Migrations:
Why, Where, and
the Impact of the
Movement of Peoples
THE THEME OF
MIGRATION AND ETHNIC
MOVEMENT
Reasons for Migration

Push Factors
• Negative conditions at home
Real conditions
 Perceived conditions

• Impel the decision to migrate

Pull Factors
• Positive attributes in destination
Real opportunities
 Perceived opportunities

• Pull the immigrant to move
Push Factors















Not enough jobs
Few opportunities
"Primitive" conditions
Political fear
Not being able to
practice religion
Poor medical care
Loss of wealth
Natural disasters
Death threats
Slavery
Pollution
Poor housing
Landlords
Poor chances of
finding courtship
War conditions in area
Pull Factors










Job opportunities
Better living
conditions
Political and/or
religious freedom
Enjoyment
Education
Better medical care
Security
Family links
Better chances of
finding courtship
Get rich easily
Laws of Migration

Economic factors are main cause
• Lose of job or job opportunities
• Better pasture, farm land; more pay

Counter-migration
• Every migration flow generates return migration
• Many people go abroad to work, study temporarily

Majority of migrants move short distance
• Urbanization is the most common
• Moving for a job locally is another

Urbanization
• Migrants moving long distances choose big-city destinations
• In 19th, 20th century the number one fact of migration

Urban residents less migratory than rural residents
• Cities offer too many opportunities and benefits
• If one immigrates, one tends to go urban to urban not to rural

The youth migrate
• Families less likely to make international moves than young adults
• Rare to see whole family migration
Different Scales

Inter-continental migrations
• African Slave Trades
• Irish Diaspora
• Indentured labor from Asia to Africa, Asia, Pacific

Intra-continental migrations
•
•
•
•

Indo-European Migration
Bantu Migrations
Hunnic Migrations
Peopling of Americas and Globe
Inter-regional migrations
• Guest workers going to Europe
• Illegal migrant workers to the USA

Rural to urban migration
• Urbanization is an example

Local residential shifts
• Suburbanization
• Neighborhood relocations
Motives of Migration


Innovative move
•
•
•
•
Migrant undertakes new way of life
Willing to change life styles
Willing to give up old traditions
19th c. immigration to Americas
•
•
•
•
Preserves accustomed way of life
Simply changes location
Puritan migration to New England
Malayo-Polynesian migration out of China
Conservative move
Types of Migration
1.
Home Community
2.
Colonization
3.
Whole-Community or Mass Migration
4.
Cross-Community
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Movement from one place to another within their community
Most common form of migration
Distance measure in yards and miles
Associated with youth leaving home, jobs, marriage
Examples include matri- and patrilocal, as well as modern USA
a.
b.
c.
People leaves older community to establish a new one in another place
Desire is to create an exact replica of an existing culture elsewhere
Greek, Phoenician, Early Modern European colonization are examples
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
An entire community migrates to a new land
Often migration in response to environmental conditions
Nomadic migration including seasonal migration for flocks
Can also include mass migration to avoid war or forced migration
Generally a low level of community development
Examples include the Germanic Migration, Irish Diaspora
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Involves groups/individuals migrating to live within another community
Such communities settle amongst others but do not assimilate
Examples include migrant workers, students in foreign universities
Picks up ideas, technology, skills spreading them back to mother country
Often considered free migration to seek temporary job, education
Examples include Jewish, Nestorian and Chinese immigration
Patterns of migration

Step migration
• Series of small, less extreme locational changes
• Bantu, Hunnic, Polynesian migration examples



People move to one location, stay for a while
For some reason, migrate again to another location
Chain migration
• Established linkage or chain
• From point of origin to destination
• Former Migrants assist latest migrants


Chinese, Hindu labor migration of 19th, 20th centuries
Jewish, Armenian diasporas similar
• Migration Fields

Areas that dominate a locale's in- and out-migration
patterns
Limitations on Migration

Political restrictions
• Many countries have restrictions
• Some have entry quotas
• Some have exit requirements

Geographical restrictions
• Distance and transport
• Physical barriers to movement

Opportunities of Costs
• What do I gain, what do I lose

Personal characteristics
Genographic Project

DNA studies suggest
• All humans come from group of African ancestors who began
moving about 60,000 years ago

Project to chart new knowledge on migratory
history of human species through 2010
• Led by National Geographic and
genetic/computational technologies

IBM
with
cutting-edge
Components of project
• Gather field research data from indigenous and traditional
peoples
• Invite general public to join
• Use proceeds to further field research and support indigenous
conservation and revitalization projects

Project is anonymous, non-medical, non-political,
non-profit and non-commercial and all results will
be placed in public domain following scientific peer
publication
ORGANIZING
IMMIGRATION
How To Teach Migration

Assign Readings
• Use classroom text and assign sections on migrations
• Reinforce with readings from the College Board and
Professional Sources including primary sources
• Provide charts to organize information

Lecture
• Teach the background of migration
• Cover a few important examples of migration

Guided Practice
• Work with students to compare/contrast migration

Independent Study
• Assign students different migrations to research
• Present study to class – students take notes
Migrations To Teach

Which ones to teach
• Any migration mentioned in CB Guide
• Why: many books do not do them justice

Examples
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Spread of Pre-Historic Humans
Indo-European in Eurasia
Bantu Peoples in Africa
Later Steppe Peoples: Xiong-nu, Turks, Mongols
The Malayo-Polynesian Movements
Jewish Diaspora (totally left out of most books)
Germans and Vikings
Migrations To Research















Semitic Migrations: Hebrew, Arabs, etc.
Mediterranean Seafarers: Sea Peoples, Greeks, Phoenicians
The Celts
9th Century Migrations: Arab, Viking, Magyar
The Slavic Migrations
Drang Nach Osten: German Colonization of the Baltic
The Turks
The Pre-Historic Peopling of the Americas
Manifest Destinies: US to the West, Russians in Siberia, Boer Great Trek
Chinese Settlement of the Interior
Mfekane in Southern Africa
Relocations of the American Indians
European Colonization of the Americas
Chinese, Indian Debt Labor Movements of the 19th, 20th century
19th, 20th century Immigration to the Americas
Create a Chart:
Apply the 5 Themes of Geography
to Migration
Select one
immigrant
group and
apply the Five
Themes of
Geography as
a paradigm of
analysis
Location
Characteristics
of Place
Movement
Human
Environment
Interaction
Region
Identify place
of origins of
immigrants
and places to
which they
migrated;
include any
intermediate
locations of reimmigration
Identify
cultural
characteristics
of migratory
groups
Identify push
and pull
factors which
influenced
immigrant
movement;
identify types
of movement
and patterns
to immigration
Identify the
interactions
between the
immigrants
and locations
to which they
moved as well
as the impact
of the
immigrants on
their new
homes
Describe
limitations on
immigration
both in their
places of
origins and
their places of
migration
Create a Chart:
Apply SCRIPTED to Migration
SOCIAL
CULTURAL
RELIGIOUS
INTERACTIONS
Describe social
patterns of
gender and
hierarchy within
the migrant
community
Identify cultural
institutions of
the migrant
community and
their
contributions to
their new homes
Identify
religious and
intellectual
trends of the
immigrant
community
Describe any
interactions
produced by
movement of
the group
including trade,
disease,
exchanges and
war
POLITICAL
TECHNOLOGICAL
ECONOMIC
DEMOGRAPHIC
ENVIRONMENT
Describe politcial
structures and
reactions to the
immigrant
communities
Identify and
describe
technological
aspects
associated with
immigration
Describe factors
helping and
hindering
immigration
Identify
demographic
factors related
to immigration
and the impact
of immigration
on regions
Create a Chart:
Compare and Contrast Migrations
First
Migration
Reasons and
Causes of
Immigration
Destinations
of Migration
Interactions
between
migrant
groups and
groups in
region
Second
Migration
Identify
Similarities
and
Differences
Analyze
reasons for
similarities
and
differences
Pre-Historic Migration
Out of Africa: The
Peopling of the World
c. 2 million BCE
To 15,000 BCE
Humans Spread
Across Globe

