Chapter 3
Planning Spoken and
Written Messages
Business Communication, 14e
Lehman and DuFrene
Business Communication, 14th edition by Lehman and DuFrene
Copyright
2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning
Chapter 3
Process for Planning and Preparing
Spoken and Written Messages
Business Communication, 14th edition by Lehman and DuFrene
Copyright
2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning
Chapter 3
Planning and Preparing Messages
Step 1
Determine purpose
and channel
Step 3
Adapt message to
audience
Step 2
Envision audience

Focus on the receiver’s point of view

Communicate ethically and responsibly

Build and protect goodwill

Use contemporary language

Use simple, informal words

Project a positive, tactful tone

Write concisely
Business Communication, 14th edition by Lehman and DuFrene
Copyright
2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning
Chapter 3
Communicating Ethically
and Responsibly






State information as truthfully, honestly, and
fairly as possible
Do not embellish or exaggerate facts
Express ideas clearly and understandably
Support viewpoint with objective facts
State ideas with tact and consideration that
preserves receiver’s self-worth
Design honest graphics
Business Communication, 14th edition by Lehman and DuFrene
Copyright
2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning
Chapter 3
Building and Protecting Goodwill
Use euphemisms
cautiously
 Avoid condescending or
demeaning expressions
 Use connotative tone
cautiously
 Use specific language
appropriately
 Use bias-free language

Business Communication, 14th edition by Lehman and DuFrene
Copyright
2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning
Chapter 3
Using Simple Words and
Contemporary Language

Choose simple,
informal words

Eliminate outdated
expressions

Eliminate clichés
Business Communication, 14th edition by Lehman and DuFrene
Copyright
2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning
Chapter 3
Project a Positive,
Tactful Tone

State ideas using positive language

Avoid using second person when
stating negative ideas

Use passive voice to convey
negative ideas

Use subjunctive mood to deemphasize negative ideas

Include a positive idea in the same
sentence with a negative one.
Business Communication, 14th edition by Lehman and DuFrene
Copyright
2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning
Chapter 3
Writing Concisely

Eliminate redundancies

Use active voice

Include essential
details only

Tighten using prefixes,
suffixes, compound
adjectives
Business Communication, 14th edition by Lehman and DuFrene
Copyright
2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning
Chapter 3
Step 4: Selecting an Outline for
Spoken and Written Messages
Business Communication, 14th edition by Lehman and DuFrene
Copyright
2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning
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Rhetorical Situation