Developing a Design/Simulation Framework
A Workshop with CPDA's Design and Simulation Council
April 6, 2005  Atlanta, Georgia
www.cpd-associates.com
Backup Slides
Achieving Fine-Grained CAE-CAE Associativity via
Analyzable Product Model (APM)-based Idealizations
Topic Area: Design-Analysis Interoperability (DAI)
[email protected]
http://www.marc.gatech.edu/
http://eislab.gatech.edu/projects/
Synopsis: This talk overviews a simulation template methodology based on analyzable
product models (APMs) that combine design information from multiple sources, add
idealization knowledge, and bridge semantic gaps to enable advanced DAI.
Copyright © All Rights Reserved. Permission to reproduce and distribute without changes for non-commercial purposes
(including internal corporate usage) is hereby granted provided this notice and a proper citation are included.
Constrained Objects: A Knowledge Representation
for Design, Analysis, and Systems Engineering Interoperability
Students: Manas Bajaj, Injoong Kim
Faculty: Russell Peak, Miyako Wilson
Chip Package Stress
Analysis Template
Objectives
Contributions & Benefits
 Develop better methods of capturing engineering knowledge that :
 Are independent of vendor-specific CAD/CAE/SE tools
 Support both easy-to-use human-sensible views and
robust computer-sensible formulations in a unified manner
 Handle a diversity of product domains, simulation disciplines,
solution methods, and leverage disparate vendor tools
 Apply these capabilities in a variety of sponsor-relevant test scenarios:
 Proposed candidates are templates and custom capabilities
for design, analysis, and systems engineering
To Scholarship
 Develop richer understanding of modeling
(including idealizations and multiple levels of
abstraction) and representation methods
To Industry
 Better designs via increased analysis intensity
 Increased automation and model consistency
 Increased modularity and reusability
 Increased corporate memory
via better knowledge capture
Constrained Object (COB) Formulations
Approach & Status
Collaboration Needed
Approach
 Extend and apply the constrained object (COB) representation
and related methodology based on positive results to date
 Expand within international efforts like the OMG UML for
Systems Engineering work to broaden applicability and impact
Status
 Current generation capabilities have been successfully
demonstrated in diverse environments (circuit boards, electronic
chip packages, airframes) with sponsors including NASA,
Rockwell Collins, Shinko (a major supplier to Intel), and Boeing.
 Templates for chip package thermal analysis are in production
usage at Shinko with over 75% reduction in modeling effort
(deformation/stress templates are soon to follow)

C o n s tra in t S c h e m a tic -S
 Additional Information:
1. http://eislab.gatech.edu/projects/
2. Response to OMG UML for Systems Engineering RFI:
http://eislab.gatech.edu/tmp/omg-se-33e/
3. Characterizing Fine-Grained Associativity Gaps:
A Preliminary Study of CAD-E Model Interoperability
http://eislab.gatech.edu/pubs/conferences/2003-asme-detc-cie-peak/

Support for 1-3 students
depending on project scope
Sponsor involvement to
provide domain knowledge
and facilitate pilot usage
S u b s y s te m -S
C O B S tru c tu re
D e fin itio n L a n g u a g e
(C O S )
I/O T a b le -S
O b je c t R e la tio n s h ip D ia g ra m -S
C o n s tra in t G ra p h -S
XML UML
E x p re s s -G
STEP
E x p re s s
COB-based Airframe Analysis Template
C A D -C A E A ssociativity
d ia g o n a l b ra ce lu g jo in t
a n a lysis co n te xt
d e fo rm a tio n m o d e l
d ia m e te rs
(idealization usage)
lu g s
L [ j:1 ,n ]
j = to p
n o rm a l d ia m e te r , D n o rm
h o le
lu g j
p ro d u ct stru ctu re (lu g jo in t)
L [ k] k = n o rm
Dk
D
o ve rsize d ia m e te r, D o ve r
G eom etry
2
size ,n
m o d e (u ltim a te sta tic stre n g th )
th ickn e ss, t
0 .3 5 in
e d g e m a rg in , e
0 .7 5 0 0 in
t
m a te ria l
P lug joint
co n d itio n
m a x a llo w a b le u ltim a te stre ss, F tu L
Plu g
jo in t
P lug
e
K a xu
0 .7 4 3 3
W
P a xu
1 4 .6 8 6 K
M aterial M odels
7 0 5 0 -T 7 4 5 2 , M S 7 -2 1 4
r1
DM 6630
0 .7 5 0 0 in
e ffe ctive w id th , W 1 .6 0 0 0 in
M a x. to rq u e b ra ke se ttin g
d e te n t 3 0 ,  2 = 3 .5 º
L u g A xia l U ltim a te
S tre n g th M o d e l
6 7 K si
F
tu a x
Pa x u  K a x u (
4 .3 1 7 K
W
D
 1) D tF tu a x
n
8 .6 3 3 K
o b je ctive
B oundary C ondition O bjects
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
(links to other analyses)
actual
e stim a te d a xia l u ltim a te stre n g th
allow able
MS
R equirem ents
S olution Tool
Interaction
M odel-based D ocum entation
2 .4 0
P ro g ra m
L 2 9 -3 0 0
P a rt
O u tb o a rd T E F la p , S u p p o rt N o 2 ;
In b o a rd B e a m , 1 2 3 L 4 5 6 7
F e a tu re
D ia g o n a l B ra ce L u g Jo in t
T e m p la te
L u g Jo in t
A xia l U ltim a te S tre n g th M o d e l
D a ta s e t
j = to p lu g
k = n o rm a l d ia m e te r
(1 o f 4 )
Standards-based Simulation Templates for Electronics
AP210-based PCB Stackup Design and Warpage Analysis
Students: Manas Bajaj, Injoong Kim
Objectives
 Develop methodology for information-hungry analysis templates
to leverage rich product models
 Application: Enable detailed thermo-mechanical warpage of
printed circuit boards (PCBs)
 Implement the methodology as automated design, analysis and
enrichment activities in standards-based engineering frameworks
Approach & Status
Approach
 Use STEP AP210-based electronics product model for high
fidelity representation of the PCB geometry
 Identify key design aspects (stackup, metallization features,
etc.) that concern warpage behavior of PCBs
 Evaluate warpage vulnerability of PCBs: locate deformation
“hot-spots” and suggest design improvements
Status
 Completed prototype implementation
with initial idealizations (including COTS tool web services)
 Under development: next level of idealizations
 Project seed funding provided by NIST
 Collaborators: AkroMetrix, InterCAX/LKSoft, Rockwell Collins
Publications
 Zwemer, D., Bajaj, M., Peak, R.S. et al., PWB Warpage
Analysis and Verification Using an AP210 Standards-based
Engineering Framework and Shadow Moiré.
To be presented at EuroSimE 2004 (May, 2004) Brussels.
 http://eislab.gatech.edu/projects/nist-warpage/
Faculty: Russell Peak, Miyako Wilson
Contributions & Benefits
To Scholarship
 Develop smart, custom algorithms for processing, analyzing and
deducing complex thermo-mechanical behavior of PCBs at different
stages of their life cycle
To Industry
 Richer design and analysis models in PLM contexts
 Ability to publish behavioral design requirements for PCBs to circuit
board manufacturers without sharing proprietary assembly processes
 Increased yield and quality, and reduced costs
Collaboration Needed

