Immigration in American history – a new perspective Opening Centrality of immigration in American history Changing paradigms Changing immigration patterns Immigration and citizenship policies sources Immigration and citizenship policies and other events 1 • 1607 -- Founding of Jamestown, Virginia by English colonists. • 1620 -- Voyage of the Mayflower, carrying Pilgrims to the New World. • 1790 – First naturalization act: only free white men could be naturalized. Immigration and citizenship policies and other events 2 • • • • • • • 1846-47 -- Irish potato famine, causing large-scale Irish emigration. 1848 -- Gold discovery in California, starting the Gold Rush. Chinese immigrants (first Asians) were also about to arrive. Revolution in Germany, sending many immigrants to the United States. 1854 – People vs Hall, a California Supreme Court case, which rules that no Chinese could give testimony against white people in the court of law. 1868 – The 14th Amendment – – • • • Impact; Limitations: Chinese 1868 – The Burlingame Treaty between the United State and China 1875 -- The Page Act, restricting the entry of Chinese women. 1880 – Anti-miscegenation laws in California: – prohibiting marriage between a white person and "a Negro, mulatto, or Mongolian.“ • • • • • • • • • • • • (Colonial origin: Maryland in 1661); in many states, the law stayed in the books until recently; racism – nazism. 1882 -- The first Chinese exclusion act, terminating Chinese labor immigration for ten years (extended afterwards), and declaring Chinese immigrants ineligible for citizenship. 1886 -- Statue of Liberty dedicated, and at the same time the efforts to restrict immigration increased. 1892 -- Replacing Castle Garden, Ellis Island (photographs) opened and remained as immigration reception center until 1954. During those years, it received about 12 million immigration from Europe. 1898 -- Wong Kim Ark v. United States. The U.S. Supreme Court declared that anyone born in the United States was an American citizen, and should not be denied the rights thereof. The case extended (and confirmed) the right established in the 14th amendment (1868) to the Chinese. Immigration and citizenship policies and other events 3 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1907-08 -- The Gentlemen’s Agreement between the United States and Japan, ending Japanese labor immigration. But certain people, such as wives and children of those already in America could continue to arrive. 1910 -- January 21, The detention center on Angel Island (another AI site) (video) was put in use--until November 4, 1940. 1913 -- Alien land act passed in California. 1917 -- Literacy test established as a way to restrict general immigration, especially immigration from southern and eastern Europe. Creation of a “Barred Zone” in order to exclude Asian immigrants. 1922 -- The Cable Act, making it difficult for female U.S. citizens to marry non-citizen Asian immigrant men. Those who did would lose their citizenship. 1922 -- Takao Ozawa v. United States. The Supreme Court turned down the Japanese-born immigrant’s application for naturalization. 1923 -- United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind. The Supreme Court decided that although Thind was an Aryan (white), he could not be naturalized. – • • • • • • • • • How was race defined? 1923 -- Numerous U.S. Supreme Court cases upholding the Alien Land Acts in California and elsewhere. 1924 -- The Johnson-Reed Act (known also as the National Origins Act, and the Japanese Exclusion Act). The racist quota system established, favoring western and northern European countries. Exclusion of all those who were ineligible for citizenship. 1934 -- The Tydings-McDuffie Act, ending Filipino immigration. 1942 -- Incarceration of Japanese Americans. 1943 -- Repeal of the Chinese exclusion acts. Chinese gained the right to naturalization and an annual quota of 105. Immigration and citizenship policies and other events 4 • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1946 -- The War Bride Act, admitting foreign-born wives of U.S. service men. 1948 -- The Displaced Persons Act (modified two years later), intended to allow 400,000 Europeans to enter the U.S as refugees in four years. 1952 -- McCarran-Walter Act, preserving the quota system by creating the Asia-Pacific Triangle; allowing Asian immigrants to be naturalized. 1960 -- Cuban refugees were paroled into the United States after the revolution led by Castro in 1959. 1965 -- The Immigration Reform Act, abolishing the quota system, setting a ceiling for both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. 1975 -- The fall of Saigon and the beginning of Vietnamese and other southeastern 1790 naturalization act • Act of March 26, 1790 (1 Stat 103-104) (Excerpts) That any alien, being a free white person, who shall have resided within the limits and under the jurisdiction of the United States for the term of two years, may be admitted to become a citizen thereof, on application to any common law court of record, in any one of the States wherein he shall have resided for the term of one year at least, and making proof to the satisfaction of such court, that he is a person of good character, and taking the oath or affirmation prescribed by law, to support the Constitution of the United States, which oath or affirmation such court shall administer; and the clerk of such court shall record such application, and the proceedings thereon; and thereupon such person shall be considered as a citizen of the United States. And the children of such persons so naturalized, dwelling within the United States, being under the age of