Hominids
•
•

Homo-Sapiens
•
•

As a species arose c. 300,000 years ago
Arose in East Africa, The Horn of Africa
Hunter-Gatherer Society
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Arose in Africa 1-2 million years ago
Migrated throughout Eurasia
Nomads followed game, gathered seeds
Conduits across Strait of Gibraltar, Sinai
Southwest Asia reached c. 70,000 BCE
East Asia reached c. 60,000 BCE
Australia reached c. 50,000 BCE
Europe reached c. 40,000 BCE
North America reached c. 20,000 BCE
South America reached c. 15,000 to c. 12,000 BCE
All Pacific Islands not reached until c. 1000 CE
Proof
•
•
We use DNA, genetic drift, chromosomes, archaeology as proof
We look at languages and linguistics
Out of Africa Migration
Out of Africa Migration
Migration of Homo Sapiens
Human Fossil Record
EARLY
AFRICAN
MIGRATIONS
Up and Down the
Nile, Out from the
Deserts
Late Paleolithic
Africa

The Sahara as a Factor
•
Late Paleolithic Sahara


•
Dramatic Climate Change





End of glacial period produced rain
Split Saharan into North, South
• Northern Sahara

Was a desert

Largely uninhabited
• Southern Sahara

Tropical monsoons much stronger

Tropical savannah, several very large lakes
• During Early Neolithic Era

Zone stretched from Atlantic to Nile River

Domesticated animals with pastoral societies

Some plants, early agriculture along Nile

Megalithic architecture and rock art
Drastic climate change
Southern Sahara began to dry up
People migrated out
By 3500 BCE had become a large impassable barrier
Migration Routes
•
•
•
South towards West Africa
Southeast towards Central Africa
East towards Nile River
North & Northwest Africa

Paleolithic Peoples
•
Afro-Asiatic



•
Locations




Along Southern Mediterranean
Down Red Sea to Ethiopia
Also in Horn of Africa
“Hamitic”
•
•
Berbers and Tuaregs
Ancient





Caucasian “race”
Two major sub-groups
Semitic, Hamitic
Libyans
Mauretanians
Numidians
Garamantes
•
•
•
•
Egyptians
Cushitic (Kush-Meroe)
Oromo, Amhara, Tigreans (Ethiopians)
Somali
•
•
•
•
•
•
Largely Semitic
Arabs from Arabia
Probably also Hyksos
Jews from Fertile Crescent
Axumites from Southern Arabian mixed with Cushites
Made possible by introduction of horses, camels into Africa
Migrations During Historical Period
Migrations
along Nile

Lower Nile
•
Prehistoric migrations



•
Historic Egypt controlled Upper and Lower Nile



Old, Middle Kingdoms united Upper, Lower Egypt
No distinction in early Egyptian history between different peoples
Separate Paths
•
The Semitic Hyksos created the division, separation


•
1720 BCE overran Egypt, severing contact with Kush
Separate Black Egyptian state, culture developed at Kermah
New Kingdom re-incorporated area in empire



Egyptians (Afro-Asiatic) from North up the Nile
Proto-Kushite (Negroid) from South up the Nile
Berber, Nilotic pastoral nomads from Deserts towards Nile
By 1200 BCE New Kingdom lost control of Kush
Egyptians lost control of region for 500 years
Upper Nile
•
Early Kushites




•
Powerful, militaristic Kush State


•
Around 750 BCE conquered Egypt: capital around Napata
Withdrew from Egypt in face of Assyrian invasions
New Kushite state moved capital to Meroe




•
Called Nubians and Kushites by Egyptians
Saharan-Nilotic peoples indigenous to Upper Nile for 10,000 years
Totally immersed in Egyptian culture; Kushite language disappeared
But had moon worship, a Nilo-Saharan cultural trait
Tributary to Persians, Greeks, Romans
Nomadic Nobatae, Nuba, Beja moved into state forming military aristocracy
Romans used state to counterbalance movement of Ethiopians towards Nile
350 CE: Axumites conquer Kush, destroy state
Separate Nubian states arise, convert to Christianity
Migrations
in the Horn

Many Unknowns
•
Earliest people


•
Language, Haplogroup are best guides not race, skin color




•

Afro-Asiatic people called Cushites
• Nearest Relatives: Egyptians, Berbers
• Distant Relatives: Arabs, Jews, Sabeans
• Skin color is a light to dark reddish brown
• Modern Descendents

Ethiopians, Tigreans, Amhara

Somali, Oromo

Eritreans
Nilo-Saharans
• Migrated into the area very early and settled early along Nile
• Also migrated toward Ethiopian highlands
• Kush-Meroe, Nubians were black Nilo-Saharans
• Color of skin much darker, black
• Intermarried with Cushites pushing down from highlands
Contain both Semitic, Nilo-Saharan words
Axumite Geez related to Southern Arabian Script
Merotic writing related to Egyptian demotic, hieratic
Haplogroup of E1b1b is predominant among Afro-Asiatics
Differences come later with Christianity, Islam
Where did Axum come from?
•
•
•
•
•
Some historians feel Southern Arabians founded Axum
Recent evidence indicates an indigenous development
But no question Yemenite Arabs, Jews had influence
And intermarriage with Nilotics is genetically evident
Genome: 62% Caucasian, 24% Sub-Saharan, 8% Austro-Melanesian, 6% East Asian!
Ancient
and
Classical
Movements
In
Africa
Human Migration in Classical Africa
Cattle Migration In Africa
Early Desert Trade

Early Trade
• Ancient Egypt


Trade up and down Nile
Gold, spices, animals, wheat, slaves
• Desert Routes




Dar el-Arbain from desert along river
Ghadames: Niger (Gao) north to Tripoli
Garamantean: Central Sahara across Haggar Mts.
Walata Road: From Senegal along Atlas to Morocco
• The Garamantes








Both Greeks, Phoenicians record their presence c. 500 BCE
A Berber Saharan tribe, pastoral nomads
Developed a thriving trading state until 5th century CE
Developed extensive irrigation system
Controlled trade between Sahara, Mediterranean Coast
Constant conflict constantly with Romans
Increasing desertification destroyed their land, dried up water
The Camel
•
•
•
Introduced by Romans c. 200 CE to patrol desert borders
Berbers acquired camels, used for deep desert trade
Camels made travel across desert possible
The Berber
Garamantes
Was the Desert a barrier?
“The Government
Would Like You To
Move to This New
Place”
Historical Colonial
Movements of Peoples
What is colonization?

Definition
• Extension of sovereign control over neighboring territory


•
•
•
•

Colonialism: The physical settlement of your people abroad
Imperialism: Control land to exploit resources but no settlement
National populations resettled onto conquered lands
Indigenous populations displaced, assimilated, eliminated
Local labor resources controlled, markets exploited
New socio-economic, linguistic, religious, culture introduced
Types
• Settler Colonies – Some Examples






Phoencians, Greeks, and Romans
Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and Ottomans
Malayo-Polynesians
Bantu and Berbers in Africa
Chinese in Western lands, Germans in Eastern lands
English in Ireland
• Dependencies

Lands under control of a foreign state but not settled by its people
Phoenicians &
Carthaginians

Original Home of Phoenicians c. 1000 BCE
•
•
•
•

Coast of Eastern Mediterranean near Lebanon
Mountainous area with little arable soil
Interior controlled by powerful states
Cities arose on the coast oriented outward
Movement
• Trade began to obtain needed materials




Sufficient trees provide materials to build boats
Phoenicians became sailors and maritime experts
Acquire raw materials and make finished goods for trade
Famous for cloth, purple dye, metallurgy
• Overpopulation


Excess population immigrates to establish new settlements
Phoenicians settle Cyprus, southern coasts of Western Mediterranean
• Rivalry with Greeks for Mediterranean Sea, trade, settlement

Carthaginian Empire, c. 600 to 200 BCE
•
•
•
•
•
•
Arose as original homeland fell under various empires
Settles Western Sicily, Sardinia, Baleric Islands, Southern Spain
Exploits rich crop lands for wine, olives
Discovers rich silver vines, ships trade for tin with southern England
Battled Etrsucans, Kelts, Greeks and Romans for Western Mediterranean
Conquered by Rome
Punic Trade & Colonization
As Greeks

