Ch 5 PPT
Colonial Society on the Eve of
Revolution
Population Growth
• Huge population growth caused a shift in
the balance of power between the colonies
and England (mother country)
• Population: 1700 = 300,000, but by 1775
= 2.5 million
• Average age in 1775 = 16
• 1700: England outnumbered the colonies
20:1, by 1775 only by 3:1.
• Only 4 major cities: Philadelphia, New
York, Boston, and Charleston
Philadelphia (largest in the
1750’s)
Boston
Urban Population Growth
1650 - 1775
Ethnic Groups
Other Races
• Write down 2 other races (Pg. 85) and where they
settled.
• New societies created out of diverse ethnic groups:
English, Africans, Scots-Irish, Germans, French.
• Scots-Irish didn’t like British government.
• 12 future Presidents were Scots-Irish (Andrew
Jackson).
• Out of 56 signers of Declaration of Independence 18 = non-English and 8 weren’t born in the
colonies.
• Which non-English group was the largest?
Ethnic & Racial Composition of
American People: 1790
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British
African
German
Scottish
Scots Irish
Dutch
Irish
French
Swedes, Jews, Swiss
49%
19%
7%
7%
5%
3%
3%
.4%
.3%
Scots-Irish
• Not really Irish, but Scottish Lowlanders
• Were Presbyterians (hated by Catholics)
• Early 1700’s – tens of thousands came to
America.
• Most went to Pennsylvania - settled in
frontier areas.
• Also spread to the back country of
Maryland and parts of Virginia and
Carolinas
Government Attempts to Control Trade
• Pg 92: What 2 products the colonies
produced and where?
• Navigation Acts in 1651: passed to
guarantee England alone would profit from
trade with colonies
• English government tried to inhibit the
colonial trade to French West Indies by
passing the Molasses Act of 1733
• Colonists ignored it and smuggled
(triangular trade)
Molasses Act 1733
• British law imposed tax on molasses,
sugar, and rum imported from non-British
foreign colonies (French West Indies) into
North American colonies.
• Aimed at creating a monopoly of the
American sugar market
• Smuggling
• Sugar Act passed in 1764
Colonial Trade (Pg 93)
• Triangular Trade: Rum traded to Gold
Coast of Africa in exchange for African
slaves. Slaves traded to the West Indies
for Molasses. Molasses taken back to
New England and made into rum. (rum
taken to Coast of Africa, etc.)
• Other items traded: food, forest products
(timber/lumber), tobacco, indigo, furs,
meat, and grains.
Mercantilism
• AKA: English Trade System
• Goal - Mother country wants to:
• Be self-sufficient
• Expand trade to increase gold reserves to
become rich
• To limit foreign imports and to encourage a
favorable balance of trade
• A policy in which colonies existed for the
benefit of the mother country, exchanging
raw materials for manufactured goods
Mercantilism – How did it work?
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Export raw materials from America
Make finished product in England
Make colonists buy products only from England
Export more products from England than England
imports
• Enumerated goods: Goods that England needed, but
didn’t have the natural resources to produce
• Had to get enumerated goods from colonies: Sugar,
Tobacco, cotton, indigo, rice.
Too Many Products
• Colonies produced too many products for
England so they started selling to other
countries
• English government “turned a blind eye” to
colonies trading outside of England.
• Salutary neglect = Did not enforce
Navigation Acts
But after French & Indian War
• French and Indian War is also known as:
.
• Changed economic policy….
• From Salutary Neglect to strict
enforcement of Navigation Acts of 1660
and 1663
– All products must be sold through England, no
direct sales to other countries
Getting Around
• 1700’s: roads built to connect major cities
• Roads poor (dirt roads) - transportation was
slow
• First “Holiday Inns” were called taverns: sprang
up along the main travel routes.
• Taverns = places where information was
exchanged, rumors were spread, public opinions
were discussed, agitation for revolution was
stirred, and all classes were accepted.
• Also for amusement – pool tables, bowling,
gambling
• Pg 95: What sect of protestants had the
greatest # of followers in 1775 and where
were they located?
• Which colonies were mostly Anglican?
• Which colonies had no tax supported
churches in 1775?
Denominations in 1775
• Congregational Church – Congregationalists
(Puritans)
• Anglicans - Church of England
• Presbyterians (Scots Irish)
• German churches (Lutherans)
• Dutch Reformed
• Quakers (Society of Friends)
First Great Awakening: 1730s & 1740s
• Religious revivals in the English colonies spreading
evangelistic fervor. Challenged the control of
traditional clerics over their congregations.
• Pastor Jonathan Edwards: salvation isn’t given by
doing good, but by the grace of God. Famous
sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.”
• Parson George Whitefield: Gifted preacher - roused
the emotions of the audience.