twenty-one years at the time of such naturalization, shall also be considered as citizens of the United States. And the children of citizens of the United States, that may be born beyond sea, or out of the limits of the United States, shall be considered as natural born citizens: Provided, that the right of citizenship shall not descend to persons whose fathers have never been resident in the United States: . . . Foreign languages in the US 1990 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Population 5 years and older Only English non-English Total percent of non-English French (and Creoles) Spanish (and Creole) German Chinese Italian Tagalog Polish Korean Indo European Indic Vietnamese Portuguese (and Creole) Japanese Greek Arabic Native American Other Slavic Russian Germanic Yididish Scandinavian South Slavic Hungarian Unspecified 230,445,777 198,600,798 31,844,979 13.8 1,930,404 17,345,064 1,547,987 1,319,462 1,308,648 843,251 723,483 626,478 578,076 555,126 507,069 430,610 427,657 388,260 355,150 331,758 270,863 241,798 232,461 213,064 198,904 170,449 147,902 1,023,614 Language 2005 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Total population 5 years old and over 268,110,961 Speak only English 216,176,111 Spanish or Spanish Creole 32,184,293 Chinese 2,300,467 French (including Patois, Cajun) 1,383,432 French Creole 548,986 Tagalog 1,376,632 Vietnamese 1,142,328 German 1,120,256 Korean 983,954 Russian 812,404 Italian 802,436 Arabic 686,986 Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 661,990 Polish 607,585 African languages 581,947 Hindi 462,371 Japanese 457,836 Persian 325,892 Greek 323,770 Urdu 303,423 Serbo-Croatian 270,800 Other Native North American languages 207,430 Armenian 202,550 Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 189,053 Hmong 173,696 Navajo 173,100 Laotian 152,304 Thai 129,943 Hebrew 189,798 Yiddish 137,147 Hungarian 99,201 Sources • • North American Immigrant Letters, Diaries and Oral Histories : http://solomon.imld.alexanderstreet.com/ • • Articles on immigration from the Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/immigrat/immigrat.htm • • Center for immigration studies: http://www.cis.org/ • • Search Immigration & Emigration Records: http://www.ancestry.com/search/rectype/default.aspx?rt=40 • • • • • • Angel Island: http://www.angelisland.org/; http://www.aiisf.org/; http://www.angelisland.org/immigr02.html Angel Island Poetry: http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/angel/angel.htm Video: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://rpp.english.ucsb.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2006/08/angel_island_1_lg.jpg&imgrefurl=http://rpp.english.ucsb.edu/classroom/ucsb-courses/english-104a/angel-islandpoems&h=800&w=1000&sz=210&hl=en&start=1&um=1&usg=__D9 • Ellis Island: http://www.nps.gov/elis/index.htm; http://www.ellisisland.org/genealogy/ellis_island.asp • • Mayflower Descendants: http://www.ctmayflower.org/ • • 1790 Naturalization Act: http://www.indiana.edu/~kdhist/H105-documents-web/week08/naturalization1790.html • • Chinese exclusion act: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/chinex.htm • • Irish potato famine http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/famine/index.html • • Virtue gold country tour: http://www.malakoff.com/vcgc.htm • • We the people: Asians in the United States: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf • • 110 MOST INSPIRING ASIAN AMERICANS OF ALL TIME: http://www.goldsea.com/Personalities/Inspiring/inspiring.html Opening • the future of the historical profession is in the hands of high school history teachers. Centrality of immigration in US history • "Once I thought to write a history of the immigrants in America. Then I discovered that the immigrants were American history“ --Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted: The Epic Story of Great Migrations that Made the American People (1951.) • A Nation of Immigrants by JFK (1964) Centrality of immigration in American history • Two quotes • Studying immigration helps us better understand topics specified in California Content Standards, such as industrialization, urbanization, food, ethnicity, food, etc. • It also helps us comprehend fundamental changes in American society. • It helps us better understand political, socioeconomic and cultural changes in America: – The immigrants are changed by the New World; and they have also changed America. • The immigrants are changed by the New World; and they have also changed America. • It reveals the global connections in American life. • We are at a historic moment Fundamental changes in society • Of particular importance is the change in the character and nature of American society. • Who are included and excluded? Who should have the essential rights as an American? • the class, gender, and especially dimensions of these questions. • The meaning of American-ness has changed profoundly historically, as we will see. For a long time, Asians were regarded as nonAmerican. Changing paradigms in the study of immigration history • Every generation writes its own history. • Assimilation theory – the most powerful and most influential model for understanding immigrant life. • Third-generation theory • From The Uprooted to The Transplanted (By John Bodnar, 1985). • Another important for the revision of history: the demand by the descendants of newer immigrants. Assimilation theory • Robert Park (1864-1944); • Chicago School of Sociology • assimilation is inevitable and it has four progressive and irreversible stages: contact, competition, accommodation, and assimilation. • Influenced Chinese American