Minoans and Mycenaean
• Maritime Civilization arose on Crete



New archaeological evidence indicates Indo-Iranian origins
Established colonies throughout Aegean Sea
Traded with Phoenicians and Egyptians
• Land-Based Mycenaeans




Bronze Age Indo-Europeans migrated into Peloponnesus
Contemporaneous to Minoans with whom traded, warred
Many settlements in Aegean Islands, Asia Minor
Dark Age Migrations of the Greeks
• c. 1000 BCE new tribes (Dorians) pushed into region
• Followed later by Attics, Aeolians, Achaeans, others
• Established numerous independent city-states

Early Greece 750 BCE
•
•
•
•
•
Greece stabilized and population began to grow
Land could not support excess population
Greeks began tradition of sending excess populations to sister colonies
Many of these colonies achieved independence, rose to prominence
Spread culture, crops, religion, traditions, language across Mediterranean
Greek World
Greek Thassalocracies

Maritime Poleis
• Several poleis established many overseas dependencies
• Sister colonies retained strong connections to mother polis
• Included Athens, Corinth, Megara, Phocea

Classical Greece was geographically wide-spread
•
•
•
•

Greece Proper and islands of the Aegean including Asia Minor, Cyprus
Eastern Sicily and Southern Italian coasts, harbors
Ports, settlements along all coasts of the Black Sea
Ports, harbors, islands in Spain, France, Northern Italy, Libya
Larger Thassalocracies
• Athenian Empire came to dominate Aegean, Black Seas



Arose after war with Persia
Delian League against Persia forcibly turned into an Athenian Empire
Athens controlled Dardanelles, most islands of Aegean
• Corinth was a major rival of Athens in Ionian, Adriatic Seas
• Syracuse (Sicily) rose to power and controlled much of Southern Italy

Result: Greeks settled throughout Mediterranean, neighboring seas
The
Hellenistic
World

Alexander’s World
• He founds Greek cities as his armies advance
• Greek administrators, soldiers, merchants migrate in wake
• Greek ruled states arose within his failed empire

Successor Hellenistic Monarchies
• Greek cities throughout their states
• Greek predominate language of area
• Greeks formed elite settler society
From Etruscans to Romans

The Etruscans
• Elite aristocracy migrated from Asia Minor
• Established city-states thoughout Tuscany
• Etruscan colonies on Corsica, Sardinia, Po Valley, Campana

Roman Republic to Roman Empire
• 753 – 509 BCE: Etruscan Kingdom – Rome founded as Etruscan colony
• Roman patricians overthrow Etruscans, establish republic, expand


Rome expanded to control Latium, other Latin tribes, later Italy
Extended Roman rights to many conquered peoples
• “Coloniae civium Romanorum”


Settled Roman with full rights, citizenship; acted as governors of territories
Tended to be small with 300 Roman families
• Latin Colonies


Settlements of Romans, Latin allies in colonies with partial rights
Military colonies designed to control, maintain empire
• After 133 BCE



New Roman colonies are transplantations of poor, landless Roman population
Settled as agricultural colonies to give poor, ex-farmers new land
Often settled in territories outside of Italy
• Imperial colonies


Tradition started by Julius Caesar and continued by later emperors
Legionnaires paid off upon retirement by establishing colonies in empire
Roman
Colonia
First Roman Colonies
Colonia spread Latin culture, language and were usually
located at critical geographic sites that later became
major cities.
The Vandal Migration

The Volkerwanderung 400 CE
• Entered Roman territory



Many embraced Christianity
Few were Roman Catholics
Most followed Arian Christianity
• Crossed into Gaul




Into Africa
•
•
•
•
•

Battled the Franks, forced Vandals to move into Iberia
Crossed into region as Roman feoderati
Settled Galicia, Western, Southern areas
Crossed Strait of Gibraltar to use it as a base
439 CE conquered Carthage, made it capital
Settled area around modern Tunis, Eastern Algeria
Conquered Sardinia, Sicily, Corsica; sacked Rome 455
Created a powerful state
Later State
• Suffered conflicts between Catholics, Arians
• Byzantines invaded, conquered area in 534
Mapping Vandal Movement
THE BANTU
MIGRATIONS
Out of Nigeria,
Movement in the
South
EARLY
MOVEMENT
IN
AFRICA
The Early Bantus

The Bantu peoples
•
•
•
•
•

Originated in the region around modern Nigeria/Cameroon
Influenced by Nok iron making, herding, agriculture
Population pressure drove migrations, 2000 BCE – 700 BCE
Two major movements: to south and to east and then south
Languages split into about 500 distinct but related tongues
Bantu agriculture and herding
• Early Bantu relied on agriculture – slash-burn, shifting
• Pastoralists, semi-nomadic due to agriculture, cattle

Iron metallurgy
• Iron appeared during the 7th and 6th centuries B.C.E.
• Iron made agriculture more productive
• Expanded divisions of labor, specialization in societies

Population Pressures
• Iron technologies produced population upsurge
• Large populations forced migration of Bantu
MAPPING THE
BANTU
MIGRATIONS
Movement
Spreads
Other Items

•
The Bantu Migration
Population pressure led to migration, c. 2000 B.C.E.




•

•
Bantu spread iron, herding technologies as they moved
Bananas
Between 300/500 C.E., Malay seafarers reached Africa



•
Movement to South, along Southeast and Southwest coasts
Languages differentiated into about 500 distinct but related tongues
Occupied most of sub-Saharan (except West) Africa by 1000 C.E.
Split into groups as they migrated: Eastern, Central, Southern
Settled in Madagascar, visited East African coast
Brought with them pigs, taro, and banana cultivation
Bananas became well-established in Africa by 500 C.E.
Bantu learned to cultivate bananas from Malagasy


Bananas caused second population spurt, migration surge
Reached South Africa in 16th century CE
Using
Language
and
Dialect to
Trace
Movement
Impact of Migration

Geographic Diversity Creates Social Diversity
•
•
•
•

Extended families and clans as social and economic organizations
A group of villages constituted a district but separated by distance
Communities claimed rights to land, no private property
Language, social differences arose based on geography
Movement Produces Interactions
• Exchange of ideas and goods especially flora, fauna, technology
• Exchange of DNA: rise of syncretic societies
• War and Trade between societies


Stateless societies
•
•
•
•
Early Bantu societies did not depend on elaborate bureaucracy
Societies governed through family and kinship groups
Chief of a village was from the most prominent family heads
Villages chiefs negotiated inter-village affairs
•
•
•
•
Population growth strained resources, increased conflict
Some communities began to organize military forces, 1000 C.E.
Powerful chiefs overrode kinship networks and imposed authority
Some chiefs conquered their neighbors
Chiefdoms
The Migration of
the Arabs
640 – 1500 CE
What is an Arab?

The Problem
•
•
•

“Arab” is an ambiguous, confusing term
Usually means a speaker of Arabic
This is a recent historical development
The Arabs are Semites
•
Historical Semites include sedentary, nomadic peoples



•

Phoenicians, Hyksos, Arameans, Edomites, Moabites, Canaanites
Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians
Related to the Hamites of Egypt, Yemen, Ethiopia
Originally the Bedouin tribes of Arabia, Yemen
Who is an “Arab”?
•
Genealogical (Genes, DNA)



•
Linguistic



•
The smallest of group within Arabs
Descendents of the Bedouin tribes of Arabian and Syrian Deserts
Ibn Khaldun defined this group as solely those tracing origin to these Bedouin tribes
A speaker whose first language is Arabic
A very large group due to Islam, c. 250 million people
May be a linguistic Arab without being a genealogical Arab
Political and Cultural





Islam furthered the spread of Arabic to genealogical non-Arabs
A cosmopolitan culture originally created by the Arab Empire
Is both the ethnic culture of the Arabs and those citizens of a state which speaks Arabic
Many genealogical non-Arabs are culturally Arabs
Many reject being called Arabs unless they also speak Arabic
Early History

Arabs and the Arabic Language
•
•
•
Pre-date the CE developments of Islam
Originated in the Arabian Peninsula
The Bedouin