Explore possibilities of integrating efficient knowledge management,
smart product representation to support detailed design-analysis
integration as a part of standards-based engineering framework

Support for 1-3 students depending on project scope
STEP AP210-based
Manufacturable
Product Model
1
3
Multi-Representation Architecture
Template for Model Transformation
Analysis Building
Block Model
3
A n a ly za b le
P ro d u c t M o d e l
4
Warpage Profile
C o n te x t-B a s e d A n a ly s is M o d e l
APM
2
P rin te d W irin g A sse m b ly (P W A )
A n a ly s is B u ild in g B lo c k
1
CBAM
APM
Com ponent
S o ld e r
Jo in t
Com ponent
S o lu tio n M e th o d M o d e l
ABB
SMM
ABB
T
body
0
body
S o ld e r Jo in t
4
1
body
body
PW B
A B BSM M
3
2
P rin te d W irin g B o a rd (P W B )
……
D e s ig n T o o ls
S o lu tio n T o o ls
2
3
Knowledge-based FEA Modeling
Electronic Chip Package Applications
Students: Sai Zeng, Injoong Kim
Faculty: Russell Peak, Miyako Wilson, Robert Fulton
Objectives
Contributions & Benefits
 Provide seamless integration between
design and analysis in distributed environments
To Scholarship
 Integration method to bridge systems across disciplines,
domains, and functions within PLM environments
To Industry
 Automated FEA modeling process for chip package design
 Reduced FEA modeling time from days/hours to minutes
 Increase knowledge capture during integration
 Enhance FEA model generation and reusability
Approach & Status
Collaboration Needed
Approach
 Perform systematic process design
 Capture analysis concepts as rich, reusable
information models
 Deploy web services
Status
 Completed for chip package manufacturer (Shinko)
 Software tool In production usage

Usage extension in additional organizations

Development to extend beyond chip package applications

Support for 1-3 students depending on project scope

Additional information:
http://eislab.gatech.edu/projects/shinko/
182 input bodies
Auto-Chopping
Tool Usage View
Example Chip Package Products
9056 decomposed
bodies
4
VTMB = variable topology multi-body technique [Koo, 2000]
Pilot & Initial Production Usage Results
Product Model-Driven Analysis


Reduced FEA modeling time > 10:1 (days/hours  minutes)
References
[1] Shinko 5/00 (in Koo, 2000)
Reduced simulation cycle > 75%
[2] Shinko evaluation 10/12/00
A na lysis M o del C reatio n A ctivity
W ith T rad itio nal
P ra ctice
W ith V T M B
M etho do log y*
E xa m p le
C reate in itial FE A m od el (Q FP cases)
8 -12 h ou rs
1 0 -2 0 m inu tes
Q FP 2 0 8 P IN
C reate in itial FE A m od el (E B G A cases)
6 -8 h ou rs
1 0 -2 0 m inu tes
E B G A 3 5 2 P IN
C reate in itial FE A m od el (P B G A cases)
8 -10 h ou rs
1 0 -2 0 m inu tes
P B G A 2 5 6 P IN
C reate varian t - sm all top ology ch an ge
0 .3 -6 h ou rs
(1 0 -2 0 m inu tes) -
M od erate d im en sion chan ge
(e.g., E B G A 6 0 0 h eat sink size variation s)
C reate varian t - m od erate top olog y ch an ge
(6 -8 h ou rs)-
(1 0 -2 0 m inu tes) -
A d d m ore featu res
(e.g., increase n um b er of E B G A step s)
C reate varian t - large top olog y ch an ge


