Software cost estimation
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 1
Objectives




To introduce the fundamentals of software
costing and pricing
To describe three metrics for software
productivity assessment
To explain why different techniques should
be used for software estimation
To describe the principles of the COCOMO 2
algorithmic cost estimation model
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 2
Topics covered




Software productivity
Estimation techniques
Algorithmic cost modelling
Project duration and staffing
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 3
Fundamental estimation questions




How much effort is required to complete an
activity?
How much calendar time is needed to
complete an activity?
What is the total cost of an activity?
Project estimation and scheduling are
interleaved management activities.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 4
Software cost components



Hardware and software costs.
Travel and training costs.
Effort costs (the dominant factor in most
projects)
•
•

The salaries of engineers involved in the project;
Social and insurance costs.
Effort costs must take overheads into account
•
•
•
Costs of building, heating, lighting.
Costs of networking and communications.
Costs of shared facilities (e.g library, staff restaurant, etc.).
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 5
Costing and pricing



Estimates are made to discover the cost, to
the developer, of producing a software
system.
There is not a simple relationship between
the development cost and the price charged
to the customer.
Broader organisational, economic, political
and business considerations influence the
price charged.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 6
Software pricing factors
M a rk et
o pp ortu ni ty
A d e ve lopm en t org an is at ion m ay qu ote a low p rice b eca us e it
w ishes to m ov e into a ne w se gm en t o f th e soft wa re m ark et.
A cce p tin g a low pro fit o n on e pro jec t m ay give th e o pp ortu nity
o f mo re pro fit late r. The ex p erie n ce g ai n ed m ay al low n ew
p ro du ct s t o be de v el o pe d.
C os t es tim ate
u nce rta in ty
If an o rga n isatio n is u nsure of its cos t estim ate, it ma y inc rea se
its pri ce b y som e c o ntin ge n cy o v er a n d a bo ve it s no rm al p ro fit.
C o ntra ct u al te rms
A c us to m er m ay b e w illi n g to al low th e d ev el o pe r to retai n
o w n er sh ip o f the sou rc e co de an d reu se it in o th e r project s. Th e
p rice ch arge d m ay th en be le ss th a n if th e soft wa re so urce co d e
is ha n de d o ve r t o the cu stom er.
R e qu irem en ts
v ol a tility
If th e req u irem en ts are lik el y to ch an ge , an orga nisa tio n m ay
low er it s pric e to w in a c o ntra ct. A fte r the co n trac t is aw a rd ed ,
h ig h p rice s c a n b e c ha rge d fo r c ha n ge s t o th e req uirem en ts.
F in an c ia l he alt h
D ev e lo p ers in fin an c ia l diffic ul ty m a y low er th eir pr ice to ga in
a c on tract . It is be tte r to m a ke a sm alle r th an no rma l p rof it or
b re a k ev en t h an t o g o o ut of b usine ss.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 7
Software productivity



A measure of the rate at which individual
engineers involved in software development
produce software and associated
documentation.
Not quality-oriented although quality
assurance is a factor in productivity
assessment.
Essentially, we want to measure useful
functionality produced per time unit.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 8
Productivity measures


Size related measures based on some
output from the software process. This may
be lines of delivered source code, object
code instructions, etc.
Function-related measures based on an
estimate of the functionality of the delivered
software. Function-points are the best known
of this type of measure.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 9
Measurement problems



Estimating the size of the measure (e.g. how
many function points).
Estimating the total number of programmer
months that have elapsed.
Estimating contractor productivity (e.g.
documentation team) and incorporating this
estimate in overall estimate.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 10
Lines of code

What's a line of code?
•
•


The measure was first proposed when programs were
typed on cards with one line per card;
How does this correspond to statements as in Java which
can span several lines or where there can be several
statements on one line.
What programs should be counted as part of the
system?
This model assumes that there is a linear
relationship between system size and volume of
documentation.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 11
Productivity comparisons