• “Old Light” preachers: opposed the emotionalism of
the revivalists
• “New Light” preachers: New type of ministers upset
the Orthodox clergy. Had intensely emotional
sermons in order to revitalize American religion.
First Great Awakening Cont.
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Challenged patterns of traditional religion
Individual can choose their religion
1st genuine united movement in the colonies
Helped nurture seeds of independence as people
felt united by a common history and shared
experiences.
Results of Great Awakening
• Undermined prestige of the learned clergy in the
colonies
• Congregationalists and Presbyterians split:
many believers became Baptists and to other
sects who were more accepting of emotion in
religion.
• Led to founding of Princeton, Brown, Dartmouth,
and Rutgers colleges – “new light” centers.
• Encouraged a wave of missionary work among
Native Americans and Black slaves.
Schools and Colleges
• Education: mainly for boys - most zealously
promoted in New England colonies
• New England - Education for religious reasons:
Reading the Bible, doctrine, and preparing men
for ministry
• Classical languages: Latin and Greek
• Middle Colonies had some tax-supported
schools
Today’s Ivy League Schools
• 1636 Harvard: Cambridge, Mass.
Congregational
• 1693 College of William and Mary: VA –
Anglican
• 1701 Yale: Connecticut - Congregational
• 1746 Princeton: NJ – Presbyterian
• 1751 University of Pennsylvania: PA –
nonsectarian
• 1754 Columbia: NY – Anglican
• 1764 Brown: RI – Baptist
• 1766 Rutgers: NJ – Dutch Reformed
• 1769 Dartmouth: NH – Congregational
Deism
• Lord Edward Herbert: founder of Deism
• God set universe in motion and left it to natural law
without intervening again
• Deists believed in God, but rejected organized
religion
• Most famous Deist was Benjamin Franklin
• Morality could be achieved by following reason
rather than the teachings of the church
Ben Franklin:
“First Civilized American”
1754 Political Cartoon
Franklin’s Political Cartoon
Impacted History
• Urged colonies to join
together to support the
Albany Plan of Union
during French and Indian
War
• Cartoon showed disunity
of the colonies
• 1754: published in
Pennsylvania Gazette
• Later used as a symbol
of colonial freedom
during the Revolution
Ben Franklin – “First Civilized
American”
Ben Franklin–“First Civilized American”
• Apprenticed as a printer
• Lived in Philadelphia (London-2 years)
• Started University of Pennsylvania: first
American college not controlled by a
denomination
• Established first privately supported lending
library in Philadelphia
• Improved the post office - became first
Postmaster General
• Organized 1st fire department
• Reformed the police department
Ben Franklin – Inventor/Scientist
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Invented bifocals
Created the Franklin Stove
Built the first electric battery
Invented the Glass Harmonica
Discovered electricity
Lightning rod
Founding Father and “First Civilized
American”
• Signed the Declaration of Independence,
1783 Treaty of Paris, U.S. Constitution
• Published Pennsylvania Gazette
• Wrote “The Autobiography of Ben
Franklin” and “Poor Richard’s Almanac”:
has many pithy sayings - “Honesty is the
best policy”
Pioneer Presses
• John Peter Zenger – newspaper printer
• Jail for 9 months for printing article that was
critical of Royal Governor of New York.
• Charged with seditious libel.
• Zenger argued he had printed the truth. Jury
found him innocent.
• Important case for freedom of press and helped
established the doctrine that true statements
about public officials couldn’t be prosecuted as
libel.
• Encouraged editors to be more critical of public
officials.
Politics of 1775
• 8 colonies: had royal governors appointed by king.
Two-house legislator: Upper house appointed by
the crown in the royal colonies
• 3 colonies: proprietary – proprietors chose the
governors (MD, PA, DE) Two-house legislature:
voted for in the proprietary colonies
• 2 charter colonies - elected their own governors (CT,
RI)
• Lower house: elected by property owners.
• Had religious or property qualifications in order to vote
• Taxes: voted on for the necessary expenses of
colonial governments.
• 1775: Colonies not yet a true democracy
The Structure of Colonial Society
• Gentry Class
– South = Plantation Owners: wealthy, educated
– North = Lawyers (had a lot of power), Officials, Clergymen
(most honored profession), Merchants
• Middle Class
– Yeomen Farmers: small, family owned farms
– Physicians (least honored and not highly trained)
– Tradesmen/Artisan: blacksmith, tinsmith, printer
– Merchants: shop owner
• Poor Class
– Indentured servants, free laborers, lesser tradesmen, poor
farmers
• Slaves
Social Structure
Gentry Class
Middle Class
Poor Class
Slaves
Charles Town (Charleston) -Largest City in the South
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Chapter 5