(6 -8 h ou rs)+
(1 0 -2 0 m inu tes)or N /A
A d d n ew typ es of featu res
(e.g., add step s to E B G A ou ter ed ges)
Enables greater analysis intensity  Better designs
Leverages XAI / CAD-CAE interoperability techniques
– Objects, Internet/web services, ubiquitization methodology, …
5
Knowledge Representation Elements
Structure/Content
Definition
Languages
Graphical
Representations
Knowledge
Representation
Meta-Model
Protocol
Operations/Methods
6
COB Modeling Languages
Lexical and Graphical Formulations
C o n s tra in t S c h e m a tic -S
L e x ic a l F o rm u la tio n s
S u b s ys te m -S
C O B S tru c tu re
D e fin itio n L a n g u a g e
(C O S )
Structure
Level
(Template)
I/O T a b le -S
O b je c t R e la tio n s h ip D ia g ra m -S
C o n s tra in t G ra p h -S
E x p re s s -G
OW L XML UML
STEP
E x p re s s
C o n s tra in t S c h e m a tic -I
Instance
Level
1 0 0 lb s
2 0 .2 in
R 101
L e x ic a l F o rm u la tio n s
C O B In s ta n c e
D e fin itio n L a n g u a g e
(C O I)
30e6 psi
2 0 0 lb s
C o n s tra in t G ra p h -I
R 101
OW L XML UML
2 0 .2 in
1 0 0 lb s
OWL, XML, and UML formulations
are envisioned extensions
30e6 psi
2 0 0 lb s
STEP
P a rt 2 1
7
COB Structure: Graphical Forms
Tutorial: Triangle Primitive
a. Shape Schematic-S
h
c. Constraint Schematic-S
d
A
r1
b a se , b
b
a re a , A
A  1 bh
2
h e ig h t, h
r2
d
r1 : A  1 bh
2
b. Relations-S
r2 : d
2
b h
2
s
su b va ria b le a.d
d
a
b
b
o p tio n ca te g o ry 1
c
d
o p tio n 1 .1
[1 .1 ] f = s.d
r2
ebc
e
f
d. Subsystem-S
T ria n g le
b
A
h
d
g
e= f
c
d ia g o n a l, d
su b va ria b le s.b
re la tio n r1(a,b,s.c)
r1
2
(for reuse by other COBs)
su b syste m s
o f co b typ e h
h
b h
2
2
Basic Constraint Schematic-S Notation
va ria b le a
a
2
[1 .2 ]
e q u a lity re la tio n
f= g
o p tio n 1 .2
w
L [ j:1 ,n ]
a g g re g a te c.w
wj
e le m e n t w j
Aside: This is a “usage view” in AP210 terminology
(vs. the above “design views”)
8
COBs as Building Blocks
Tutorial: Triangular Prism COB Structure
a. Shape Schematic-S
c. Constraint Schematic-S
cro ss -se ctio n
h
T ria n g le
l
V
b
b. Relations-S
r1 : V  Al
e. Lexical COB Structure (COS)
COB triangular_prism SUBTYPE_OF geometric_shape;
length, l
: REAL;
cross-section : triangle;
volume, V
: REAL;
RELATIONS
r1 : "<volume> == <cross-section.area> * <length>";
END_COB;
b
A
h
d
r1
le n g th , l
V  Al
vo lu m e , V
d. Subsystem-S
(for reuse by other COBs)
T ria n g u la r
P ris m
b
h
V
l
9
Example COB Instance
Tutorial: Triangular Prism
Constraint Schematic-I
Lexical COB Instance (COI)
example 1, state 1.1
state 1.0 (unsolved):
INSTANCE_OF triangular_prism;
cross-section.base
: 2.0;
cross-section.height : 3.0;
length : 5.0;
volume : ?;
END_INSTANCE;
cro ss -se ctio n
T ria n g le
2 in
b
A
3 in
h
d
3 in 2
r1
5 in
le n g th , l
V  Al
vo lu m e , V
1 5 in 3
Basic Constraint Schematic-I Notation
a
1 0 0 lb s
2 0 0 lb s
X
Input a = 100 lbs
b
R esult b = 30e6 psi
(output or interm ediate variable)
c
R esult c = 200 lbs
(result of prim ary interest)
3 0 e 6 p si
state 1.1 (solved):
INSTANCE_OF triangular_prism;
cross-section.base
: 2.0;
cross-section.height : 3.0;
cross-section.area
: 3.0;
length : 5.0;
volume : 15.0;
END_INSTANCE;
E quality relation is suspended
X r1
R elation r1 is suspended
10
Convergence of Representations
Software Development
Database Techniques
(algorithms …)
(data structure, storage …)
Flow Charts
ER
OMT
EER
STEP Express
UML
Constrained Object - like
Representations
Objects
COBs, OCL, ...
Constraint graphs
Rules
Artificial Intelligence
& Knowledge-Based Techniques
(structure combined with algorithms/relations/behavior)
11
Parametric Diagram
Firing Range Cannon Example
From: SysML Specification v0.3 (Draft 2004-01-12) p 66
Standardization of
COB Concepts and Notation
In SysML
12
Contributing COB Concepts to SysML Parametric Diagrams
Tutorial Example: Elementary Spring
SysML Parametric Diagram
Classical COB Representation
a . S h a p e S ch e m a tic -S
L
L
Lo
F
F
x1
x2
k
d e fo rm e d s ta te
b . R e la tio n s -S
k
E le m e n ta ry
S p rin g
k
F
r1 : L  x 2  x1
L0
r2 :  L  L  L 0
x1
r3 : F  k  L
x2
c. C o n stra in t S ch e m a tic -S
s p rin g c o n s ta n t, k
u n d e fo rm e d le n g th , L 0
s ta rt, x1
e n d , x2
r3
F  k L
r2
 L  L  Lo
Elementary Spring
d . S u b s yste m -S
L0
F
«parametricRelation»
F=kdL
L
«parametricRelation»
dL=L-L0
dL
 L
L
x1
x2
«parametricRelation»
L=x1-x2
fo rc e , F
to ta l e lo n g a tio n ,  L
le n g th , L
L  x 2  x1
Draft 2003-12 from
Alan Moore (www.artisansw.com)
and Sandy Friedenthal (LMCO)
r1
13
Two Spring System Example
as SysML Parametric Diagram
C la ssica l C O B R e p re se n ta tio n
Two Spring System
k1
Spring1 : Elementary Spring
k2
P
«parametricRelation»
x11=0
x1
u1
L
u2
sp rin g 1
L0
dL
E le m e n ta ry
S p rin g
u1
k
k
F
 L
L0
x11  0
F
b c1
x2
x1
b c5
u1
b c4
P
L
x2
b c2
b c3
sp rin g 2
E le m e n ta ry
S p rin g
k
L0
«parametricRelation»
X21=X12
x1
F
 L
L
u 2   L 2  u1
u2
b c6
x2
Spring2 : Elementary Spring
x1
F
P
x2
dL
«parametricRelation»
u2=dL2+u1
u2
k
L
L0
Draft 2003-12 from
Alan Moore (www.artisansw.com)
and Sandy Friedenthal (LMCO)
14
Constrained Object (COB) Representation
Current Technical Capabilities - Generation 2

Capabilities & features:
– Various forms: computable lexical forms, graphical forms, etc.
» Enables both computer automation and human comprehension
– Sub/supertypes, basic aggregates, multi-fidelity objects
– Multi-directionality (I/O changes)
– Reuses external programs as white box relations
– Advanced associativity added to COTS frameworks & wrappers