•
The Nabateans





Desert dwelling nomadic organized by tribes
Dwelt in Hejaz and the interior of Arabia
Many Bedouin had settled in towns and become semi-urbanized
Towns in Yathrib (Medina) and Mecca
Nomadic migrants to Levant who became urbanized
Originally spoke Aramaic but switched to Arabic
Nabatean alphabet adopted by Southern Arabs and pre-Classic Arabic
Arabia Petrapolis was an flowering of an early commercial Arabic culture
Spread in Southwest Asia beginning c. 200 CE
•
Jewish Arabs



•
•
Arabs who had become Jews by conversion or conquest
Edomites and The Idumaean Dynasty of Judah
King Herod is the prime example
Many Arabs in Levant had become strongly Hellenized
Arab Christians Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Banu Judham






Settled Levant (Modern Jordan, Southern Israel, Sinai) and Northern Arabian Desert
Ghassanids settled Syrian Desert as clients of the Roman Empire
Lakhmids settled desert opposite Mesopotamia as clients of the Sassanid Empire
Kindites, Himyarites of Yemen ruled northern, central Arabia and the Persian Gulf coast
Zenobia of Palmyra was in all likelihood related to the Arabs
Religiously heavily influenced by Monophysite and Nestorian Christianity
The
Tribal
Map
of
Arabia
Early Migration

Primitive Migration
•
Nomadic Pastoralism



•
Movement between desert, first cities



Constant clan warfare scattered tribes
•
•
•
Rise of sedentary settlements on oases
Fertile areas with irrigation in Yemen
Cities develop trading connections
Early Commerce


Often involving raid, trade
Some intermarriage
•


Move with flocks seeking grazing land, water
Winter, Summer Pasture lands
Re: Abraham in the Old Testament
Gold, frankincense, myrrh, manufactured items
Trade connects Western Arabia to Levant
Early Religious Movement
•
•
•
Mecca develops as a site of polytheistic religious pilgrimage
Jewish diaspora reached area: a Jewish tribe in Medina area
Monophysite Christians moved to area to avoid persecution
•
•
•
Himyarites expanded towards Persian Gulf
Sabeans who were probably Himyarites expanded into Horn of Africa
Axum was clearly a Semitic civilization originally connected to Southern Arabia
Early Colonization
The Early Arab World
Early Islam Develops Arabic Identity

Early Islamic Period
• Muslims of Medina called nomadic tribes of deserts “A’raab”
• Considered themselves sedentary but were aware of close racial bonds
• Assyrians used same construct to describe their relationship to the nomads

The Quran
• Does not use the word “Arab” in a manner we would understand


“Arabiy” is the language
“Arab” means Bedouin and is negative
• Quran



Uses the term “Arabic” and “clear” to mean “by the clear book”
• “We have made it an Arabic recitation in order that you may understand.”
• The Quran was regarded as the prime example of al-arabiyya
The term “Arab”
• Refers to Bedouin tribes of the desert who resisted Muhammad
• “The Bedouin are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy.”
c. 800 CE: After Conquests of Islam
• Language of the nomadic Arabs
• Regarded as most pure by grammarians
• Denotes uncontaminated language of Bedouins
Early Conquests



Muhammad and Islam unites the Arab Tribes
•
•
Muslims must read the Quran in Arabic
All Muslims pray in Arabic
•
•
Arabs flooded into as part of early conquests of Islam
661 CE: Ummayad Caliphs move capital to Damascus
•
Established garrison towns
Levant and Irag
Arabs compromise ruling military elite




•
•
•
Enjoyed special privileges
Proud of Arab ancestry, sponsored poetry, culture of pre-Islamic Arabia
Intermarried with local women, children raised within Arab culture
•
•
Reform greatly influenced the conquered non-Arab peoples
Fueled the Arabization of the region.
•
•
•
•
Arabs had a higher status among non-Arab Muslim converts
Converts still had obligation to pay heavy taxes caused resentment.
Caliph Umar II demanded that all Muslims be treated as equals but nothing happened
Discontent swept the region and a bloody uprising occurred
Abd al-Malik established Arabic as the Caliphate's official language in 686.
Tensions lead to a new Dynasty







Ramla, ar-Raggah, Basra, Kufa, Mosul, Samarra
All eventually became major non-military cities
Abbasids came to power
Moved capital to newly constructed city of Baghdad
Abbasids were also Arabs and descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas
Abbasids had the support of non-Arab Islamic groups.
Islam and Arabic as the language of administration
The Levantine and Iraqi populations were eventually Arabized.
North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula
•
•
•
In 8th Century, Arabic armies conquered the region
Arab Muslims settled the old Roman, Vandal, Carthaginian towns
Berbers remained dominant inland
The Arab
Islamic
Empire
Later Migration

Military Conquest
•
•
•
•

Whole tribes mobilized to conquer Arabia; pushed into Persia, Byzantines
Arabs settled as garrison units on desert, arable land borders
Whole garrison towns constructed to administer empire
Whole tribes resettled to maintain military control
Muslim Pilgrimage
•
One of the Five Pillars of Islam


•
Shia-Sunni Split


•
Shia developed holy sites of dead martyrs and saints
Faithful made regular pilgrimages to venerate heroes
The Hajji and the Gadis



Originally was to be a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, replaced by Mecca
All Muslims must try at least once in life to make journey to Mecca
Learned Muslims often traveled between cities teaching, dispensing justice
Itinerant preachers, wanders such as gadis (judges) and sufis (mystics)
Commerce and Intellectual Migration
•
Arab Empire encouraged commerce, trade


•
Arab Centers of Learning in Major Cities


•
Empire becomes one long linked trade route of exchanges
Arabs become trade diaspora at first but intermarry spreading Arab culture, language
Islam encouraged intellectual pursuits, caliphs built schools and libraries
Centers of Learning in Cordoba, Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad attracted travelers
Bedouin Migration


Overcrowding of Arabia, constant warfare led Arab Bedouin tribes (Banu) to migrate
Sahara, Libyan and Central Asian deserts witness migrations
Tribal Migration


Arab Colonization was similar to Roman establishment of military colonia
Banu Umayya of Damascus in the Levant & North Africa, 661AD
•
•
•
•




Umayyid Caliphs from Umayya tribe were the first Arab force to conquer the North African region
Most of the tribe settled in Damascus (The Levant) at this time and not in North Africa
After their removal by the Abbasid Caliphs, they migrated to Spain
Formed a majority of the Arabs in Iberia and a sizeable minority of Arabs in Maghreb
Banu Fahr in North Africa, 670AD
•
•
Banu Fahr subdued the Berbers in the mountain region of modern day Algeria.
Banu Fahr built the cities of Qayrawan in modern Tunisia and Uqbah ibn Naafi' in modern Algeria
•
•
Idris I of the Banu Hashim quarrelled with the Abbasids and fled Egypt for the Maghreb
With Berber support established the Idrisid dynasty located in modern day Morocco and Algeria
•
•
Umayyad Caliphate in Cordoba collapsed, under assault by Castile, Aragon, Portugal
The Banu Umayya clan then fled with the rest of the Muslims to the Maghreb region.
•
Banu Hilal was a populous Arab tribal confederation organized by the Fatimids in Libya
Banu Hashim (Idrisids) in North Africa, 788AD
Banu Umayya of Andalus/Cordoba in North Africa, 1031AD
Banu Hilal and Banu Muqal (Banu Hashim) in North Africa, 1046AD





Warred with the Zenata Berbers (a clan that claimed Yemeni ancestry from pre-Islamic periods)
Warred with the Sanhaja Berber confederation to small coastal towns.
•
Banu Hilal, Banu Muqal, Banu Jashm, other tribes eventually settled in Morocco and Algeria
•
•
•
Banu Sulyam was a Bedouin tribal confederation from Nejd (Arabia)
Allied with the Banu Hilal, helped defeat the Zirids in 1052 CE; took Kairuan in 1057 CE.
Banu Sulaym mainly settled and completely Arabized Libya
•
•
•
Branch of the Rabi'ah tribe settled in north Sudan; Slowly Arabized states in Northern Sudan
Banu Kanz chieftain inherited the kingdom of Makurina and began Arabization of the Sudan
Completed by the arrival of the Ja’Alin and Arab tribes.
•
•
•
Banu Maqil is a Yemeni nomadic tribe that settled in Tunisia in the 13th century
Banu Hassan of the Magil moved into the Sanhaja region in Western Sahara and Mauritania
Allied to the Latuma Arabized Berbers and Arabized Mauritania
Banu Sulaym in North Africa, 1049AD
Banu Kanz Nubia/Sudan, 11th-14th century
Banu Hassan Mauritania 1644-1674AD
And Egypt?