The lower level the language, the more
productive the programmer
•

The same functionality takes more code to implement in a
lower-level language than in a high-level language.
The more verbose the programmer, the higher
the productivity
•
Measures of productivity based on lines of code suggest
that programmers who write verbose code are more
productive than programmers who write compact code.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 12
System development times
A na lys is
Ass em bly c o de
H ig h-le v el la n gu ag e
Ass em bly c o de
H ig h-le v el la n gu ag e
©Ian Sommerville 2004
3 w e ek s
3 w e ek s
D esig n
C od ing
T es ting
5 w e ek s
5 w e ek s
8 w e ek s
4 w e ek s
10
w ee k s
6 w e ek s
D oc u me nt ation
S iz e
E ff or t
Pr od uc tivi ty
5 00 0 lin es
1 50 0 lin es
2 8 w ee ks
2 0 w ee ks
7 14 line s/m o nth
3 00 line s/m o nth
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
2 w e ek s
2 w e ek s
Slide 13
Function points

Based on a combination of program characteristics
•
•
•
•

external inputs and outputs;
user interactions;
external interfaces;
files used by the system.
A weight is associated with each of these and the
function point count is computed by multiplying each
raw count by the weight and summing all values.
UFC =  (numb er o f elemen ts of given type)  (we ight)
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 14
Function points


The function point count is modified by complexity of
the project
FPs can be used to estimate LOC depending on the
average number of LOC per FP for a given language
•
•

LOC = AVC * number of function points;
AVC is a language-dependent factor varying from 200300 for assemble language to 2-40 for a 4GL;
FPs are very subjective. They depend on the
estimator
•
Automatic function-point counting is impossible.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 15
Object points



Object points (alternatively named application
points) are an alternative function-related measure
to function points when 4Gls or similar languages
are used for development.
Object points are NOT the same as object classes.
The number of object points in a program is a
weighted estimate of
•
•
•
The number of separate screens that are displayed;
The number of reports that are produced by the system;
The number of program modules that must be developed
to supplement the database code;
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 16
Object point estimation



Object points are easier to estimate from a
specification than function points as they are
simply concerned with screens, reports and
programming language modules.
They can therefore be estimated at a fairly
early point in the development process.
At this stage, it is very difficult to estimate
the number of lines of code in a system.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 17
Productivity estimates




Real-time embedded systems, 40-160
LOC/P-month.
Systems programs , 150-400 LOC/P-month.
Commercial applications, 200-900
LOC/P-month.
In object points, productivity has been
measured between 4 and 50 object
points/month depending on tool support and
developer capability.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 18
Factors affecting productivity
A pp li c at ion
d om ai n
ex pe rie nc e
K no w led g e o f th e ap plica tio n d om ain is esse nt ial fo r effe c tiv e
soft wa re d ev el o pm en t. En g in ee rs w h o al rea d y un de rs ta nd a
d om ai n are li k el y t o b e the m os t prod uc tiv e.
P ro ce ss qu ali ty
T h e de ve lopm en t p ro ce ss us ed ca n ha v e a s ig nifica n t eff ect on
p ro du ct ivity . Th is is co v ered in C h ap ter 2 8 .
P ro je ct size
T h e la rg er a p ro je ct, th e m ore tim e re q uire d fo r tea m
com m u nica tio ns. Le ss tim e is av a il a bl e for de ve lopm en t so
in dividu al prod uc tiv it y is re du ce d .
Tec h no lo gy
sup por t
G oo d su pp ort tec h no lo gy suc h as C AS E to ols , co nfig uratio n
m an age me nt s ystems , e tc. c an im prov e pr od uc tiv it y .
W orking
en viro nm en t
As I dis cu ssed in C ha p te r 2 5, a q uiet wo rk in g e nv ironm en t w ith
p riva te w ork ar e as c o ntribu te s t o im pro ve d pro du ct ivity .
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 19
Quality and productivity




All metrics based on volume/unit time are
flawed because they do not take quality into
account.
Productivity may generally be increased at the
cost of quality.
It is not clear how productivity/quality metrics
are related.
If requirements are constantly changing then an
approach based on counting lines of code is not
meaningful as the program itself is not static;
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 20
Estimation techniques

There is no simple way to make an accurate
estimate of the effort required to develop a software
system
•
•
•

Initial estimates are based on inadequate information in a
user requirements definition;
The software may run on unfamiliar computers or use
new technology;
The people in the project may be unknown.
Project cost estimates may be self-fulfilling
•
The estimate defines the budget and the product is
adjusted to meet the budget.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 21
Changing technologies

