The ‘widening and deepening’ of the
European Union, 1951-2007
The University of Leicester / The Belmont House Hotel, Leicester
LL.M. in European Union Law – Induction Weekend
6:30pm to 7:30pm, Friday, 12 October 2007
aims of this presentation
 to examine some of the fundamental processes involved in the
history of European integration across the second half of the 20th
century, especially in terms of the EU’s ‘widening and deepening’
 ‘widening’ essentially means increasing the EU’s membership through the
process of enlargement – i.e. accepting the entry of new Member States
 ‘deepening’ basically means developing and strengthening the EU’s
competences and policies – e.g. through the signing of new treaties
 to argue that this process is both dynamic and ongoing, and that
the United Kingdom – with its European partners – has more to
gain than to lose from a development which, despite some
serious setbacks, looks set to continue across the 21st century
the European Union
the EU27
compared, contrasted
and contextualised
source: “The European Union”, Europe in the UK, http://www.europe.org.uk/maps/ [27 April 2007]
some theoretical approaches





federalism
neofunctionalism
intergovernmentalism
system governance
network governance





neo-institutionalism
social constructivism
integration through law
discursive approaches
gender perspectives
Antje Wiener & Thomas Diez (eds.), European integration theory
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), p.240
liberal intergovernmentalism 
Andrew Moravcsik, The choice for Europe: social purpose and state power
from Messina to Maastricht (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998)
what is ‘Europeanization’?
“the reorientation and reshaping of aspects of politics
and governance in the domestic arena in ways that
reflect the policies, practices and preferences of
European level actors”
for further information, see Ian Bache & Andrew Jordan (eds.), The
Europeanization of British Politics (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006)
what do we mean by ‘Europe’?
who is included? who is excluded?
http://www.yo
utube.com/wa
tch?v=8OHJE
m2IwLw
Timothy Garton Ash, “Montenegro is back on the map, and it need not become Ruritania”, Guardian,
1 June 2006, http://www.guardian.co.uk/Columnists/Column/0,,1787175,00.html [15 August 2006]
the EU’s languages … if everyone’s speaking, who’s listening?
Irish:
Gaeilge
English
Eorpaigh aontaithe san éagsúlacht
Europeans united in diversity
Cuimsíonn an tAontas Eorpach (AE) grúpa de thíortha Eorpacha daonlathacha atá ag obair as lámha a chéile i dtreo na síochána agus
an rathúnais.
Ní Stát
é a bheartaítear
a chur
in ionad naEuropean
stát atá ann
faoi láthair
ach tá níos
mó i gceist
leis for
ná díreach
eagraíocht
The European
Union
(EU) is a family
of democratic
countries,
committed
to working
together
peace and
prosperity. It is
idirnáisiúnta
eile.
Go deimhin
níl a mhacasamhail
fáil.it is
Támore
comhinstitiúidí
curtha ar
bun ag a chuid
Ballstát aThe
ndéanann
dá Its
not a State
intended
to replace
existing states,lebut
than just another
international
organisation.
EU is, insiad
fact,cuid
unique.
gceannasacht
a tharmligean
chucu
. Sa chaoi
sin is féidir
cinntí
maidir
le hábhair
a bhfuil comhleas
acu iontuona dhéanamh
Member States
have set up
common
institutions
to which
they
delegate
someshonracha
of their sovereignty
so that decisions
specific matters
go daonlathach
ag can
leibhéal
Eorpach.
of joint interest
be made
democratically at European level.
Cuimsíonn
mór-roinn
na
hEorpa
go leor
traidisiún
éagsúil
go leor teangacha
éagsúla,
ag an
amEU
céanna
tá luachanna
Europe is a continent with many
different
traditions
andagus
languages,
but also with
shared ach
values.
The
defends
these values. It
comhpháirtíochta
i
gceist
léi
chomh
maith.
Cosnaíonn
an
tAE
na
luachanna
seo.
Cothaíonn
sé
comhoibriú
idir
muintir
na hEorpa,
fosters co-operation among the peoples of Europe, promoting unity while preserving diversity and ensuring that decisions
are taken as
cuireann
sé
aontacht
chun
cinn
agus
lena
linn
sin
déanann
sé
éagsúlacht
a
chothabháil