Analysis module/template applications (XAI/MRA):
–
–
–
–
–
Analysis template languages
Product model idealizations
Explicit associativity relations with design models & other analyses
White box reuse of existing tools (e.g., FEA, in-house codes)
Reusable, adaptable analysis building blocks
– Synthesis (sizing) and verification (analysis)
15
Constrained Objects (cont.)
Representation Characteristics & Advantages - Gen. 2

Overall characteristics
– Declarative knowledge representation (non-causal)
– Combining object & constraint graph techniques
– COBs
=
(STEP EXPRESS subset)
+
(constraint graph concepts & views)

Advantages over traditional analysis representations
– Greater solution control
– Richer semantics
(e.g., equations wrapped in engineering context)
– Unified views of diverse capabilities (tool-independent)
– Capture of reusable knowledge
– Enhanced development of complex analysis models

Toolkit status (XaiTools v0.4)
– Basic framework, single user-oriented, file-based
16
COB-based Constraint Schematic
for Multi-Fidelity CAD-CAE Interoperability
Flap Link Benchmark Example
D e s ig n T o o ls
A n a ly s is B u ild in g B lo c k s
(A B B s )
M C A D T o o ls
C A T IA , I-D E A S *
P ro/E * , U G * , ...
A n a ly s is M o d u le s
o f D iv e rs e B e h a v io r & F id e lity
(C B A M s )
C o n tin u u m A B B s :
y
M a te ria l M o d e l A B B :
r4
fo rc e , F
a re a , A

F
F
E, A, 
 T ,  ,  
x
E
re fe re n c e te m p e ra tu re , T o
1 D L in ea r E la stic M o d e l
L
Lo
O n e D L in e a r
E la s tic M o d e l
(n o s h e a r)
e d b .r1
te m p e ra tu re , T
L
m a te ria l m o d e l
E xte n sio n a l R o d

e
T
t


E x te n s io n
G
sh e a r stre ss, 
G 
E
lin k a g e
e ffe c tiv e le n g th , L eff
E x te n s io n a l R o d
(is o th e rm a l)
a l1
le n g th , L
end, x2
 t  T

te m p e ra tu
 re ch a n g e ,  T
e

F la p L in k E xte n sio n a l M o d e l
to ta l e lo n g a tio n ,  L
r1
s ta rt, x 1
sh e a r m o d u lu s, G
r1
cte , 
r2
u n d e fo rm e d le n g th , L o
2 (1  )
yo u n g s m o d u lu s, E
p o isso n s ra tio , 

r3
sh e a r stra in , 
r5
E
r4
y
th e rm a l stra in ,  t
m a te ria l m o d e l
e la stic stra in ,  e
T o rsio n a l R o d
r2
E
m o d e : s h a ft te n s io n
Lo
O n e D L in e a rT
E la s tic M o d e l
stra in , 
r3
stre ss, 
c ro s s s e c tio n
a re a , A
Lo
L
x1
L
x2
a l2
A
m a te ria l
T
G , r,  ,      ,J
x
lin e a r e la s tic m o d e l
y o u n g s m o d u lu s , E a l3
E

F

re a c tio n
c o n d itio n
G
to rq u e , T r

p o la r m o m e n t o f in e rtia , J

e
ra d iu s , r
T
t




A n a ly s is T o o ls
(v ia S M M s )
s tre s s m o s m o d e l
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> c a s e )
1D
a llo w a b le s tre s s
a llo w a b le
G e n e ra l M a th
M athem atica
M atlab *
M athC A D *
...
a ctu a l
MS
r3
u n d e fo rm e d le n g th , L o
r1
th e ta s ta rt,  1
th e ta e n d ,  2
tw is t, 
F la p L in k P la n e S tra in M o d e l
in te r_ a xis_ le n g th
lin ka g e
d e fo rm a tio n m o d e l
sle e ve _ 1
w
r
ws1
sle e ve _ 2
w
ts 1
t
rs 2
t
L egen d
T ool A ssociativity
O bject R e-use
m o d e : te n sio n
u x ,m a x
ws2
r
2D
P a ra m e te rize d
FEA M odel
L
ts 2
 x ,m a x
rs 2
sh a ft
cro ss_ se ctio n :b a sic
wf
wf
tw
tw
tf
tf
m a te ria l
E
nam e
E

lin e a r_ e la stic_ m o d e l
co n d itio n
fla p _ lin k
L
F
a llo w a b le stre ss
t
t s2
t s1
a llo w a b le in te r a xis le n g th ch a n g e
w
sle e ve _ 1
B
r
s
w
sleeve2
shaft
rib1
stre ss m o s m o d e l
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
allow able
allow able
actual
actual
R1
MS
R1
r
d s1
R2
x
d s2
MS
t
rib2
B
ux m os m odel
x
sle e ve _ 2
sleeve1

re a ctio n
e ffe ctive _ le n g th
sh a ft
c ro s s _ s e c tio n
R3
wf
R4
tw
L eff
t1 f
R6
R5
d e fo rm a tio n m o d e l
t2 f
c ritic a l_ s e c tio n
c ritic a l_ d e ta ile d
T o rsio n a l R o d
wf
lin ka g e
e ffe ctive le n g th , L eff
a l1
Lo
tw
M a te ria ls L ib ra rie s
In-H ouse, ...
rib _ 1
t2 f
t
rib _ 2
R2
c ritic a l_ s im p le
t
R9
nam e
s tre s s _ s tra in _ m o d e l
lin e a r_ e la s tic
E
hw

tf
c te
a re a
p o la r m o m e n t o f in e rtia , J
a l2 a
o u te r ra d iu s, r o
a l2 b
2
J
T o rs io n
R1 0
wf
tw
R3
m o d e : sh a ft to rsio n
cro ss se ctio n :
e ffe ctive rin g
R8
a re a
b
h
m a te ria l
P a rts L ib ra rie s
In-H ouse * , ...
R7
t1 f
h

1
R11
hw
b
m a te ria l
co n d itio n
lin e a r e la stic m o d e l
re a ctio n
sh e a r m o d u lu s, G
r

G

a l3
T
a llo w a b le stre ss
R12
A n a ly za b le P ro d u c t M o d e l
(A P M )
* = Item not yet available in toolkit (all others have w orking exam ples)
tw ist m o s m o d e l
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
1D
a llo w a b le
a ctu a l
MS
stre ss m o s m o d e l
a llo w a b le
tw ist
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
a llo w a b le
a ctu a l
MS
FEA
A nsys
A baqus *
C A T IA E lfini *
M SC N astran *
M SC P atran *
...
F la p L in k T o rsio n a l M o d e l
17
FEA-based Analysis Subsystem
Used in Linkage Plane Stress Model (2D Analysis Problem)
P lane Stress B odies
y
Higher fidelity version
vs. Linkage Extensional Model
t s2
tf
wf
t s1
w s1
tw
r s1
w s2
F
r s2
CL
x
L
ABBSMM
in te r_ a xis_ le n g th
lin ka g e
sle e ve _ 1
d e fo rm a tio n m o d e l
w
t
sle e ve _ 2
m o d e : te n sio n
L
r
w s1
w
ts 1
t
rs 2
r
w s2
ts 2
SMM Template
P a ra m e te rize d
FEA M odel
u x ,m a x
 x ,m a x
rs 2
sh a ft
cro ss_ se ctio n :b a sic
wf
tw
tf
wf
tw
tf
m a te ria l
E
nam e
E

lin e a r_ e la stic_ m o d e l
co n d itio n

re a ctio n
F
a llo w a b le stre ss
a llo w a b le in te r a xis le n g th ch a n g e
ux m os m odel
stre ss m o s m o d e l
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
allow able
allow able
actual
actual
MS
MS
18
SMM with Parameterized FEA Model
Flap Link Plane Stress Model
ANSYS Prep7 Template
Preprocessor Model Figure
@EX1@ = Parameters populated by context ABB
!EX,NIUX,L,WS1,WS2,RS1,RS2,TS1,TS2,TW,TF,WF,FORCE
...
/prep7
P lane Stress B odies
y
t s2
tf
! element type
et,1,plane42
wf
t s1
w s1
tw
r s1
w s2
F
L
r s2
CL
x
! material properties
mp,ex,1,@EX@
mp,nuxy,1,@NIUX@
! geometric parameters
L
= @L@
ts1
= @TS1@
rs1
= @RS1@
tf
= @TF@
...
! elastic modulus
! Poissons ratio
!
!
!
!
length
thickness of sleeve1
radius of sleeve1 (rs1<rs2)
thickness of shaft flange
! key points
k,1,0,0
k,2,0,rs1+ts1
k,3,-(rs1+ts1)*sin(phi),(rs1+ts1)*cos(phi)
...
! lines
LARC,3,2,1,rs1+ts1,
LARC,7,3,1,rs1+ts1,
...
! areas
FLST,2,4,4
AL,P51X
...
19
COB-based Constraint Schematic
for Multi-Fidelity CAD-CAE Interoperability
Flap Link Benchmark Example
D e s ig n T o o ls
A n a ly s is B u ild in g B lo c k s
(A B B s )
M C A D T o o ls
C A T IA , I-D E A S *
P ro/E * , U G * , ...
A n a ly s is M o d u le s
o f D iv e rs e B e h a v io r & F id e lity
(C B A M s )
C o n tin u u m A B B s :
y
M a te ria l M o d e l A B B :
r4
fo rc e , F
a re a , A

F
F
E, A, 
 T ,  ,  
x
E
re fe re n c e te m p e ra tu re , T o
1 D L in ea r E la stic M o d e l
L
Lo
O n e D L in e a r
E la s tic M o d e l
(n o s h e a r)
e d b .r1
te m p e ra tu re , T
L
m a te ria l m o d e l
E xte n sio n a l R o d

e
T
t


E x te n s io n
G
sh e a r stre ss, 
G 
E
lin k a g e
e ffe c tiv e le n g th , L eff
E x te n s io n a l R o d
(is o th e rm a l)
a l1
le n g th , L
end, x2
 t  T

te m p e ra tu
 re ch a n g e ,  T
e

F la p L in k E xte n sio n a l M o d e l
to ta l e lo n g a tio n ,  L
r1
s ta rt, x 1
sh e a r m o d u lu s, G
r1
cte , 
r2
u n d e fo rm e d le n g th , L o
2 (1  )
yo u n g s m o d u lu s, E
p o isso n s ra tio , 

r3
sh e a r stra in , 
r5
E
r4
y
th e rm a l stra in ,  t
m a te ria l m o d e l
e la stic stra in ,  e
T o rsio n a l R o d
r2
E
m o d e : s h a ft te n s io n
Lo
O n e D L in e a rT
E la s tic M o d e l
stra in , 
r3
stre ss, 
c ro s s s e c tio n
a re a , A
Lo
L
x1
L
x2
a l2
A
m a te ria l
T
G , r,  ,      ,J
x
lin e a r e la s tic m o d e l
y o u n g s m o d u lu s , E a l3
E

F

re a c tio n
c o n d itio n
G
to rq u e , T r

p o la r m o m e n t o f in e rtia , J

e
ra d iu s , r
T
t




A n a ly s is T o o ls
(v ia S M M s )
s tre s s m o s m o d e l
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> c a s e )
1D
a llo w a b le s tre s s
a llo w a b le
G e n e ra l M a th
M athem atica
M atlab *
M athC A D *
...
a ctu a l
MS
r3
u n d e fo rm e d le n g th , L o
r1
th e ta s ta rt,  1
th e ta e n d ,  2
tw is t, 
F la p L in k P la n e S tra in M o d e l
in te r_ a xis_ le n g th
lin ka g e
d e fo rm a tio n m o d e l
sle e ve _ 1
w
r
ws1
sle e ve _ 2
w
ts 1
t
rs 2
t
L egen d
T ool A ssociativity
O bject R e-use
m o d e : te n sio n
u x ,m a x
ws2
r
2D
P a ra m e te rize d
FEA M odel
L
ts 2
 x ,m a x
rs 2
sh a ft
cro ss_ se ctio n :b a sic
wf
wf
tw
tw
tf
tf
m a te ria l
E
nam e
E