Changing technologies may mean that previous
estimating experience does not carry over to new
systems
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Distributed object systems rather than mainframe
systems;
Use of web services;
Use of ERP or database-centred systems;
Use of off-the-shelf software;
Development for and with reuse;
Development using scripting languages;
The use of CASE tools and program generators.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 22
Estimation techniques



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Algorithmic cost modelling.
Expert judgement.
Estimation by analogy.
Parkinson's Law.
Pricing to win.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 23
Estimation techniques
A lg orit hm ic
cos t mo de lling
A m od el ba sed o n h istoric a l cos t in fo rm atio n tha t rel a te s som e so ftwa re
m et ri c (usu al ly its size ) to th e pr oj e ct co st is us ed . A n es tim ate is m ad e
o f tha t m etric a n d th e m od el pred ict s th e e ff ort req uire d .
E x pe rt
ju dg em en t
S ev er a l ex pe rts on th e pr op osed softw are d ev el o pm en t tec h niqu es an d
th e a pp li c ati o n dom ai n are co nsu lted . Th e y e ach estim ate th e pro jec t
cos t. The se estim ate s ar e co m p ared an d d iscuss ed . Th e estim at ion
p ro ce ss ite rat es un til a n agr eed estim ate is r eac h ed .
E stim at ion by
an al o gy
T h is tech n iq ue is a pp li c ab le w he n o th er project s in th e sam e ap p licat ion
d om ai n h av e be en co mp le ted . Th e co st o f a ne w pr oject is estim ated by
an al o gy w it h the se co mp le ted projec ts. M y ers (M y er s 19 89 ) gi v es a
v er y clea r d es cr iptio n of th is a pp ro ac h .
P arkinso nÕs
La w
P arkinso nÕs La w sta te s tha t w ork ex p an ds to fill the time av ail a ble. T h e
cos t is de te rm in ed by av ail a ble resou rc es rat h er th an by o bj e ct ive
assessm en t. If the softw are h as to b e de li v ered in 12 mo nt hs an d 5
p eo p le ar e av ai lab le, the ef fo rt req u ired is es tim ated to be 60 p er so nm on ths .
P rici n g to w in
T h e softw are c ost is estim ated to be w h at e ve r the cu stom er h as
av ai lab le to sp en d o n th e pro jec t. T h e estim ated ef fo rt de pe n ds o n th e
cus to m e rÕs bud ge t an d n ot o n the s oftw are fun ct ion al ity .
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 24
Pricing to win


The project costs whatever the customer has
to spend on it.
Advantages:
•

You get the contract.
Disadvantages:
•
The probability that the customer gets the
system he or she wants is small. Costs do not
accurately reflect the work required.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 25
Top-down and bottom-up estimation


Any of these approaches may be used topdown or bottom-up.
Top-down
•

Start at the system level and assess the overall
system functionality and how this is delivered
through sub-systems.
Bottom-up
•
Start at the component level and estimate the
effort required for each component. Add these
efforts to reach a final estimate.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 26
Top-down estimation



Usable without knowledge of the system
architecture and the components that might
be part of the system.
Takes into account costs such as integration,
configuration management and
documentation.
Can underestimate the cost of solving
difficult low-level technical problems.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 27
Bottom-up estimation



Usable when the architecture of the system
is known and components identified.
This can be an accurate method if the
system has been designed in detail.
It may underestimate the costs of system
level activities such as integration and
documentation.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 28
Estimation methods





Each method has strengths and weaknesses.
Estimation should be based on several methods.
If these do not return approximately the same result,
then you have insufficient information available to
make an estimate.
Some action should be taken to find out more in
order to make more accurate estimates.
Pricing to win is sometimes the only applicable
method.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 29
Pricing to win




This approach may seem unethical and unbusinesslike.
However, when detailed information is lacking it may
be the only appropriate strategy.
The project cost is agreed on the basis of an outline
proposal and the development is constrained by that
cost.
A detailed specification may be negotiated or an
evolutionary approach used for system
development.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 30
Algorithmic cost modelling



