The ‘widening and deepening’ of the European Union, 1951-2007 The University of Leicester / The Belmont House Hotel, Leicester LL.M. in European Union Law – Induction Weekend 6:30pm to 7:30pm, Friday, 12 October 2007 aims of this presentation to examine some of the fundamental processes involved in the history of European integration across the second half of the 20th century, especially in terms of the EU’s ‘widening and deepening’ ‘widening’ essentially means increasing the EU’s membership through the process of enlargement – i.e. accepting the entry of new Member States ‘deepening’ basically means developing and strengthening the EU’s competences and policies – e.g. through the signing of new treaties to argue that this process is both dynamic and ongoing, and that the United Kingdom – with its European partners – has more to gain than to lose from a development which, despite some serious setbacks, looks set to continue across the 21st century the European Union the EU27 compared, contrasted and contextualised source: “The European Union”, Europe in the UK, http://www.europe.org.uk/maps/ [27 April 2007] some theoretical approaches federalism neofunctionalism intergovernmentalism system governance network governance neo-institutionalism social constructivism integration through law discursive approaches gender perspectives Antje Wiener & Thomas Diez (eds.), European integration theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), p.240 liberal intergovernmentalism Andrew Moravcsik, The choice for Europe: social purpose and state power from Messina to Maastricht (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998) what is ‘Europeanization’? “the reorientation and reshaping of aspects of politics and governance in the domestic arena in ways that reflect the policies, practices and preferences of European level actors” for further information, see Ian Bache & Andrew Jordan (eds.), The Europeanization of British Politics (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006) what do we mean by ‘Europe’? who is included? who is excluded? http://www.yo utube.com/wa tch?v=8OHJE m2IwLw Timothy Garton Ash, “Montenegro is back on the map, and it need not become Ruritania”, Guardian, 1 June 2006, http://www.guardian.co.uk/Columnists/Column/0,,1787175,00.html [15 August 2006] the EU’s languages … if everyone’s speaking, who’s listening? Irish: Gaeilge English Eorpaigh aontaithe san éagsúlacht Europeans united in diversity Cuimsíonn an tAontas Eorpach (AE) grúpa de thíortha Eorpacha daonlathacha atá ag obair as lámha a chéile i dtreo na síochána agus an rathúnais. Ní Stát é a bheartaítear a chur in ionad naEuropean stát atá ann faoi láthair ach tá níos mó i gceist leis for ná díreach eagraíocht The European Union (EU) is a family of democratic countries, committed to working together peace and prosperity. It is idirnáisiúnta eile. Go deimhin níl a mhacasamhail fáil.it is Támore comhinstitiúidí curtha ar bun ag a chuid Ballstát aThe ndéanann dá Its not a State intended to replace existing states,lebut than just another international organisation. EU is, insiad fact,cuid unique. gceannasacht a tharmligean chucu . Sa chaoi sin is féidir cinntí maidir le hábhair a bhfuil comhleas acu iontuona dhéanamh Member States have set up common institutions to which they delegate someshonracha of their sovereignty so that decisions specific matters go daonlathach ag can leibhéal Eorpach. of joint interest be made democratically at European level. Cuimsíonn mór-roinn na hEorpa go leor traidisiún éagsúil go leor teangacha éagsúla, ag an amEU céanna tá luachanna Europe is a continent with many different traditions andagus languages, but also with shared ach values. The defends these values. It comhpháirtíochta i gceist léi chomh maith. Cosnaíonn an tAE na luachanna seo. Cothaíonn sé comhoibriú idir muintir na hEorpa, fosters co-operation among the peoples of Europe, promoting unity while preserving diversity and ensuring that decisions are taken as cuireann sé aontacht chun cinn agus lena linn sin déanann sé éagsúlacht a chothabháil agus cinntíonn sé go nglactar cinntí ar leibhéal close as possible to the citizens. chomh gar do na saoránaigh agus is féidir. In an the21ú increasingly world of the it will sé be níos eventábhachtaí more necessary every European citizen to co-operate I saol haois, inainterdependent bhfuil an t-idirspleáchas ag21st dul icentury, dtreis, beidh fós go for gcomhoibreoidh gach saoránach with people from other countries in a spirit of curiosity, tolerance and solidarity. Eorpach le daoine ó thíortha eile de mheon fiosrachta, caoinfhulaingthe agus dlúthpháirtíochta. source: “Languages in the EU – English”, European Commission, http://europa.eu/abc/european_countries/languages/irish/index_en.htm?_en [30 September 2007] source: “Languages in the EU – Irish: Gaeilge”, European Commission, http://europa.eu/abc/european_countries/languages/irish/index_en.htm?_ga [30 September 2007] Pieter Bruegel’s “The Tower of Babel”, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna source: Encyclopaedia Britannica, http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=6160&rendTypeId=4 [1 October 2007] it appears to have all the trappings … yet is the EU a state? http://europa.eu/a bc/symbols/anthe m/index_en.htm year anthem the symbols of the EU motto http://europa.eu/abc/symbols/index_en.htm currency constitution day flag does the EU have a government ... or a system of governance? civil service / executive Commission http://europa.eu.int/comm/ executive / legislature Council http://ue.eu.int legislature judiciary Parliament http://www.europarl.eu.int/ Court http://curia.eu.int/ ‘widening’ – basic enlargement history 1951 ‘Six’ 1973 1981 1986 1990 1995 2004 2007 Belgium, France, West Germany (FRG), Luxembourg, Italy, and the Netherlands ‘Nine’ plus Norway? Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom northern ