Denominations in the 13 Colonies:
17th & 18th Century America
“From the Reformation to the Constitution”
Bill Petro
your friendly neighborhood historian
www.billpetro.com/v7pc
06/04/2006
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Objectives
By the end of this session you should be able to
• Trace development of American Colonial Religion
• Define “denominationalism”
• Discuss origins of American denominationalism
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Reformation Traditions
Luther - Melanchthon
1517
Lutheran
1532
Calvin - Beza
French-Swiss
Zwingli - Bullinger
1519
German-Swiss
1525
Grebel – Manz - Simonsz
Swiss Brethren
1536
Henry VIII - Cranmer
English
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Lutheranism
Episcopal
}
Reformed
Presbyterian
Scottish Presbyterian
Dutch Reformed
Anabaptist
Congregational
Mennonites
English Sep
English Baptists
Anglican
Episcopal
Church of England
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American Church History
Colonial
National
1787
Calvinism
Theocentrism
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Modern
1865
Arminianism
Liberalism
Biblistic Rationalism Subjectivism
Existentialism
Anthropocentrism
Liberalism
4
Colonies:
1650
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The 3 G’s
• Gold
• God
• Glory
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Colonies: 1750
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The Colonies
Anglicanism: established religion in 6 of 13 colonies
• Virginia: London company settled Jamestown 1607
• Maryland: settled by George & Cecil Calvert
• North & South Carolina: one colony for ½ century
• Georgia: founded in 1732 for imprisoned debtors
• New York: owned by the Dutch, then English
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Outline by Region
• New England
• Rhode Island
• Middle Colonies
Congregationalists
Baptists
Quakers
Mennonites
Moravians
Lutherans
Presbyterians
• Maryland
Roman Catholic
• South, NY, etc.Anglican
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“Denominationalism”
• Primary expression of American Christianity, post 1740’s
• Based, in part, on freedom to differ
• Denomination vs. Sect
• Inclusive vs. Exclusive
• The true church cannot be identified with any
single ecclesiastical structure
• Seed planted by Reformers: not of bishops but of believers
• Architected by Congregationalists at Westminster Assembly
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American Congregationalism
English
Pilgrims
New Lights
1620
Plymouth
English
Puritans
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1630
1691
Boston
Merge w/
Mass. Bay Co.
1734
Old Lights
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Roger Williams and Baptists
• 1636-1683
• Expelled from
Mass Bay Colony
• Founded Providence,
Rhode Island Colony
• 1638 Rebaptized church
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Baptists
Regular
Baptists
Calvinist
Northern
Baptists
1630’s
Separate
Baptists
Arminian
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Roger
Williams
1740’s
1787
1845
New Light Constitution
Cong’ists
Southern
Baptists
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William Penn
• 1644 - 1718
• 1685: 8,000 Quakers in
Pennsylvania
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Penn’s Government
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Quaker Meetings
• Repugnant to other
denominations:
• Equality for women
• Speaking in Meeting
• Preaching the Gospel
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Mennonites
• Followers of Menno Simons
• Germany, Switzerland, Holland → Pennsylvania
• Quakers tolerated various sects,
New England Congrationalists didn’t
• “In New England there is great liberty,
if you hurry”
• 17th-century Swiss Mennonite bishop,
Jakob Amman: Amish
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Moravians
• Germany → Savanna, Georgia
• Fled mosquitoes and Spanish
• George Whitfield invited them to
“forks of Delaware River” (Pennsylvania)
• Built school for training of Indians
• Settled Nazareth, Bethlehem, Winston-Salem
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Lutherans
Dutch:
New Amster
Swedes:
1620’s
1630’s
1700’s
Delaware Vly
Germans:
Pennsylvania
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Roman Catholicism in Maryland
• Father Andrew White
(1579-1656)
• First mass upon the
arrival of the Ark and
the Dove
• 1634: 200 settlers aboard
• 1632: George Calvert
“Lord Baltimore” obtained
charter from Charles I for
Maryland
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Presbyterian Organization
National Assembly
Synod
Presbytery
Session
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Synod
Presbytery
Session
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Presbyterians
English
Presbyterian
Puritans
Continental
Reform
Groups
ScotsIrish
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1706
1716
1st Presbytery 1st Synod
1729
1789
Adopting
Act
1st Nat
As’mbly
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1-Word Summary
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Catholic Church
Luther
Zwingli
Anabaptists
Calvin
Arminius
“Calvinism”
Knox
Henry VIII
Pilgrims
Puritans
Denominations
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Merit
Justification
Sovereignty
Believer’s Baptism
Omnipotence
Ability
TULIP
Thundering
Married
Separatists
Saints
Inclusive
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