Cost is estimated as a mathematical function of
product, project and process attributes whose
values are estimated by project managers:
•
Effort = A  SizeB  M
•
A is an organisation-dependent constant, B reflects the
disproportionate effort for large projects and M is a
multiplier reflecting product, process and people
attributes.
The most commonly used product attribute for cost
estimation is code size.
Most models are similar but they use different values
for A, B and M.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 31
Estimation accuracy


The size of a software system can only be
known accurately when it is finished.
Several factors influence the final size
•
•
•

Use of COTS and components;
Programming language;
Distribution of system.
As the development process progresses
then the size estimate becomes more
accurate.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 32
Estimate uncertainty
4x
2x
x
Feasibility
Re quirem en t s
Design
Co de
Deliv ery
0 .5 x
0 .2 5 x
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 33
The COCOMO model




An empirical model based on project experience.
Well-documented, ‘independent’ model which is not
tied to a specific software vendor.
Long history from initial version published in 1981
(COCOMO-81) through various instantiations to
COCOMO 2.
COCOMO 2 takes into account different approaches
to software development, reuse, etc.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 34
COCOMO 81
Pr o je ct
co m p le x ity
F o rm u la
D escr iption
S imp le
PM = 2.4 (K DS I) 1 .0 5  M
W el l-u nd ers to od
ap p lica tio ns
d eve lop ed by sm al l te ams .
M o de ra te
PM = 3.0 (K DS I) 1 .1 2  M
M or e com plex pr oject s w h er e
te am m em be rs ma y h av e lim it e d
ex pe rie nc e of r el a te d s ystems .
E m be dd ed
PM = 3.6 (K DS I) 1 .2 0  M
C om plex
project s
w h ere
th e
soft wa re is p ar t of a stron gly
co up le d com plex of ha rd w a re ,
soft wa re,
re gu lat ions
an d
o pe rat ion al proc ed u res .
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 35
COCOMO 2


COCOMO 81 was developed with the
assumption that a waterfall process would be
used and that all software would be developed
from scratch.
Since its formulation, there have been many
changes in software engineering practice and
COCOMO 2 is designed to accommodate
different approaches to software development.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 36
COCOMO 2 models


COCOMO 2 incorporates a range of sub-models
that produce increasingly detailed software
estimates.
The sub-models in COCOMO 2 are:
•
•
•
•
Application composition model. Used when software is
composed from existing parts.
Early design model. Used when requirements are
available but design has not yet started.
Reuse model. Used to compute the effort of integrating
reusable components.
Post-architecture model. Used once the system
architecture has been designed and more information
about the system is available.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 37
Use of COCOMO 2 models
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 38
Application composition model




Supports prototyping projects and projects where
there is extensive reuse.
Based on standard estimates of developer
productivity in application (object) points/month.
Takes CASE tool use into account.
Formula is
•
PM = ( NAP  (1 - %reuse/100 ) ) / PROD
•
PM is the effort in person-months, NAP is the number of
application points and PROD is the productivity.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 39
Object point productivity
D ev e lo p erÕs ex p erie n ce
an d c ap a bi lity
V er y l ow
Low
N om in al
H ig h
V er y h ig h
IC A SE m atu rity an d
ca p ab il ity
V er y l ow
Low
N om in al
H ig h
V er y h ig h
7
13
25
50
P R O D (N O P/m on th)
©Ian Sommerville 2004
4
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 40
Early design model


Estimates can be made after the
requirements have been agreed.
Based on a standard formula for algorithmic
models
•
PM = A  SizeB  M where
•
M = PERS  RCPX  RUSE  PDIF  PREX 
FCIL  SCED;
A = 2.94 in initial calibration, Size in KLOC, B
varies from 1.1 to 1.24 depending on novelty of
the project, development flexibility, risk
management approaches and the process
maturity.
•
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 41
Multipliers

Multipliers reflect the capability of the
developers, the non-functional requirements,
the familiarity with the development platform,
etc.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RCPX - product reliability and complexity;
RUSE - the reuse required;
PDIF - platform difficulty;
PREX - personnel experience;
PERS - personnel capability;
SCED - required schedule;
FCIL - the team support facilities.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 42
The reuse model


Takes into account black-box code that is
reused without change and code that has to
be adapted to integrate it with new code.
There are two versions:
•
•
Black-box reuse where code is not modified. An
effort estimate (PM) is computed.
White-box reuse where code is modified. A size
estimate equivalent to the number of lines of
new source code is computed. This then adjusts
the size estimate for new code.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 43
Reuse model estimates 1