lin e a r_ e la stic_ m o d e l
co n d itio n
fla p _ lin k
L
F
a llo w a b le stre ss
t
t s2
t s1
a llo w a b le in te r a xis le n g th ch a n g e
w
sle e ve _ 1
B
r
s
w
sleeve2
shaft
rib1
stre ss m o s m o d e l
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
allow able
allow able
actual
actual
R1
MS
R1
r
d s1
R2
x
d s2
MS
t
rib2
B
ux m os m odel
x
sle e ve _ 2
sleeve1

re a ctio n
e ffe ctive _ le n g th
sh a ft
c ro s s _ s e c tio n
R3
wf
R4
tw
L eff
t1 f
R6
R5
d e fo rm a tio n m o d e l
t2 f
c ritic a l_ s e c tio n
c ritic a l_ d e ta ile d
T o rsio n a l R o d
wf
lin ka g e
e ffe ctive le n g th , L eff
a l1
Lo
tw
M a te ria ls L ib ra rie s
In-H ouse, ...
rib _ 1
t2 f
t
rib _ 2
R2
c ritic a l_ s im p le
t
R9
nam e
s tre s s _ s tra in _ m o d e l
lin e a r_ e la s tic
E
hw

tf
c te
a re a
p o la r m o m e n t o f in e rtia , J
a l2 a
o u te r ra d iu s, r o
a l2 b
2
J
T o rs io n
R1 0
wf
tw
R3
m o d e : sh a ft to rsio n
cro ss se ctio n :
e ffe ctive rin g
R8
a re a
b
h
m a te ria l
P a rts L ib ra rie s
In-H ouse * , ...
R7
t1 f
h

1
R11
hw
b
m a te ria l
co n d itio n
lin e a r e la stic m o d e l
re a ctio n
sh e a r m o d u lu s, G
r

G

a l3
T
a llo w a b le stre ss
R12
A n a ly za b le P ro d u c t M o d e l
(A P M )
* = Item not yet available in toolkit (all others have w orking exam ples)
tw ist m o s m o d e l
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
1D
a llo w a b le
a ctu a l
MS
stre ss m o s m o d e l
a llo w a b le
tw ist
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
a llo w a b le
a ctu a l
MS
FEA
A nsys
A baqus *
C A T IA E lfini *
M SC N astran *
M SC P atran *
...
F la p L in k T o rsio n a l M o d e l
20
Flap Linkage Torsional Model
Diverse Mode (Behavior) vs. Linkage Extensional Model
L
A
t s2
t s1
s
Sleeve 1
Sleeve 2
Shaft
d s1
d s2
A
d e fo rm a tio n m o d e l
L eff
T o rsio n a l R o d
lin ka g e
e ffe ctive le n g th , L eff
a l1
Lo

1
m o d e : sh a ft to rsio n
cro ss se ctio n :
e ffe ctive rin g
p o la r m o m e n t o f in e rtia , J
a l2 a
o u te r ra d iu s, r o
a l2 b
2
J
m a te ria l
co n d itio n
lin e a r e la stic m o d e l
re a ctio n
sh e a r m o d u lu s, G
r

G

a l3
T
a llo w a b le stre ss
tw ist m o s m o d e l
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
allow able
actual
MS
stre ss m o s m o d e l
a llo w a b le
tw ist
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> ca se )
allow able
actual
MS
21
Short Course: Using Standards-based Engineering Frameworks for
Electronics Product Design and Life Cycle Support
22
Abstraction Level
Optimization Knowledge Graphs for Next-Generation PLM
…
Customer/Acquisitions
…
Systems Engineering
…
…
Legend
Electronics
Human Interfaces
Software
Structures
…
Requirements
Model interfaces:
Fine-grained associativity
relations among
domain-specific models
and system-level models
…
…
…
…
Development Process
Rich models:
Information objects
Parametric relations
Optimization clusters:
“Systems of systems”
model subgraphs for
finding satisficing solutions
…
Domain
2004-09
Models of varying abstractions and domains
After Bajaj, Peak, & Waterbury
2003-09
23
Towards Standards-based PLM Frameworks
Model-centric view (vs. Tool-centric view)
Traditional
Tools
Electrical
CAD Tools
Mechanical
CAD Tools
Systems Engineering
Tools
Eagle
Pro/E
Doors
Mentor
Graphics
CATIA
AP210
…
Slate
AP203, AP214
AP233, SysML
Collective Product Model
Standards-based
Submodels
AP210
Gap-Filling
Tools
XaiTools
XaiTools
PWA-B
PWA-B
AP2xx
pgef
PWB Stackup Tool, Engineering
…
Framework Tool
Building Blocks:
• Information models & meta-models
• International standards
• Industry specs
• Corporate standards
• Local customizations
• Modeling technologies:
• Express, XML, UML,
OWL, COBs, …
EPM,
LKSoft,
LKSoft,
…
STI, …
STEP-Book AP210,
SDAI-Edit,
STI AP210 Viewer, ...
Instance Browser/Editor
24
A Process Perspective
Product
Perspective
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Process
Perspective
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Process = Order in which Relationships are Applied
Source: Chris Paredis, 2004
25
Next-Generation PLM/SLiM Framework
Process
Perspective
Execution
Perspective
Product Portfolio
Planning
GRID
Product Perspective
FEM
CAD
Designers
Analysts
R
Knowledge
& Information
Repositories
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Knowledge
Requirements
Definition
R
R
Knowledge
R
R
Knowledge
R
R
PDM
R
R
R
Information
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Information
R
Information
Process
Planning
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Maintenance &
Support
R
CAD
Suppliers
Manufacturing
Infrastructure:
Security
Notification
Communication
Visualization
PLM/SLiM = Product/System Lifecycle Mgt.
Source: Chris Paredis, 2004
26
COB-based Representation & Associativity for all Lifecycle Models
Application to DH Brown’s “12-Fold Way”
Legend
COB-based models:
Information objects
Parametric relations
Model interfaces:
Macro-level associativity
Micro-level associativity
27
Security Center Dashboard
Overall Status of Key Systems
Main
Terminal
System
Status
Crowd Controls
Passenger Screening
Cargo Screening
Communication Systems
Electrical Systems
HVAC Systems
Chemical Detection
Biological Detection
…
…
Source: [email protected] 2003-04-24
28
Enabling Next-Generation Model-Based Security (MBS):
Complex System Representation & Model Interoperability
Hartsfield International Airport (HIA) Security Scenarios
S im u la tio n B u ild in g B lo c k s
S ys te m D e s c rip tio n
T o o ls & R e s o u rc e s
S im u la tio n T e m p la te s
o f D ive rs e B e h a vio r & F id e lity
S im u la tio n T o o ls
C o n tin u u m A B B s:
h a  h sr  t p wb
C A D T o o ls
C A T IA ,...
y
r4
fo rc e , F
1 D L in e a r E la stic M o d e l
s h e a r s tre s s , 
a re a , A
p o is s o n s ra tio , 
x
e
T
t