The Problem
•
•
•
Egypt is the largest Arabic speaking country in the world
Its population accounts for almost 50% of Arabic first language users
Is it Arab? Egyptians say no - most Arabs and Muslims think it is
•
Genealogically
The Reality



•
Linguistically

•
Egyptians speak an Arabic heavily laced with older Coptic words, constructs, idioms
Politically and Culturally



Egyptians are not Arabs: they are Hamites descended of Copts
Many Egyptians have Arab blood especially in the cities but also Greek, Nubian, African
The country-side population still has the reddish complexion of the Hamite
Egypt is at the center of modern Pan-Arab Nationalism: name of Arab Republic of Egypt
Egypt has been heavily influenced by other cultures: European, Arab, African
The Post-Classical History
•
639 CE: Arabs conquer Egypt from Byzantines




•
Muslim Egypt was ruled by outsiders



•
Egyptians were largely Monophysite Christians
Coptic Christians were heavily persecuted by the Byzantines and seek Muslim protection
Arabs establish military garrisons at Fustat (al Cairo)
Many Egyptians began to convert to Sunni Islam for economic, political reasons
Fatimid Dynasty (Shia Dynasty descendent from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima
Ayyubid Sultans: Kurdish sultans of the Abbasid Caliphs
Mameluks: Circassian-Turkish slave soldiers loyal first to Abbasids and later independent
Distinguish between the settled farming lands of the Nile and the deserts


The Bedouin migrated into the desert regions but did not settle the Nile lands
Often came for economic reasons and used by Arabs to police border regions
The Arab World
TRADE
DIASPORAS
Classical Through
Contemporary Eras
Philip Curtin’s Trade Diaspora

“Commercial specialists would remove themselves physically
from the home community and go to live as aliens in another
town, usually not a fringe town, but a town important in the
life of the host community. There, the stranger merchants
could settle down and learn the language, the customs and
the commercial ways of their hosts. They could then serve as
cross-cultural brokers helping and encouraging trade between
the host society and people of their own origin who moved
along the trade routes. At this stage, a distinction appeared
between the merchants who moved and settled and those
who continued to move back and forth. What might have
begun as a single settlement soon became more complex. The
merchants who might have begun with a single settlement
abroad tended to set up a whole series of trade settlements in
alien towns. The result was an interrelated net of commercial
communities, forming a trade network, or trade diaspora—a
term that comes from the Greek word for scattering, as in the
sowing of grain.”
What is a Trade Diaspora?

Defined
• Groups of merchants living amongst aliens in associated networks


Result of international trade in high valued luxuries
Merchants settle in certain countries to facilitate their trade
• Types




Stayers: Permanently settled in foreign land to facilitate trade
Movers: Those merchants who move between countries carrying goods
Victim Diaspora: ethnic community violently uprooted which trades to link parts
Causes of Trade Diaspora
• Existence of competing states and political system with borders


Often merchants alone could move between competing regimes
Political systems protected trade diasporas as they supplied luxuries
• Culture of Commerce



Merchants tend to think alike: maximization of profit
Merchants willing to move, relocate to make a profit
Merchants were from cities with a more cosmopolitan, shared culture
• Culture of Shared Ethnicity



Merchants from same ethnic communities had contacts with others
Always easier to trade with some familiar with local customs
Easier still to trade with someone from your same family, culture
The Rise of
the Swahili

The eastern coast of Africa
•
Changed profoundly around first millennium CE


•
From 900 CE onwards




•
East Africa saw influx of Shirazi Arabs from the Persian Gulf
Small settlements of Indians
The Arabs called this region al-Zanj "The Blacks"
Coastal areas came under control of Muslim merchants
By the 1300's



Bantu-speaking from interior
• Migrated, settled along the coast
• Became farmers of bananas, remained herders
Merchants and traders from the Muslim world, India
• Realized the strategic importance of the east coast of Africa
• Established commercial traffic, began to settle there
Major east African ports from Mombaza to Sofala
Had become thoroughly Islamic cities and cultural centers
Swahili Language
•
•
•
•
Grew out of a mix of Arabic and Bantu languages, means “coast”
Swahili is primarily a Bantu language with some Arabic elements
it is written in the Arabic alphabet
Today language is spreading amongst East Africa as official language
Swahili Trading
Diaspora

Major Swahili city-states
•
•
•
•
•
Kenya: Mombasa, Malindi, Pate
Somalia: Mogadishu
Tanzania: Zanzibar, Kilwa
Mozambique: Sofala
City-states were Muslim and cosmopolitan




•
The chief exports




All politically independent of one another
No Swahili empire or hegemony was formed
Each vied for the lion's share of African trade
Merchants moved about interior buying, selling
Ivory, sandalwood, ebony
Worked closely with Zimbabwe to sell gold, copper
Later included slaves, cloves
These cities were culturally cosmopolitan
•
Formed from a cultural mix of Bantu, Islamic, Indian influences


•
Commerce brought Chinese artifacts and Persian culture
Later Portuguese, English influence after 1500
Social Hierarchy



Cities were run by a nobility
• African in origin
• With admixture of Persian or Arab blood
Below the nobility
• Were commoners, resident foreigners
• Made up a large part of the citizenry
Like other Islamic African states, slavery was actively practiced
Hausa
People

Homeland
•
•
•

500 CE – 700 CE
•
•
•
•
•

Moved west from Nubia
Intermixing with local peoples
Established city-states in Northern, Eastern Nigeria
City-states existed as islands amongst other peoples
Emerged as the power after decline of Nok, Sokoto
Hausa have an ancient culture extending over a large area
•
•
•
•
•
•

Kano, Nigeria is center of Hausa trade and culture
Culturally linked to Fulani, Songhai, Mandé, Tuareg
A mix of Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan groups
Strong, old ties to the Arabs, Islamized peoples in West Africa
Ties extended through long distance trade
Merchants moved across region from city to city
Islam entered through trade but restricted to rulers, courts
Hausa aristocracy adopted Islam in 11th c. CE
Rural areas retained their animistic beliefs
The Fulani
•
•
Invaded the Hausa area in 1810
Often co-existed with the Hausa, interacted
The African Slave
Trades
?BCE to ?CE
Generalized Facts About
Slavery, Slave Trades

Slavery is as old as recorded human history
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

All societies have had slaves or a system similar to it
Most slaves were captured in war or sold for debts
Most slaves ended up as agricultural slaves
To a lesser degree slaves were domestic servants
To a lesser degree slaves were soldiers, artisans
The most deadly slavery was in the mines, in the galleys
In most society slaves were protected to a degree by laws
Motives
•
•
•
Labor Shortages would necessitate slavery
A supply would be needed
Profit would have to be great to cover expenses
African Slavery

In most African societies
•
•
Little difference between the free peasants and the feudal vassal peasants
Vassals of the Songhay Muslim Empire


•
In the Kanem Bornu Empire



Vassals were three classes beneath the nobles
Marriage between captor and captive was far from rare, blurring the anticipated roles.
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
•
•
•
•

Used primarily in agriculture, paid tribute in crops, service
Slavery was more an occupational caste as bondage was relative
During the 16th century, Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic
Slave traffic from Africa to the Americas was more profitable to slavers, trade shifted to coast
Dutch imported slaves from Asia into South Africa, Portugal and Spain imported slaves to Americas
End of slave trade, decline of slavery was imposed upon Africa by its European conquerors
The nature of the slave societies differed greatly across the continent
•
•
•
•
•
There were large plantations worked by slaves in Egypt, the Sudan and Zanzibar
This was not a typical use of slaves in Africa as a whole
In most African slave societies, slaves were protected and incorporated into the slave-owning family
In Senegambia between 1300 and 1900 close to one-third of the population was enslaved
In early Islamic states of the western Sudan


•
•
In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves
In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved


•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Including Ghana (750-1076), Mali (1235–1645), Segou (1712–1861), Songhai (1275-1591)
About a third of the population were slaves
Among the Duala of the Cameroon, Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger
The Kongo, the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola all practiced slavery, sold slaves to Portuguese
Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves
The population of the Kanem was about a third-slave
It was perhaps 40% in Bornu (1396–1893)
Between 1750 and 1900 from 1/3 to 2/3 of entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slave
Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in Nigeria, Cameroon: ½ population was slave in 19th century
It is estimated that up to 90% of the population of Arab-Swahili Zanzibar was enslaved.
Roughly half the population of Madagascar was enslaved
Foundations of the Slave Trades

Slavery common in most Mediterranean societies



Slavery common in traditional Africa








Typically war captives, criminals, outcasts
Most slaves worked as cultivators
Some used as administrators, soldiers
Were a measure of power, wealth
Assimilated into masters' kinship groups
Could earn freedom
Children of slaves were free
Islamic slave trade well established throughout Africa




Muslim World
• Quran permitted slavery
• Islamic world had created two slave routes out of Africa
Iberia
• Iberians never had serfdom because slaves were plentiful
• Iberians tended to enslave Muslims during their wars
• Iberians knew of Africans, African slaves: they had invaded Iberia
Slaves had been sold out of Africa long before Greeks and Romans
North African to S. W. Asia Route
Indian Ocean Route to S. W. Asia, Persian Gulf
Europeans used these existing networks


Redirected the slaves to the coast (Atlantic Route)
Expanded slave trade through increased demand, high prices
Trans-Saharan Slave Trade
Indian Ocean Slave Trade

The Arab slave trade lasted more than a millennium
•
•
Ibn Battuta states that he was given , purchased slaves
Arab slave trade originated with trans-Saharan slavery



•
The slave trade from East Africa to Arabia



•





European name for Berbers of North Africa
In the 8th century began raiding coastal areas
Became known as the Barbary pirates
Slave trade suppressed in the 19th century
Slaves included both African and Europeans
Cervantes was held as a slave, later ransomed
Male slaves



Dominated by Arab, African traders in coastal cities of East Africa
Swahili wealth also due in large part to slave trade
Iraq: black Zanj slaves constituted ½ total population
The Moors

•
Arabs, Indians, Asians involved in the capture, transport of slaves
Route was northward across the Sahara desert, Indian Ocean region
Into Arabia and the Middle East, Persia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent
Employed as servants, soldiers, or laborers
Female slaves traded as domestic servants
Historical estimates
•
•
•
•
•
11-17 million slaves taken
Between 650 to 1900 CE
British were strong abolitionists in region
Slave trade continued into early 1900s
Interpol evidence: it continues today
Slave Routes Out of Africa
Social Changes
in Africa c. 1500

•
Political Changes
Rise of hereditary monarchies in West Africa

•
New outside contacts entering



•
•
•

•
•
•

•
•
Rise of Warfare
European (Portuguese) influence along coast
Moroccan, North African influence pushing south
Radicalization of Islam
Rise of radical African Muslim Sahel states
Rulers, religious leaders called for purified Islam
Began to launch Jihad wars to purify belief
American food crops
Manioc, maize, peanuts, yams, melons
Introduced after the sixteenth century
Cultivation expanded, thrived
Population growth in sub-Sahara
From 35 million in 1500
To 60 million in 1800
Portugal and Africa Set a Pattern

Portuguese explore Africa
• Established factories, trading stations




Portugal not powerful enough to control trade
Diseases kept Europeans out of interior
Had to work cooperatively with local rulers
Mulattos penetrated interior for Portugal
• Exchanges




Portugal obtained ivory, pepper, skins, gold
Africans obtained manufactured goods
Portugal successful because goods desired
Many cultural ideas exchange, images in art
• C0-Dominion of Trade



Dominated shipment, demand out of Africa
On continent, African kings dominated trade of all types
How Portugal dealt with Africans
•
•
•
•
Missionary efforts, Catholicism spread; Ambassadors exchanged
Portugal begins to see Africans as savages, heathens, pagans
Began with Portuguese attitude towards African Muslims
Slavery introduced as Africans seen only as a commodity
 Slaves became a primary trade commodity, Portugal became greedy
 Many Africans limited, attempted to limit Portuguese influence
Human Cargos

Early slave trade on the Atlantic




American planters needed labor





Indians not suited to slavery, most had died out
Portuguese planters imported slaves to Brazil, 1530s
Slaves to Caribbean, Mexico, Peru, Central America, 1510 - 1520s
English colonists brought slaves to North America early 17TH century
Triangular trade





Started by Portuguese in 1441
1460 about five hundred slaves/year shipped to Portugal, Spain
15TH century slaves shipped to sugar plantations on Atlantic islands
All three legs of voyage profitable
In Africa, finished goods traded for slaves
In Americas, slaves traded for sugar, molasses
In Europe, American produce traded
At every stage slave trade was brutal



Individuals captured in violent raids
Forced marched to the coast for transport
Middle Passage and First Year
• Between 25-50 percent died on passage
• Another 25 percent died first year
Impact of the Slave Trade on Africa
Volume of the Atlantic slave trade





Increased dramatically after 1600
c. 1800 100,000 shipped per year
About 12 million brought to Americas
Another 12 million died en route
Volume of Muslim trade




•
•
•

•
Social Impact
Profound on African societies

Impact uneven: some societies spared, some profited

Some areas had no population growth, stagnation

For generations, many leaders, intellectuals missing
Distorted African sex ratios

Two-thirds of exported slaves were males

Polygamy encouraged, often common

Forced women to take on men's duties
Gender involved in trades

Atlantic Route: men and women

Trans-Saharan Route: men only

Indian Ocean Route: women and young boys (eunuchs)
Politically and economic disruption
Firearms traded for slaves led to war and state formation
Many states grew powerful as a slave-raiding state

Fostered conflict and violence between peoples
Failed to develop economics, industry, trade beyond slave trade
Beginning of a process which impoverished Africa until today

•
•
Ten million slaves shipped out of Africa
Islamic slave trade between 8th and 19th centuries
Mapping the Height of the
Atlantic Slave Trade
Statistics of the Atlantic Slave Trade
ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
CARRIERS
DESTINATIONS
PORTUGAL
4.7 million
BRAZIL
4.0 million
BRITISH NORTH
AMERICA INCLUDING
THE USA
2.9 million
SPANISH
EMPIRE
2.5 million
SPAIN
1.6 million
BRITISH WEST INDIES
2.0 million
FRANCE
1.3 million
FRENCH WEST INDIES
1.6 million
NETHERLANDS
0,9 million
BRITISH NORTH
AMERICA INCLUDING
USA
500,000
DUTCH WEST INDIES
500,000
DANISH WEST INDIES
28,000
EUROPE AND
ATLANTIC ISLANDS
200,000
SOURCE: “THE SLAVE TRADE” BY HUGH THOMAS
American Plantation Society

Cash crops




Introduced to fertile lands of Caribbean: early 15th c.
Important cash crops
• Caribbean Coast: Sugar, cocoa, coffee
• Southern States of US: Tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton
Plantations dependent on slave labor
Plantations racially divided




100 or more slaves with a few white supervisors
•
Whites on top of social pyramid
•
Free people of color
•
Creole blacks
 Born in Americas of mixed parentage
 House slaves
•
Saltwater slaves
 Directly from Africa
 Field slaves, mines
High death rates in Caribbean, Brazil
• Led to continued importation of slaves
• Led to an expansion of the slave trade to Africa
• Led to an internal slave trade in some states
Most slaves to Caribbean (Haiti) and Brazil
Only about 5 percent of slaves to North America
• Less than 1% to the US
• Slave families more common
African Traditions in the Americas
Africans brought their traditions, cultures with them

•
•
•
Often retained only their traditions
Most Africans in Americas came from same region in Africa
Hybrid traditions arose blending with Western traditions
African and Creole languages

•
•
Slaves from many tribes; lacked a common language
Developed creole languages


Blending several African languages
With the language of the slaveholder
Religions also combined different cultures

•
•
African Christianity was a distinctive syncretic practice
African rituals and beliefs