For generated code:
•
•
•
•
PM = (ASLOC * AT/100)/ATPROD
ASLOC is the number of lines of generated
code
AT is the percentage of code automatically
generated.
ATPROD is the productivity of engineers in
integrating this code.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 44
Reuse model estimates 2

When code has to be understood and
integrated:
•
•
•
ESLOC = ASLOC * (1-AT/100) * AAM.
ASLOC and AT as before.
AAM is the adaptation adjustment multiplier
computed from the costs of changing the reused
code, the costs of understanding how to
integrate the code and the costs of reuse
decision making.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 45
Post-architecture level


Uses the same formula as the early design
model but with 17 rather than 7 associated
multipliers.
The code size is estimated as:
•
•
•
Number of lines of new code to be developed;
Estimate of equivalent number of lines of new code
computed using the reuse model;
An estimate of the number of lines of code that
have to be modified according to requirements
changes.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 46
The exponent term


This depends on 5 scale factors (see next slide).
Their sum/100 is added to 1.01
A company takes on a project in a new domain. The
client has not defined the process to be used and
has not allowed time for risk analysis. The company
has a CMM level 2 rating.
•
•
•
•
•

Precedenteness - new project (4)
Development flexibility - no client involvement - Very high
(1)
Architecture/risk resolution - No risk analysis - V. Low .(5)
Team cohesion - new team - nominal (3)
Process maturity - some control - nominal (3)
Scale factor is therefore 1.17.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 47
Exponent scale factors
P re ce d en ted n ess
R e flect s the prev io us e xp er ien ce o f the org an is at ion w ith th is t yp e o f
p ro jec t. V ery lo w m ea ns n o prev ious ex pe rie nc e , E x tra h ig h m ea ns
th at th e o rg an is at ion is co mp le tel y f am ilia r w it h t hi s ap p licat ion
d om ai n .
D ev e lo pm en t
fle x ib il ity
R e flect s the de gree of flex ib ility in th e d ev e lo pm en t p ro ce ss. V e ry
low m ea n s a p re sc ribe d p ro ce ss is u se d; Ex tra high m ea ns t h at th e
clie n t o nly se ts g en e ra l g oa ls .
A rc h itec ture/risk
resolutio n
R e flect s the ex ten t of ris k ana lysis ca rr ie d ou t. V e ry lo w m ea n s little
an alys is, Ex tra high m ea ns a c om plete a tho ro ug h ri sk an alysis.
Tea m co h esio n
R e flect s ho w w ell the de v el o pm en t tea m kn ow ea c h o th er an d w ork
to ge the r. V e ry low m ea ns ve ry d iffic ult int e ra ction s, E x tra h ig h
m ea ns a n i n tegr ate d an d ef fec tiv e tea m w ith n o co mm un ic at ion
p ro blems .
P ro ce ss m a turi ty
R e flect s the pro ce ss m aturity o f th e o rg an is at ion . T h e c om pu tatio n
o f this va lu e de pe n ds on th e C M M Ma turity Q ues tio nn ai re bu t a n
estim ate ca n b e ac h ie v ed b y su bt rac tin g the C M M pr oce ss m at u rity
le ve l f rom 5.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 48
Multipliers

Product attributes
•

Computer attributes
•

Constraints imposed on the software by the hardware
platform.
Personnel attributes
•

Concerned with required characteristics of the software
product being developed.
Multipliers that take the experience and capabilities of the
people working on the project into account.
Project attributes
•
Concerned with the particular characteristics of the
software development project.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 49
Effects of cost drivers
E x po ne n t v al u e
S ystem siz e (in cl u ding fa ct o rs fo r re us e
an d req uire m e nts vo la til ity )
In itia l CO C OMO estim ate w ith out
cos t dr iv e rs
1 .1 7
1 28 , 0 00 D SI
R e li a bility
C om plex ity
M em ory c ons trai n t
T o ol use
S ch ed u le
A djus te d C OCO M O estima te
V er y h ig h, m u ltip li e r = 1.39
V er y h ig h, m u ltip li e r = 1.3
H ig h, m u ltip li e r = 1.21
L o w, m ul tip lier = 1 .12
A cce ler a te d , mu lt iplie r = 1. 2 9
2 30 6 p er son -m on ths
R e li a bility
C om plex ity
M em ory c ons trai n t
T o ol use
S ch ed u le
A djus te d C OCO M O estima te
V er y l ow , mu lt iplie r = 0. 7 5
V er y l ow , mu lt iplie r = 0. 7 5
N on e, mu lt iplie r = 1
V er y h ig h, m u ltip li e r = 0.72
N orm al, m ultip lier = 1
2 95 p er son- m o nths
©Ian Sommerville 2004
7 30 p er son- m o nths
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 50
Project planning