r1
m a x. h e ig h t (su rfa ce re la tive ), h sr
m a x. h e ig h t (a b so lu te ), h a
2 0 1 3 5 -5 5 1 2 d ig ita l o scilla to r
A B C _ 9 2 3 0 W a rn in g M o d u le P W B
pwb
com p o n e n t, c
r2
0 .0 6 0 in .
pwb
l
0 .5 0 0 in .
com p o n e n t
t
h
w
l
w
r3
le n g th , L
sta n d o ff h e ig h t, h so :
z
o rig in
c te , 


te m p e ratu re
 c h a n g e , T
e

E
s tre s s , 
r4
y
th e rm a l s tra in ,  t
Lo
m a te ria l m o d e l
e la s tic s tra in ,  e
r3
T o rsio n a l R o d
s tra in , 
T
T
O n e D L in e a r
E la stic M o d e l
G , r,  ,     ,J
x
r2
E
G
to rq u e , T r

p o la r m o m e n t o f in e rtia , J

e
ra d iu s, r
T
t




lin k a g e
1D
e ffe c tiv e le n g th , L eff
m o d e : s h a ft te n s io n
E x te n s io n a l R o d
(is o th e rm a l)
a l1
Lo
L
x1
L
x2
a l2
a re a , A
c ro s s s e c tio n
A
lin e a r e la s tic m o d e l
m a te ria l
c o n d itio n
r3
F a c ilitie s M g t. S ys te m s
y o u n g s m o d u lu s , E a l3
re a c tio n
u n d e fo rm e d le n g th , L o
E

F

G e n e ra l M a th
M athem atica,
M atlab , …
s tre s s m o s m o d e l
r1
th e ta sta rt,  1
E va c u a tio n C o d e s
E gress, E xodus, …
to ta l e lo n g a tio n ,  L
r1
end, x2
r1
E va c u a tio n
M g t.
r2
s ta rt, x 1
s h e a r m o d u lu s , G
y o u n g s m o d u lu s , E
 T ,  ,  
E, A, 
r3
u n d e fo rm e d le n g th , L o
z  h so  t p w b

s h e a r s tra in , 
r5
F
F
E
re fe re n c e te m p e ra tu re , T o
h sr  h c  h so
L
Lo
O n e D L in e a r
E la s tic M o d e l
(n o s h e a r)
e d b .r1
te m p e ra tu re , T
M a te ria l M o d e l A B B :
L
m a te ria l m o d e l
E xte n sio n a l R o d
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> c a s e )
tw ist, 
th e ta e n d ,  2
a llo w a b le s tre s s
allow able
actual
MS
inter_axis_length
linkage
deform ation m odel
sleeve_1
w
r
w s1
sleeve_2
w
ts 1
t
rs 2
t
3D
m ode: tension
P aram eterized
F E A M odel
L
u x ,m a x
w s2
r
ts 2
fla p _ lin k
A irb o rn e
H a za rd F lo w
e ffe ctive _ le n g th
w
sle e ve _ 1
t
r
x
w
sle e ve _ 2
R1
cross_section:basic
wf
tf
E
nam e
E

linear_elastic_m odel
condition
CFD
F lotherm , …

reaction
F
allow able stress
allow able inter axis length change
u x m os m odel
stress m os m odel
M argin of S afety
(> case)
M argin of S afety
(> case)
allow able
allow able
actual
actual
MS
MS
R2
wf
…
cro ss_ se ctio n
R3
R4
tw
t1 f
R6
R5
t2 f
d e fo rm a tio n m o d e l
critica l_ d e ta ile d
critica l_ se ctio n
wf
T o rs io n a l R o d
lin k a g e
tw
rib _ 1
b
R7
t1 f
t2 f
t
rib _ 2
R2
a re a
critica l_ sim p le
t
m a te ria l
R8
b
R1 0
wf
R9
h
tw
R3
E
nam e
hw
C o lu m n
D e s tru c tio n
R12

tf
cte
a re a
e ffe c tiv e le n g th , L eff
lin e a r_ e la stic
Lo
In te g ra te d S ys te m M o d e l
c ro s s s e c tio n :
e ffe c tiv e rin g
m o d e : s h a ft to rs io n
p o la r m o m e n t o f in e rtia , J
a l2 a
o u te r ra d iu s , r o
a l2 b
2
J
m a te ria l
c o n d itio n
lin e a r e la s tic m o d e l
re a c tio n
s h e a r m o d u lu s , G
r

G

a l3
T
a llo w a b le s tre s s
tw is t m o s m o d e l
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> c a s e )
s tre s s m o s m o d e l
a llo w a b le
tw is t
actual
2D