scholars: Paul Siu; Rose Hum Lee misassumptions of the assimilation theory • There is a fixed, never-changing norm of being American. • It is based on European immigrant experiences in the early 20 century. • It focuses on the American setting. • It believed that assimilation brings upward social mobility, assuming that everyone starts from the bottom. • A tool used to judged the immigrants: the good one assimilated and the bad ones do not. • It is the ultimate goal of the immigrants, and it is inevitable. • The immigrants were seen as a problem – socioeconomically and culturally. Third generation theory • Marcus L. Hansen (1892-1938): • The first generation: the society regards them as a problem; looked down upon them; survival. • The second generation: pressure to assimilate at school: constantly criticized and mocked; • tension in the family; • Eager to forget: 100% Americanized. • ( “Nothing is more Yankee that a Yankeeized person of foreign descent.”) • The third generation: more confident and eager to re-remember. “that which the son wishes to forget the grandson wishes to remember.” comparison • The Uprooted: • The Transplanted: • Discontinuity from homeland and traditions • Continued connections with the Old World – family ties and cultural traditions, etc. • Forced escape from hardships at home. • Exclusively focused on European immigrants • Part of capitalism development locally and globally. As a calculated response by families and individuals in response to such developments. • Broader coverage of different immigrant groups, especially the new immigrants. Some coverage of Asian immigrants. Changing immigration patterns • Shifting waves of immigration • The saga continues • The number of Asian Americans • The Asian American experience challenges old assumptions Shifting waves of immigration • During the 17th and 18th centuries, most immigrants came from Western and Northern Europe. • In the mid-19th century, large numbers of Irish immigrants arrived. So did Chinese immigrants – the first large wave of immigrants from Asia. But it was soon banned. • Beginning from the late 19th century, Southern and Eastern Europe became the primary source of immigrants. Earlier Immigration Waves • During “The century of immigration” (1820 to 1924), nearly 36,000,000 immigrants came to the U.S. • Peak decade: 1900-1910, 8,800,000 arrived • 1910 one of every seven was born outside the United States • During the 18th & 19th centuries, 20% of the businessmen, 20% of the scholars/scientists & 46% of the musicians were first generation immigrants. New immigration patterns • The post-1965 period belongs to the third world: • 1981 - 1990, over 7,338,000 immigrated to U.S., only 9.6% of them were European. 38% of them are Asians. Changing immigration patterns (post-1965) Europe/Asia Comparison immigration 10,000,000 8,000,000 All countries 6,000,000 Europe 4,000,000 Asia 2,000,000 0 1961-1970 1971-1980 1981-1990 decades 1991-2000 Immigration numbers 1831-2005 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 d e ca d e s 00 to 20 80 19 91 to 19 60 19 71 to 19 40 19 51 to 19 20 19 31 to 19 00 19 11 to 19 80 91 18 71 to 18 60 18 18 18 51 to 18 40 S eries 1 to 31 18 i m m i g ra n ts Im m ig ra tio n d a ta to 2 0 0 5 1 of every 8 people is an immigrant • • • • one in eight U.S. residents is an immigrants today. In 1970 it was one in 21; in 1980 it was one in 16; in 1990 it was one in 13. Since 2000, 10.3 million immigrants have arrived — the highest seven-year period of immigration in U.S. history. More than half of post-2000 arrivals (5.6 million) are estimated to be illegal aliens. • The largest increases in immigrants were in California, Florida, Texas, New Jersey, Illinois, Arizona, Virginia, Maryland, Washington, Georgia, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. Chinese and other Asians The Asian American experience challenges old assumptions • 1. “The immigrant children will assimilate and be accepted automatically into American society.” For a long time, Asian Americans were viewed outsiders. Unlike other groups, who became “white” over time, American-born Asians continued to face discrimination. [Here, I should discuss the notion of whiteness.] • 2. “Everyone starts at the bottom.” A significant number of Asian immigrants came with middle class resources – money or education. In terms of their income and material wealth, they can join the middle class in a short period of time. Many Asians came to America by way of higher education – they came as students, mostly graduate students. An overwhelming majority of them study in the technical fields – mathematics, engineering, sciences, and business. The hi-tech revolution that started to transform the American economy in the late 1990s, provided additional opportunities for such Asian Americans. • • • 3. “Race relations in the U.S. are simply between blacks and whites.” The growing presence of Asians and Latinos helps us understand the complex nature of the issue of race in America. There have been Chinese in the south since the late 19th century. Back in the early 20th century, they were sometime classified as white and sometimes as black. • 4. “The immigrant experience is to be understood only in the context of American society.” The Asian American experience has been characterized by transnationalism. Like many other before them, they continue to maintain strong ties to their ancestral lands, facilitating socioeconomic and cultural interactions between the United States and these lands. • 5. “Immigrants are passive recipients of American influence.” They are also changing American culture : food language, etc.