Ritual drumming, singing
Pentecostal like behaviors
Animal sacrifice, magic, and sorcery
Examples: Obeah, vodun, candomble
Other cultural traditions

•
•
Hybrid cuisine
Weaving, pottery
End of Slave Trade and
Abolition of Slavery

•
•
•
Resistance to slavery widespread, though dangerous
Slow work, sabotage, and escape
Slave revolts rare – brutally suppressed by owners
1793 Slave Rebellion in Saint-Domingue





•
•
•

•
•
New voices and ideas against slavery
Enlightenment began discussion
American, French revolutions: ideals of freedom and equality
Slave Journals and Narratives greatly influenced debate
Slavery became increasingly costly
Slave revolts made slavery expensive and dangerous
Decline of sugar price, rising costs of slaves


•

•
•
Paid labor was cheaper and often more reliable
Industry was more profitable; Africa became a market
End of the Atlantic slave trade
Most European states abolished slave trade in early 19th century
The abolition of slavery followed slowly




British abolished slavery, slave trade
British navy patrolled Africa and arrested, hung slave traders
Manufacturing industries rivaled slave industries


French Revolution abolished slavery
Black Jacobins stage revolution, end slavocracy
Resisted repeated French attempts to reconquer
Established the free state of Haiti
Many European states abolished slavery between 1790 and 1810
1833 in British colonies, 1848 in French colonies
1865 in the United States, 1888 in Brazil
Trans-Saharan, East African Slave trades existed until 1880s, 1900s
Abolition in Africa


Ethiopia
•
•
•
•
•
Anti-Slavery Society estimated there were 2 million slaves in the early 1930s
Out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million
Slavery continued in Ethiopia until the Italian invasion in October 1935
It was abolished by order of the Italian occupying forces
Western Allies of World War II pressured Ethiopia to abolish slavery and serfdom
•
In Nigeria
The British




•
In the Sudan, East Africa





Sokoto Caliphate and the surrounding areas in northern Nigeria
Annexed at the turn of the 20th century
Approximately 2 million to 2.5 million people there were slaves
Slavery in northern Nigeria was finally outlawed in 1936
British forced Egypt to abolish slavery in Sudan in 1870s
Abolition partially led to revolt of the Mahdi in 1880s
British forced Zanzibar to abolish slavery in 1890s
The French
•
•
•
French abolished Slavery in West Africa as the conquered Sahel Muslim states
Less willing to abolish East African slave trade as they used slaves
French Indian Ocean sugar plantations regularly used slave labor until 1910
•
"The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the
Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At
least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to
the nineteenth)." He continues: "Four million slaves exported via the Red Sea, another
four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine
million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending
on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean"
Elikia M’bokol, April 1998, Le Monde diplomatique
“Internal” Migration

The United States
• Civil War to World War I






Was a war over slavery: free vs. slave labor
Only real issue which divided US
Republicans were abolitionist minded
Southern senators, congressmen outnumbered
Emancipation Proclamation, 13-15th Amendments
Many ex-Slaves immigrated to west as cowboys, soldiers
• World War I and II


Migration from South
• White men in army; black labor, workers needed
• Sought better lives and did not want to return to South
Political rights were outgrowth of economic rights
• Change From 1890 to 2000



Brazil
90% lived in rural South
Current: Most form an urbanized ethnic group
• Most ex-slaves lived in the Northeast corner


Location of sugar production
Formed almost 90% of the population
• Changing Economic Structures



Coffee production, diamonds & gold mining, industrialization occurred
Afro-Brazilians moved southward, to cities to seek work
Caribbean Migration
•
•
•
•
Afro-Caribbean migration to Florida, New York, London
Economic factors push and pull immigration, families often followed
Political instability in Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic
Refugees result from Revolutions, harsh internal rule
Counter-Migration or Back to Africa

1787, 1821
• British established Sierra Leone



To be “home” for freed, emancipated slaves
74,000 slaves moved there
Many tried to move back to homelands
• American anti-slavery activists established Liberia



20,000 slaves moved there
Ex-slaves came to monopolize power, formed elite class
In US: Marcus Garvey, Black Panthers, etc.
• During 1920s sought to convince blacks to move to Africa
• Black Resistance to oppression in US

Truth: Africans have become part of new homelands
•
•
•
•
•
American blacks are seen as whites by Africans
Black culture in Americas is a creole cultural blend
Problem: accept blacks as equals in all ways in Americas
Blacks have to join economic power with political power
But blacks in many countries have to obtain political rights




Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama
Brazil
Cuba, Puerto Rico
Colombia, Venezuela, Peru
Manifest Destinies
Popular Movements To
Settle Interior Lands
Nguni & Mfecane

Nguni
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Mfecane
•
•
•
•
•

Bantu tribal language family in Southern Africa
Arrived 1600s in Cape area
Arrive in area same time as Dutch settled Capetown
Tribes: Zulu, Xhosa, Sotho, Swahzi, Nbelle, Shona
Many moved into area following decline of Zimbabwe
Corn introduced from Americas: rise of population
Scarce resources during 10 year drought: conflict
Zulu for the scattering or crushing
Rise of Zulu Empire c. 1780 – 1840
Created by Shaka Zulu, the use of modern iron swords
Zulu war machine forced Ngoni tribes to scatter
Let to rise of Zulu-like states throughout region
Mfecane meets Great Trek
•
•
•
•
British rule increasingly unacceptable to Dutch Farmer (Boer)
British oppose slavery which Boers support
Boer picked up entire communities and migrated to interior
The Great Trek of Boers collided up against Mfecane
Mapping the Mfecane
Settlement of the Frontier

Settler Colonies
• Supposedly virgin, unsettled land is taken and settled by farmers
• Native populations are pushed aside often violently
• The culture of the conqueror replaces all previous cultures

The Open Frontier
• Many states since 1500 CE settle lands on their exterior
• Often these lands were inhabited by less powerful peoples



These natives were inferior technologically
These natives were often subject to the diseases of the foreigners
These natives cultures were largely destroyed as their lifestyles ended
• Each of these settler cultures




Saw natives as “savages”
Saw their own culture as civilization
Saw their settlement of the land as bringing civilization to savages
Startling similarities between these cultures and process
•
•
•
•
•
•
Russian settlement of Siberia
The American and Canadian settlement of their western lands
The Brazilian and Argentinian settlement of their interior lands
The Australian settlement of the continent
The Boer Great Trek into the interior of South Africa
The Chinese settlement of their northern and western lands
The Boer Great Trek

Dutch in South Africa
• 17th century Dutch, French Huguenot settlers in Cape Province
• Society develops called Boer speaking Afrikaans, a dialect of Dutch
• Create a settler society based on ranching, slavery

British Acquire Cape Province
• Following Napoleonic Wars, British annex Cape Province
• British abolish slavery and English immigration increases

Great Trek
• Waves: semi-nomadic pastoralists and skilled artisans, merchants, farmers
• Reasons for migration







Felt their life style and traditions were threatened by the British
Disliked Anglicization policies in society and faith
Disagreed with British abolition of slavery
Felt British were unreceptive to attacks by Bantu Nguni tribes on borders
Sought good farm land which was in short supply in Cape Province
Boers had a large, expanding, young population
Results
• Establishment of three Boer Republics in interior
• These republics did not permit slavery but established racial segregation
• Conflicts between Boers and Bantu especially Zulu and Xhosa increase
Mapping
the
Great
Trek
th
19
th
20
and
Century
Migrations
Modern Mass
Movement
The Facts

Most common types
• Labor migration
• Refugee migration
• Urbanization

18th Century Immigration
• Accelerated over time period
• Largest examples were the African slave trades
• Colonization of territories common

19th Century Immigration
•
•
•
•
•

Caused by industrialization and opening of interior lands
Large demand for labor to replace slaves, work factories, plantations
Facilitated by modern developments in transportation
International Trade and Imperialism are influencing factors
Remade the Americas, Australia
20th Century Immigration
•
•
•
•
Cannot understand modern world without immigration
Economic and Social Globalization and modern immigration are linked
Economic disparities, decolonization, and war are critical
Intellectual migration has become quite common
19th c. Demographic Revolution