1
allow able
stre ss_ stra in _ m o d e l
a l1
R11
hw
h
L egen d
T ool A ssociativity
O bject R e-use
tw
tf
m aterial
R1
r
x
sh a ft
wf
tw
t
L ib ra rie s & D a ta b a s e s
M a te ria ls, E q u ip m e n t,
P e rso n n e l, P ro ce d u re s, …
 x,m a x
rs 2
shaft
MS
Utilizes generalized MRA terminology (preliminary)
M a rg in o f S a fe ty
(> c a s e )
allow able
actual
MS
FEA
M SC N astran, …
Source: [email protected] 2003-04-24
29
Abstract
STEP, XML, and UML:
Complementary Technologies
One important aspect of product lifecycle management (PLM) is the computer-sensible representation of
product information. Over the past fifteen years or so, several languages and technologies have emerged
that vary in their emphasis and applicability for such usage. ISO 10303, informally known as the Standard
for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), contains the high-quality product information models
needed for electronic business solutions based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). However,
traditional STEP-based model information is represented using languages that are unfamiliar to most
application developers.
This paper discusses efforts underway to make STEP information models available in universal formats
familiar to most business application developers: specifically XML and the Unified Modeling Language™
(UML®). We also present a vision and roadmap for future STEP integration with XML and UML to enable
enhanced PLM interoperability.
http://eislab.gatech.edu/pubs/conferences/2004-asme-detc-lubell/
Extended version in JCISE December 2004 issue:
http://eislab.gatech.edu/pubs/journals/2004-jcise-peak/
Notice: Commercial equipment and materials are identified in order to describe certain procedures. Some slides include product names for example purposes only (i.e., to help
clarify the concepts presented via specific instances). In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement by the authors or their organizations, nor does
it imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose. Unified Modeling Language, UML, Object Management Group, OMG,
and XMI are trademarks or registered trademarks of the Object Management Group, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries. Java is a trademark or registered trademark of Sun
Microsystems, Inc. Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.
30
Primary Information Representation Technologies
for Standards-based PLM Frameworks
Information Modeling
Implementation Methods
Standardized Content
(STEP Part 11)
31
STEP, XML, UML Capabilities
regarding Engineering/Technical Domains
Characteristic
Aspect Classical STEP
XML
UML
Information
Modeling
Capability:
Popularity:

High (+)
 Narrow

High (-)
 High

Implementation
Methods
Capability:
Popularity:

High (-)
 Narrow: pre-web

High
 High

Standardized
Breadth:
Content Depth/Richness:
Coordination:
Usage:

High
 High
 High
 Broad (MCAD),
plus Limited /
Emerging (others)

Medium
 Medium+
 Low (islands)
 Broad (some),
plus Emerging

Note: “Next-wave STEP” is adding
XML and UML implementation methods
(a.k.a. Parts 28 and 25)
High (-)
 High
High
 High
Medium (s/w+)
 Medium+
 Medium
 Broad (some),
plus Emerging
Complementary
Strengths
32
“STEP on a Page”
Application Protocols (APs)
Source: “STEP on a Page” by Jim Nell. 2003-April-07 version. http://www.mel.nist.gov/sc5/soap/
p. 1 of 3

33
STEP on a Page - IRs, etc.
34
STEP on a Page - App. Modules (AMs)
35
What is the context of Systems Engineering?
User/Owner/Operator
User/Owner/Operator
Management
Marketing
Acquisition Authority
Business Strategy
Management Info
Concept
RFP
Proposal
Contract
Management Info
Systems Engineering
Specifications
Digital
Chemical
Maintenance
Mechanical
Communications
2002-04 - Mike Dickerson, NASA-JPL
Civil
STEP
ISO SC4
Logistics
Controls
Electrical
UML
ISO SC7
Software
Engineering
Disciplines
Manufacture
36
Complementary Usage of STEP, UML, and XML
for Systems Engineering: Envisioned AP233-SysML Relationship
E lectrical
CAE
S ysM L
T o o ls
S ystem s
E n g in eerin g
XMI
(X M L M etam
- o d el
In terch an g e fo r U M L)
A P -233 N eu tral
In fo E x ch an g e
Fo rm at
A lg o rith m
D esig n
M ech an ical
CAD
S W D ev
E n viro n m en t
Source: www.SysML.org 2003-12
T estin g
T o o ls
Plan n in g
T o o ls
37
AP 212: Electrotechnical
Design and Installation
Electrotechnical Systems
• Buildings
• Plants
• Transportation Systems
Equipment Coverage
• Power-transmission
• Power-distribution
• Power-generation
• Electric Machinery
• Electric Light and Heat
• Control Systems
Data Supporting
• Terminals and Interfaces
• Functional Decomposition of Product
• 3D Cabling and Harnesses
• Cable Tracks and Mounting Instructions
Electrotechnical Plant
• Plant, e.g., Automobile
• Unit, e.g., Engine Control System
• Subunit, e.g., Ignition System
Electrotechnical Equipment in Industry
38
The Cable/Harness Problem
2003-11 - from Northrop Grumman Corp. (NGC)
Need to coordinate
E-MCAD designs, …
MCAD (UG)
ECAD (LCable**, CapitalH, …)
?
?
?
?
?
?
In collaboration with www.InterCAX.com
Sample Solution Elements
LKSoft IDA-STEP and related AP212 converters (EPLAN, Lcable, …)

Possible extensions to fulfill particular company needs
 Ex. - merging/difference tool

AP212 standard: www.ap212.org
ECAD Cable/Harness Tools (e.g. EPLAN, LCable)
AP212 model interaction in IDA-STEP v1.3.1
In collaboration with www.InterCAX.com
40
AP 214: Core Data for Automotive
Mechanical Design Processes
Geometry
• Solids Data
• Surface Data
• Wireframe
• Measured Data
ProSTEP
Presentation
• Drawing
• Visualization
Manufacturing
Analysis
• NC-Data
• Process Plans
• Simulation
Technology Data
Specification/Configuration
• Product Structure Data
• Management Data
• Material Data
• Form Features
• Tolerance Data
• Surface Conditions
41
IDA-STEP Overview
Example end-user tool
for viewing and editing rich product models
in an open standards-based PLM environment

IDA-STEP Viewer (v1.2 - May, 2004 - free download)
– Supports AP203, AP212, AP214
– Downloadable from www.ida-step.net

IDA-STEP Center version
– Adds editing and transformation/export capabilities
– Supports repository interfaces
42
Linking Intelligent 3D with Product Structure
43
Process Plan - Tree
Read Only, data generated in eM-PlannerTM / Tecnomatix
44
Linking Intelligent 2D (e.g. Factory Layout)
with Product Structure
45
Example Features and Usage of Standards-based
Tools for Rich Product Models (IDA-STEP v1.2)







AP203, AP212, AP214 and PDM-Schema support
Viewing 2D & 3D geometry and intelligent schematics
Creation and editing of rich PLM information
Single user versions (PC, Workstation)
Multi-user environments:
STEP database using MySQL and Oracle
Target Usage
Standards-based PLM for SMEs
Prime-SME collaboration via rich product models
The Adobe Acrobat / pdf equivalent for rich product models
46
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