agus
cinntíonn
sé
go
nglactar
cinntí ar leibhéal
close as possible to the citizens.
chomh gar do na saoránaigh agus is féidir.
In an
the21ú
increasingly
world of the
it will sé
be níos
eventábhachtaí
more necessary
every European
citizen
to co-operate
I saol
haois, inainterdependent
bhfuil an t-idirspleáchas
ag21st
dul icentury,
dtreis, beidh
fós go for
gcomhoibreoidh
gach
saoránach
with
people
from
other
countries
in
a
spirit
of
curiosity,
tolerance
and
solidarity.
Eorpach le daoine ó thíortha eile de mheon fiosrachta, caoinfhulaingthe agus dlúthpháirtíochta.
source: “Languages in the EU – English”, European Commission, http://europa.eu/abc/european_countries/languages/irish/index_en.htm?_en [30 September 2007]
source: “Languages in the EU – Irish: Gaeilge”, European Commission, http://europa.eu/abc/european_countries/languages/irish/index_en.htm?_ga [30 September 2007]
Pieter Bruegel’s “The Tower of Babel”, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
source: Encyclopaedia Britannica,
http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=6160&rendTypeId=4 [1 October 2007]
it appears to have all the trappings … yet is the EU a state?
http://europa.eu/a
bc/symbols/anthe
m/index_en.htm
year
anthem
the symbols of the EU
motto
http://europa.eu/abc/symbols/index_en.htm
currency
constitution
day
flag
does the EU have a government ... or a system of governance?
civil service /
executive
Commission http://europa.eu.int/comm/
executive /
legislature
Council http://ue.eu.int
legislature
judiciary
Parliament http://www.europarl.eu.int/
Court http://curia.eu.int/
‘widening’ – basic enlargement history
1951 ‘Six’
1973
1981
1986
1990
1995
2004
2007
Belgium, France, West Germany (FRG),
Luxembourg, Italy, and the Netherlands
‘Nine’
plus Norway? Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom northern
‘Ten’
Greece
minus Greenland!
‘Twelve’
Portugal, and Spain southern
East Germany (GDR) forgotten
‘Fifteen’ plus Norway? Austria, Finland, and Sweden EFTAN
‘Twenty-five’
Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia,
Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland,
CEEC
Slovenia, and the Slovak Republic
(incl. Club Med)
‘Twenty-seven’
Bulgaria and Romania south-eastern
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treaty basis for enlargement
Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe
Article I-58
1.
2.
The Union shall be open to all European States
which respect the values [of the European Union,
namely “respect for human dignity, freedom,
democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for
human rights, including the rights of persons
belonging to minorities. These values are common to
the Member States in a society in which pluralism,
non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and
equality between men and women prevail”] … and
are committed to promoting them together.
Any European State which wishes to become a
member of the Union shall address its application to
the Council. The European Parliament and national
parliaments shall be notified of this application. The
Council shall act unanimously after consulting the
Commission and after obtaining the consent of the
European Parliament, which shall act by a majority of
its component members. The conditions and
arrangement for admission shall be the subject of an
agreement between the Member States and the
candidate State. That agreement shall be subject to
ratification by each contracting State, in accordance
with its respective constitutional requirements.
source: “European countries”, European Commission,
http://www.europa.eu/abc/european_countries/index_en.htm [5 October 2007]
the next waves of enlargement?
candidate countries
Turkey applied in April 1987
Croatia applied in February 2003
FYROM applied in March 2004
potential candidate countries
source: “Enlargement”, European Commission,
http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/index_en.htm [5 October 2007]
Albania
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Montenegro
Serbia
United Nations Mission in Kosovo
Ireland’s European integration history