Causes
• Massive Population Surge beginning in West



Immediate Results Prior to Industrialization
• Massive insecurity
• Temporary migration
Growth of Cities and Urbanization due to Industrialization
By 1900 had begun to spread to Japan, Russia, Eastern Europe
• Rural economies replaced by urban industrial economies in West



Enclosure movements around the world
Food shortages such as Irish Potato Famine
Industrialization and Urbanization demanded all types of labor
• Need to replace slavery, serfdom in some areas of the world

New Circular Migration Patterns
•
•
•
•
•
Commercialization of agriculture produced new labor demands
Short term labor common, replaces year round farm labor
New Migrant Labor for farming, construction of infrastructure
Migration of women as laborers became common
Higher mobility of people including labor
th
19

c. The Atlantic World
Western and Eastern Europe
•


1800 – 1940: 50 million Europeans immigrated
 Southern Europeans: Italians, Greeks, Albanians
 Eastern Europeans: Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Hungarians, Russians, Jews
 Western/Northern Europe: Scandinavians, Irish
• West Europe saw urbanization, migration of labor from farms to industry
Africa
• Slave trade continued until early 20th century
 Atlantic Slave trade largely ended by 1820
 Illegal Slave Trade to Brazil continued until c. 1850
 Trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean Slave Trades continued until c. 1910
• Popular Migrations
 Boer Great Trek from Capetown to Interior to avoid British influence, control
 Mfecane in South Africa due to Zulu wars spreads Nguni to Southern Africa
 Migration of Somali into Ogden, East Africa due to drought
 Large colonial settlement of Europeans to Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, South Africa
 Muslim jihads on West African Sahel produce migrations of people across region
 Africans move to work gold, rubber, diamond, industrial concerns of Europeans
The Americas
• 19th Century
 Largest recipients were the USA, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay
 USA, Canada received large populations from Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia
• Settlement of the Frontier


Mexico, USA, Canada, Brazil, Argentina all settled their frontiers
All attempted to attract settlers and laborers with good salaries, grant of land
19th c. Asian Migration to Africa

South and Southeast Asia
•
•

Indians in East Africa
•
•

50 million Indians, Chinese, Malay, Filipinos migrated as contract laborers

Commercial labor settled in thriving cities, ports

Physical labor worked tea, rubber, rice, sugar, coffee plantations
Indians (Both Hindu and Muslims)

Went to African plantations as contract laborers, physical laborers

Many voluntarily moved to Africa to establish businesses to serve migrants

British used Indians as lower colonial administrators in their Asian empire
First arrived as coolie laborers in late 1800s to build the Ugandan Railway

Original 32,000 contracted laborers

Many stayed as shopkeepers, artisans, traders, clerks, low level administrators

Excluded from middle, senior ranks of the colonial government, from farming

Became commercial middleman, professional community including doctors, lawyers

Indian traders followed Arab trading routes inland on the coasts of East Africa

Indians had monopoly on Zanzibar's trade in 19th century
Between the building of the railways and the end of World War II

Number of Indians in East Africa swelled to 320,000

By 1940s: some colonial areas passed laws restricting the flow of immigrants

The Indians had firmly established control of commercial trade

80 to 90 percent in Kenya, Uganda plus sections of industrial development

In 1948, all but 12 of Uganda's 195 cotton ginneries were Indian run
Indians in South Africa
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The majority of the Asian South African population is Indian in origin
Most of them descended from indentured workers
Transported to work in 19th century on sugar plantations of Natal
They are largely English speaking
1.2 million Asians in South Africa represent 2% of South Africa’s population
Gandhi worked as lawyer in South Africa amongst immigrant workers
African National Congress modeled after Indian National Congress
Migration 1800 to 1914
Major
th
20
c. Migrations
Immigration and World Wars

World War I and After
• Refugees produced by warfare in record numbers
• Millions of colonial subjects migrated to fronts to support war


•
Peace Treaty produced immigration



•

Germans expelled from former territories
Turks expelled from Europe
Greeks expelled from Turkey
Armenian Genocide


100,000 Vietnamese; 100,000 Chinese, 100,000 Africans
Many worked in Europe, at war fronts as laborers
Millions of Armenians migrated from SW Asia to Americas
• Increased Jewish migration to Palestine reached 400,000 by 1948
The Soviet Union’s Migrations
• 3 million refugees (ethnic groups, elite) fled communist revolutions to west
• USSR resettled peoples whom they distrusted
World War II
•
•
Japanese invasion of China created up to 50 million internal immigrants
Nazis used forced settlement, internal migration



•
•
Prisoners of War and Refugees number in millions
End of War Expulsions and Resettlement


•
Millions of Germans settled in occupied Eastern lands
European Jews rounded up and shipped to Eastern Europe
Millions of Europeans used as slave labor in German factories
Allies expelled millennia old German populations from Eastern, Central Europe
Millions of Poles, Czechs, Ukrainians, Romanians resettled in former German lands
Soviets forcibly resettled 100,000+ Eastern Europeans into USSR
Decolonization: Atlantic

1922 – 1975
•
•
•
•
•

Effect of two world wars and fight for democracy, self-determination
Europe lost its colonies and most colonial populations repatriated home
Many highly educated elite of ethnic groups moved for opportunities
The bulk of immigrants were as laborers when labor was needed
Violence of the change of administration influenced others to migration
Americas
•
West Indies


•
Suriname



Underemployment drove men, women to UK for jobs
Most have stayed in United Kingdom and not returned home
Some 33% of the Surinamese have gone to Netherlands
A high rate have returned home
Africa
•
Portugal received greatest bulk of Africans migrating to Europe


•
East Africa


•
Originally qualified Africans for school and some unskilled laborers
After collapse of colonies, whites returned along with African elite, more laborers
Largely Hindu, Muslims, and Asian populations left
Many went to India and Pakistan but a considerable number to UK, Canada
North Africa


More than 1.5 million French colonists returned home en masse in 1950s and 1960s
Almost one million laborers and students have migrated to France and Spain
Mapping Migration since 1945
Current Immigration Routes
Labor Migration Since 1945

Causes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Developed world of rich nations attracted labor and brain power with higher pay
The bulk of immigrants were laborers when labor was needed
Many ethnic commercial minorities felt threatened and moved
Population in 3rd world high; birth rates in 1st world declined = labor shortage
1st world citizens increasingly abandoned agriculture = need for farm labor
Construction laborers needed in urbanizing world
The famous Brain Drain of the educated elite to the 1st World
Sources: Poor & Smart Migrate
• Net Recipients




United States, Canada, Western Europe
Persian Gulf States
Japan and Australia
South Africa
• Net Suppliers










Eastern and Southern Europeans to Northern and Western Europe
South Asian Muslims to the Persian Gulf States
North Africans, West Africans to West Europe especially Spain, France, Portugal, Italy and UK
Central Americans to the United States and Canada
The Caribbean to the United States and United Kingdom
Southeast Asians to France, the United States, and Australia
Turks to Germany and Austria
Irish to the United Kingdom and Continental Europe
Chinese to the United States and Canada
Southern African males to South African diamond, gold mines and industry
Migration:
th
20
c. Africa
Refugee/Asylum Migration Since 1945

Causes
•
•
•
•
•


Cold War Rivalry between Great Powers
Revolutions and Military Coups
Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing
War between Neighbors
Persecuted Religious Minorities
Total: 80 million by 1994
Sources
• Warfare of all types



•
Collapse of Communism

•
Forcible takeover of states by revolutionaries: Cuba, Algeria, Iran, Vietnam
Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide

•
Military regimes, violence against citizens: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa
Revolutions

•
Many ethnic minorities, talented individuals sought refugee in the West and United States
Authoritarian Violence

•
Ethnic minorities relocated in many nations by Allied Nations especially German populations
Korea, Vietnam, Berlin Crisis, Hungarian Crisis, Prague Spring all produced refugees
The Middle East, Afghanistan, Georgia, Chechnya, and Civil Wars in Congo (Zaire)
Bosnia, Rwanda, Sudan, Cambodia
Nationalism

Newly independent nations produced migrants of ethnic minorities threatened by change
Internal Refugees
Forced Immigration
Net Immigration 1995 - 2000
Descargar

Slide 1