 600 Lieder

Lieder

Piano
Story-teller
 Subconscious

Song “cycle”
 Text

Prose
 Poetry


Heine, Schiller, Goethe
Der Erlkönig
Accompaniment?

Piano
 Carriage
 Horse
 Dissonance
 Melody
Wiener Kaffeehaus and jail

Meeting place
 Artists
 Writers
 Poets
 Musicians

Political radicals
Schubertiade

Schubert Abend
 Informal
Fun
 Fame
 Food

Jessye Norman
Felix Mendelssohn (Bartholdy)
(1809-1847)
Style
Elegant
 Sensitive
 “Miniature”s

 Songs

Without Words: “Spring”
Incidental Music
A

Midsummer Night’s Dream
Wedding march
Image of “The Artist?”
Wealthy
 Musical prodigy
 Handsome
 Intelligent

 Languages
 Artist

Jewish
Mendelssohn and Bach

CPE Bach’s widow

St. Matthew’s Passion
 1750-1829

Devotee
 Contrapuntal
influence
Fanny Mendelssohn (Hensel)
1805-1847)
Composer?!
Same education
 More talent and creativity?
 Pseudonym

 Handwriting
 Correspondence
 Style
Charles Gounod said...
“Madame Hensel was an unforgettable musician,
an excellent pianist, an
intellectually superior woman.
She was small, almost slight, but the fire that
burned in her eyes
revealed extraordinary energy.
As a composer, she was exceptionally gifted ...”
Robert Schumann (1810-56)
Romantic ideal

Dichter
 Poet,

writer
Denker
 Philosopher

Law student

Friedrich Wieck
Romantic paradox

Whimsical and refined

Dreamy and gritty

Vehement and visionary
“Scenes From Childhood”

Träumerei
 Katharine

Hepburn “Song of Love”
The Wild Horseman
Health
Hand
 Physical health

 Mercury?
 Syphilis?

Mental health
 Visions

Institutionalized
Musical pyramid

Only composer to master compositions on
one instrument (the piano) before
proceeding to larger compositions;

Solo piano for over 8 years;

1st orchestral composition not until 1842;

Difficult large structures.
Cultural Accomplishments

Davidsbündler
 Philistines!


Florestan und Eusebius
Neue Zeitschrift für Musik”
 1st

musical journal/criticism
New composers/styles

Chopin and Brahms
Clara Wieck Schumann
(1819-1896)
Limitations...
"I once believed that I possessed creative
talent, but I have given up this idea;
a woman must not desire to compose —
there has never yet been one able to do it.
Should I expect to be the one?"
“The High Priestess of Music”

Father & Teacher
 60-year


“amateur” career
Highly accomplished performer
Inspiration
 Robert’s
most passionate music
 150 songs in 1840 alone!

Influenced

Mendelssohn, Brahms, Chopin
Musician, Wife, Mother

Finances
 Concerts
 Teaching
 Premieres

Eight children
 Revolution
of Dresden rescue
Rumors...
Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849)
Web sites

http://www.chopin.pl/spis_tresci/index_en.
html

http://www.chopin.org/ip.asp?op=Home
Nationalism
Folk tunes
 Harmonies


Influence: Wagner, Liszt
Forms
 Dedications

 “Revolutionary
Etude” (“November Uprising”
1830)

Sviatoslav Richter

Heart
Style
New language
 Originality
 Exclusivity

 170+

piano
No news!
Edits
 Melody

Paris
Composer
 Performer
 Teacher

Parisian Friends
Franz Liszt
 Hector Berlioz
 Vincenzo Bellini
 Felix Mendelssohn
 Ferdinand Hiller
 Heinrich Heine

Salon society
Schubert abend concerts
 Social, musical, political, intellectual

Personality

“The lonely artist is surrounded by
frivolous society.”

“Romantic” appeal?
Romance

Women as inspiration
 Piano

Concerto #1 dedication:
“I have not yet exchanged a syllable with her of
whom I dream every night. While my thoughts
were with her I composed the Adagio of my
concerto”.
Aurore Duvedant...
or George Sand?
Feminist!
"I know that I am the slave and you the
lord. The law of the land has made
you my master....you have the right of
the stronger party, and society
confirms you in it; but over my will, sir,
you are powerless."
Odd couple

Prude vs. radical

Frail vs. healthy

Demure vs. aggressive
Confidence, intellect, sexuality
Inspiration

21 Nocturnes
 Artur
Rubinstein

John Field (1782-1837)
21st Century
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