“Ceart go Leor: Ireland, the UK, the Sterling Area and EMU”, in Francisco
Torres, Amy Verdun & Hubert Zimmermann (eds.), EMU Rules: The
Political and Economic Consequences of European Monetary Integration
(Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2006), pp.245-259 – ISBN 38329-1974-0

“The ‘mainstreaming’ of Irish foreign policy”, in Brian Girvin & Gary Murphy
(eds.), The Lemass Era: politics and society in the Ireland of Seán Lemass
(Dublin: UCD Press, 2005), pp.82-98 & 230-232 – ISBN 1-904558-29-1

"Ireland's relations with the EEC: from the Treaties of Rome to
membership", in Journal of European Integration History, Volume 7
Number 1 2001, pp.11-24 – ISSN 0947-9511 – click on Loughborough
University Institutional Repository for access

Protectionism to liberalisation: Ireland and the EEC, 1957 to 1966
(Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000) – ISBN 0-7546-1456-5 – click on Loughborough
University Institutional Repository for access

"Irish neutrality and European integration, 1960-1972", in Michael Gehler &
Rolf Steininger (eds.), Die Neutralen und die europäische Integration
(Vienna: Böhlau Verlag, 2000), pp.144-172 – ISBN 3-205-99090-0 – click
on Loughborough University Institutional Repository for access
‘deepening’ – key policy developments
1951
1957
1965
1968
1986
1992
1997
2001
2004
2007
Paris
Maastricht
1951
1992
Rome
Nice
1957
2001
}
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty of Paris
European Economic Community (EEC)
European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) Treaties of Rome
merger treaty forms the European Communities (EC)
e.g. CAP … & CFP
completion of the Common Market
‘eurosclerosis’
Single European Act (SEA) QMV
Treaty of European Union (TEU, also known as Maastricht)
Treaty of Amsterdam … more QMV from Single Market (1992) to
single currency (2002)
Treaty of Nice … even more QMV
Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe
Treaty on institutional reform following an IGC?
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the future development of the eurozone?
thirteen EU member states are part of the eurozone
three other European countries formally use the euro
three more countries use it without a formal arrangement
fourteen EU member states are not in the eurozone
seven are ERMII members, and thus linked to the euro
two of these ERMII members are about to join the eurozone
two EU member states have formal euro opt-outs
what are the EU’s current concerns?
The European Commission Representation in the United Kingdom
http://ec.europa.eu/united
kingdom/index.htm
focus on:
Metrication | Reform Treaty | Europe and Globalisation | Environment | Institutional Change |
EU Budget Reform
Portuguese Council presidency
priorities include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Future of the Union – IGC (before the end of 2007)
Lisbon strategy – new cycle (from 2008)
Strengthening the area of freedom, security and justice –
global approach to migration, southern maritime border, etc.
Europe and the world – projecting our values
a new EU constitution? yes, no, maybe so
16/18 say yes, two say no, seven have yet to decide
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus,
Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Italy,
Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
Romania, Slovenia, and Spain have all
completed this process of ratification
Germany and Slovakia have very nearly
ratified it
the UK – slated under Tony Blair to hold
a referendum on the issue – has put it
on hold, as have the Czech Republic,
Denmark, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, and
Sweden, so their ratification is delayed
the French and Dutch electorates have –
through consultative referenda – flatly
rejected it
source: “EU constitution: where member states stand”, BBC,
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3954327.stm [3 October 2007]
the UK and the EU … a partnership made in heaven?
Time, 13 July 1962
Time, 14 May 1979
will the real UK please step forward?
other reasons for concern?
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Treaty of Nice implementation: having entered into force in 2003, its full realisation is
well under way, but it will not be completed until the end of the decade
EU27: with the composition and structures of the various institutions having changed in
recent years, but the constitutional treaty having stalled, the EU is being forced to
reinvent and reform itself through an upcoming IGC, or else it will become unworkable;
meanwhile, the new member states have been tasked with addressing a whole host of
problems – political, economic, judicial, and social
CAP: following the agreement on the budgetary perspective for 2007-2013, plans for the
reform of CAP will doubtlessly re-emerge before the end of the decade, not least within
the realm of WTO negotiations, but also in terms of viability, future contributions, etc.
internal market: the EU population has grown to 489 million consumers, the land mass
having also grown in size, but the European Economic Area extends to include Iceland,
Liechtenstein and Norway, while this area also has strong links with Switzerland through
its membership of the European Free Trade Association
security considerations: protecting peace and security near to the EU’s borders and
near neighbourhood, with drugs, prostitution and terrorism – as well as ongoing
preoccupations such as access to energy resources and the mass movements of people
– remain at the forefront of government and media attention
et cetera
the EU – views from the BBC
Mark Mardell




Mark Mardell, “A whistle-stop tour of the key EU institutions”, BBC,
http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_5330000/newsid_5333300/5333306.st
m?bw=bb&mp=rm [2 October 2007] – circa 8:09 mins
Mark Mardell, “Inside the European Commission”, BBC,
http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_5330000/newsid_5333300/5333306.st
m?bw=bb&mp=rm [2 October 2007] – circa 7:46 mins
“Mark Mardell’s Euroblog”, BBC,
http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/thereporters/markmardell/ [2 October 2007]
“How euro are you?”, BBC
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/programmes/howeuroareyou/html/live.stm
[2 October 2007]
Andrew Marr &
Dara O’Briain
conclusions




‘widening and deepening’ are relatively constant,
certainly entwined, elements in a dynamic and
ongoing integration process, an appreciation of
which is central to a better understanding regarding
the EU’s present progress and future potential
evolving out of the battlefields of WWII, it has
grown in terms of membership …
from the original Six  EC9  EC10  EC12
 EU15  EU25  EU27
… but and also in terms of its competence from a
Common Market to a Single Market, from
European Communities to a European Union
the term ‘widening and deepening’ goes some way
towards explaining European integration history
across the last half century, its continuing relevance
and resonances
what does the 21st century hold for the EU, Europe,
and the wider world?
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