Algorithmic cost models provide a basis for
project planning as they allow alternative
strategies to be compared.
Embedded spacecraft system
•
•
•

Must be reliable;
Must minimise weight (number of chips);
Multipliers on reliability and computer constraints > 1.
Cost components
•
•
•
Target hardware;
Development platform;
Development effort.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 51
Management options
A. Use e xist ing har d w ar e ,
de v elopment syst em and
developme nt tea m
B. Pr ocessor and
m emor y upg
C. Mem ory
r ade
Har d w ar e cost incr ease
Exper ienc e decr
ease
upg rade onl y
D. Mor e
e xperienced sta f
f
Har d w ar e cost
incr ease
E. Ne w de velopment
F. Sta f f wit h
system
har dw ar e e xperience
Har d w ar e cost incr ease
Exper ienc e decr
©Ian Sommerville 2004
ease
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 52
Management option costs
O ption
R E LY
S T OR
T IME
T O OL S
L T EX
A
1 .3 9
1 .0 6
1 .1 1
0 .8 6
1
63
B
1 .3 9
1
1
1 .1 2
1 .2 2
C
1 .3 9
1
1 .1 1
0 .8 6
D
1 .3 9
1 .0 6
1 .1 1
E
1 .3 9
1
F
1 .3 9
1
©Ian Sommerville 2004
T otal effor t S of tw a re co st
T otal co st
9 49 39 3
H ar dwa re
co st
1 00 00 0
88
1 31 35 50
1 20 00 0
1 40 20 25
1
60
8 95 65 3
1 05 00 0
1 00 06 53
0 .8 6
0 .8 4
51
7 69 00 8
1 00 00 0
8 97 49 0
1
0 .7 2
1 .2 2
56
8 44 42 5
2 20 00 0
1 04 41 59
1
1 .1 2
0 .8 4
57
8 51 18 0
1 20 00 0
1 00 27 06
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
1 04 93 93
Slide 53
Option choice

Option D (use more experienced staff)
appears to be the best alternative
•


However, it has a high associated risk as
experienced staff may be difficult to find.
Option C (upgrade memory) has a lower cost
saving but very low risk.
Overall, the model reveals the importance of
staff experience in software development.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 54
Project duration and staffing



As well as effort estimation, managers must
estimate the calendar time required to complete a
project and when staff will be required.
Calendar time can be estimated using a COCOMO 2
formula
•
TDEV = 3  (PM)(0.33+0.2*(B-1.01))
•
PM is the effort computation and B is the exponent
computed as discussed above (B is 1 for the early
prototyping model). This computation predicts the nominal
schedule for the project.
The time required is independent of the number of
people working on the project.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 55
Staffing requirements




Staff required can’t be computed by diving
the development time by the required
schedule.
The number of people working on a project
varies depending on the phase of the project.
The more people who work on the project,
the more total effort is usually required.
A very rapid build-up of people often
correlates with schedule slippage.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 56
Key points



There is not a simple relationship between
the price charged for a system and its
development costs.
Factors affecting productivity include
individual aptitude, domain experience, the
development project, the project size, tool
support and the working environment.
Software may be priced to gain a contract
and the functionality adjusted to the price.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 57
Key points




Different techniques of cost estimation should be used
when estimating costs.
The COCOMO model takes project, product, personnel
and hardware attributes into account when predicting
effort required.
Algorithmic cost models support quantitative option
analysis as they allow the costs of different options to
be compared.
The time to complete a project is not proportional to the
number of people working on the project.
©Ian Sommerville 2004
Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 26
Slide 58
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