Coming through the Golden Door: Immigrants & American Life, 1860-1900 The New Colossus By Emma Lazarus, 1883 Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!“ Key Questions Who were they? How were they integrated into American society? How Many? 1800-1870: 10 million Northern and Western Europe 1870-1920: 26 million Eastern and Southern Europe ~ 20 million stayed Foreign-born less than 15% Old Immigrants Arrived before 1880 Came from Northern and Western Europe Were mainly Protestant Christians Were culturally similar to original American settlers Settled both in cities and in rural areas New Immigrants Arrived 1880 to 1910 Came from Southern and Eastern Europe Were mainly Catholics, Jews, or Orthodox Christians Were often culturally different from the original American settlers Generally settled in cities From Where? “Old” vs. “new” immigrants Pre-Civil War: Ireland 1872-1896: Germany England, Scotland Scandinavia German immigrant family, 19th c. From Where? “New” immigrants 1880+ Austro-Hungary “Poland” Jews Greece (after 1900) Italy(esp. after 1900) Invented by Hoboken’s Italo Marchiony, emigrated 1895 From Where? China Canada: 2 million+ (1870-1920) Mexico, Caribbean (esp. 1890+) Bloomington IL immigrant, 1890s Why did They Come? “Push” & “pull” factors Home countries: declining opportunity Rose Schneiderman Polish immigrant, 1890 America: available land, jobs What Assists? Triumph of steam technologies Who were They? 80% aged 14-44 Overall, mostly male Irish/Swedes: more balanced ratio Jews: Family migration Italian Ellis island arrivals Gaining Entry Castle Garden at Ellis Island, 1892 12 million Angel Island, 1910 Registration & inspections at all entries Ellis Island Health Inspection Inside Ellis Island In the hospital wing Where did they settle? Rural: Czechs Urban: Irish Target industries Earlier migrants Beret Olesdater Hagebak, Wisconsin, 1896 China town, Little Italy Nativist Sentiments 1830s: Anti-Catholic/Irish 1850s: Know Nothing Party Focus on background Anxiety over magnitude “The Usual Irish Way of Doing Things,” Thomas Nast, 1871 Anti-Immigrant Laws 1875: Page Law: keep out “undesirables” 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act European restrictions in 1920s Historians’ Views What was the immigrant experience? Uprooted? Transplanted? Lewis Hines, Italian family leaving Ellis Island, 1905 Historians’ Views Did immigrants co-exist or assimilate? Is America a melting pot or a pluralistic society? Americanization 1905 “Melting Pot”? “Understand that America is God's Crucible, the great Melting-Pot where all the races of Europe are melting and reforming! Here you stand, good folk, think I, when I see them at Ellis Island, here you stand in your fifty groups, your fifty languages, and histories, and your fifty blood hatreds and rivalries. But you won't be long like that, brothers, for these are the fires of God you've come to – these are fires of God. A fig for your feuds and vendettas! Germans and Frenchmen, Irishmen and Englishmen, Jews and Russians—into the Crucible with you all! God is making the American.” Zangwill, The Melting Pot, 1908 Historians’ Views How does the history of immigration intertwine with the development of American national identity? Issues of race Issues of citizenship 1876 Harper’s Weekly cartoon ► th 19 C. Immigration No single immigrant experience No one model of national integration Same issues for immigration today Questions?