Our Civilized Catalogs and the Digital
Frontier: A Story of Standards and
Cooperation
By
Carolyn Sturtevant
BIBCO Coordinator ([email protected])
Library of Congress
April 2006
Ohio Library Council Tech Services Retreat
Retreat in Mohican State Park
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The pictures show
no cubicles…
It’s green in April…
Birds migrate in
April…
The Origin of the Name…?
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Mohican River,
variant of Mohegan
Home to Adena,
Delaware, Mohican
peoples in the past
Their own ways,
their own cultural
standards
Webster: Standard
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Any figure or object, esp. a flag or
banner, used as an emblem or symbol
of a leader, people, military unit…
Something established for use as a rule
or basis of comparison in measuring or
judging capacity, quantity, content,
extent, value, quality, etc.
New Flag on the Horizon
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500+ years ago, Europeans arrived in
the New World
Westward movement in 1700s brought
them to Ohio
French and British emissaries brought
gifts to win cooperation
Webster: Cooperate
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To act or work together with another or
others for a common purpose
To combine so as to produce an effect
To engage in economic cooperation
Webster: Frontier
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The border between two countries
That part of a settled, civilized country
which lies next to an unexplored or
undeveloped region.
Any new field of learning, thought, etc.
that is still incompletely investigated
Mixed Results
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Cooperation for competition
French left first
British left next
Native Americans and new arrivals
signed treaties
New arrivals set the new cultural
standards
Webster: Civilize
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To bring or come out of a primitive or
savage condition and into a state of
civilization.
To improve in habits or manners; refine
Ohio’s Flag…
Ohio’s Library Heritage
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Two early subscription libraries
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1796 Col. Israel Putnam: first circulating
library, _______
1804 “Coonskin” library, Athens
19th Century endowments lowered costs
to those who couldn’t subscribe
Funding Helped Growth
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Library services linked with education,
drawing public funding
Andrew Carnegie grants supported
many public library buildings in Ohio,
about 1600 in US, from 1900 – 1920
How many Carnegie library buildings in
Ohio?
Setting a New Standard
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1890 William Howard Brett, in
__________, offered open shelves
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What city?
Users could browse shelves
Non-fiction books shelved by subject,
not by author
A Strong Library Tradition
Structured Approach
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Descriptive content
Order of content, punctuation, source
of data
Subject and subdivision content
Arrangement on shelves
Divided or integrated sets of cards
Widely Distributed Tradition
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LC’s catalog card
service spanned
about 100 years
Many other sources
delivered cards
Users contributed to
rules for content of
cards
Who sets the Standards?
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ALA, CILIP, CLA
IFLA (IME ICC)
JSC for AACR
National Libraries
NISO
ISSN
W3C
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MARBI
Special formats
groups: Rare books,
Music, Art, Maps,
Electronic Resources
Library partners
Vendors
LC’s Involvement
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CPSO
NDMSO
CDS
ABA Directorate
1967
1941
1949
1876
1902
1904
1906
1908
1841
Anglo-American Tradition
How did we get here?
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AACR2
1978
 1988
 1998
 2002
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Consulting with Experts
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December 2003
Update Paris Principles
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IFLA Meeting of Experts
on an International
Cataloguing Code
(IME ICC Frankfurt draft
Statement of Principles)
RDA: Resource Description
and Access
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New title and approach in lieu of AACR3
Includes digital formats, FRBR
Draft Part 1—comment period over
Draft Parts 2 and 3—coming soon
2007 Publication projected
LCSH and LC Classification
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Library of Congress Subject Headings
Free-Floating Subdivisions
LC Classification allows shelving by
topic
LC CPSO maintains both
Too labor-intensive?
Are Newer Options Better?
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Keyword searching
Shelving by size
Level of specificity
Coverage of languages
NCSU’s new catalog with Endeca is
enhanced by LCSH and LCC
http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/
OPACs Replace Card Catalogs
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Content, complexity increase
Different systems need common display
format: MARC
MARC and OPACs focus on serving
library collections
MARC: Machine Readable
Characters
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A resource description format
Developed at LC, maintained by NDMSO
Cottage industry to input records from
LC card catalog
Harmonization to MARC 21
MARBI governs expansion of fields,
codes, definitions
Sharing New Formats
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Communication
Standards
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MARC
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UNIMARC
MARC 21
MODS/MADS
XML dtd’s
Next generation?
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Metadata
Standards
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Dublin Core
MPEG 7
VRA
EAD
ISBD (also a
content standard)
Digital Library Standards
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METS (Metadata Encoding &
Transmission Standard)
MIX (NISO Metadata for Images in
XML)
PREMIS (Preservation Metadata)
Applying the Standards:
Cooperative Cataloging
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Not just for local catalogs
Email, Internet, Websites enable
cooperation
Pooling resources and expertise yields
benefits for all
History of LC Cooperative Efforts
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1901
1908
1926
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1930’s
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1934
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1940
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1948
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Distribution of printed LC catalog cards
Union catalog
“Project B” to expand the Union Catalog
(Rockefeller funds)
ALA Cooperative Cataloging Committee
office at the Library of Congress
Cooperative Cataloging and
Classification Service (LC division,
ALA auspices through June 1940)
Cooperative Cataloging Section,
Descriptive Cataloging Division, LC
National Union Catalog (NUC)
History of the Library of Congress
Cooperative Efforts
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1973
Cooperative on-line serials project
(CONSER) –with OCLC
1977
Name authority cooperative (NACO)
1983
Cooperative Subject cataloging Project
(SACO)
1988National Cooperative Cataloging
1992
Program (NCCP)
1992
Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC)
1995
Monographic bibliographic record
cooperative (BIBCO)
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www.loc.gov/catdir/pcc
PCC Program Components
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BIBCO
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NACO-Name
authority component
SACO-Subject
authority component
BIBCO-Monographic
record component
CONSER-Serial
record component
CONSER
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NACO
SACO
NACO Program
Background
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Purpose
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Propose name authority records for
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Personal names
Corporate names
Conference names
Jurisdiction names
Uniform titles (including series)
NACO Program Background
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Began in 1976
Joint project
Library of Congress
 U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO)
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Goal
Common authority file
 Reduce the cost of authority work
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NACO Program
Background
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Today
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Over 450 libraries worldwide
Large and small institutions
 NACO funnel projects
 68 “international” partners
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NACO Program
Background
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At start: mailed records on worksheets
Now: “FTP” (file transfer protocol)
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Daily distribution by LC of all new and
changed records to
OCLC
 RLG
 British Library
 CDS customers
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NACO Program Membership
Requirements
 100 records per year - small libraries
(special libraries/state libraries)
 200 a year - large libraries
(research libraries/ academic/libraries)
 Ability to exchange records via FTP
(usually through membership in OCLC or
RLG)
PCC Funnel Projects
Members
Funnel
How does a Funnel project work?
FTP of records
LC
Bibliographic
utility
Funnel Project
NACO Funnel Projects
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Alaska
Arabic
Art
ATLA
CALICO S.
Africa
Canada
Caribbean
Connecticut
Dalnet
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Dance
Heritage
GAELIC
S. Africa
Hebraica
Idaho
Law/OCLC
Law/RLIN
Medical
Minnesota
Mississippi
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Montana
Mountain West
NACO-Mexico
NACO Music
North Dakota
Ohio
OLAC
South Dakota
Tennessee
Vermont
Virginia
SACO Funnel Projects
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African American Subject Funnel
Africana Subject Project
Hawaii/Pacific Subject Project
Judaica Subject Project
Virginia Subject Project
Example of a Funnel and Its
Members – South Africa
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CALICO South Africa Funnel
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Cape Technikon
Peninsula Technikon
University of Cape Town
University of Stellenbosch
University of the Western Cape
NACO Program
Benefits
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Shared costs of authority work
Reduced duplication of effort
Improved timeliness
Expanded coverage of the
LC/NACO Authority File
NACO Program
Benefits to Members
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Training and documentation
Representation on PCC Policy Committee
NACO Program Statistics
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LC/NAF over 5,000,000 records
FY 1996: reached one million records
contributed by NACO partners
 FY 2004: reached over 2 million records
contributed by PCC partners
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NACO Program Statistics
FY2005
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Name Authority Records
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New: 162,099
Changed: 37,601
Total to date from contributing partners: 2,322,225
Series Authority Records
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New: 9,889
Changed: 2,374
Total to date from contributing partners: 118,001
NACO Relationship with SACO, the
Subject Component of the PCC
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All NACO members are automatically
members of SACO
FY 2004+ SACO-only members must
apply to become members
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Propose subject headings for Library of
Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)
Propose classification numbers for Library
of Congress Classification schedules (LCC)
Membership requirement
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Contribute at least 12 proposals a year
Click SACO on PCC Website
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Submitting proposals
Detailed guidelines
 PCC Web site – online forms
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for new headings
 for proposing changes to existing
headings
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SACO Contributions FY2005
New Subject
Headings
Changed
Subject Hdgs
New Class
Numbers
Changed Class
Numbers
FY2005
Total to date
2962
33837
785
8045
2169
17181
21
606
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Training
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Participants attend subject cataloging
workshops offered by the Library of
Congress
At library-related meetings and conferences
 As part of the PCC activities or meetings
 “Basic subject cataloging using LCSH” 2-day
workshop
 For more information see:
http://www.loc.gov/catworkshop/cct/index.html
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BIBCO Standards
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Bibliographic records are contributed to
utilities as copy
042 pcc
Some materials need full level
Some materials can use core level as a
floor with any additions
Core Standards for:
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Books
Cartographic matls
Collections
CONSER
Electronic Resources
Graphic matls
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Moving Image Matls
Printed/Manuscript
Music
Rare Books
Sound Recordings
Multiple Character
Sets
CONSER Standards
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Bibliographic records for serials
contributed to OCLC
Integrating Resources cross the line
between monographs and serials
CONSER Core standard
SCCTP training courses
Ohio PCC Partners
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Chemical Abstracts
Cincinnati Medical Library
Cleveland Public Library
Oberlin College
Ohio State U
Bowling Green State U
Case Western Reserve U
Ohio PCC Partners, 2
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OCLC
OCLC Tech Processing Dept.
PL of Cincinnati and Hamilton County
State Library of Ohio
Cleveland Museum of Art
Bowling Green State U Music Library
Cleveland PL Music Library
Ohio PCC Partners, 3
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Dayton/Montgomery Co PL, Music Coll.
Kent State U, and Music Library
Miami U Music Library
Oberlin Conservatory of Music
OCLC Tech Pro Music Unit
U of Akron, and Music, AV Units
Ohio PCC Partners, 4
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U of Cincinnati Music Library
Denison U, and AV Unit
Hudson Lib & Historical Society
Lorain PL
Ohio NACO Cooperative at Cleveland PL
Cuyahoga County PL
International Partners in PCC
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68 international partners and 4 NACO
funnel projects
20 countries
 Strong in NACO, SACO,
CONSER
 About 20% of Name Authorities
from international partners
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LC Support of PCC Programs
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PCC Secretariat
Cooperative Cataloging Team, Regional
and Cooperative Cataloging Division
Cataloging Policy and Support Office
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Documentation
Expert counsel
Training
Database maintenance
Cataloging rule development and
harmonization
PCC Support of Standards
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Training, review, independence
Documentation, web sites,
announcements, discussion lists
Representatives on PCC Steering
Committee, Policy Committee
Standing Committees on Automation,
Standards, and Training
Other Models for Cooperation
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IFLA “Universal Bibliographic Control”
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Each country responsible for the
bibliographic and authority records for its
own publications
Those records would be used by everyone
worldwide
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this concept is changing
Now recognize user comes first – need to meet
language/script needs
Future Directions?
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Streamlined record
creation
Automated
generation of
metadata
Info retrieval beyond
libraries, catalogs
Library of Congress
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Washington, D.C. plus
6 overseas offices
Approx. 4,300 staff
116,000,000 items
Catalog nearly
300,000 titles each
year
Cataloging operations
involve approx. 500
people
Strength in Cooperation
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Shared efforts and
expertise lend
strength to the work
Changes in the
community bring
uncertainty.
Can we transform?
Shifting Frontiers
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Does any
group hold
territorial
rights
forever?
A Notable Mohegan Elder
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Washington Post obit, Nov. 4, 2005
Gladys Tantaquidgeon, age 106
Mohegans regained official tribal status
in 1994, helped by her documents
Ran a family museum 1947-1997
Librarian at Connecticut women’s
prison, teaching Native American crafts
An Example to Follow?
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She recognized the
value of the
Mohegan past
She found ways to
preserve it and
promote her
heritage
Questions?
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Civilized catalogs/Digital frontier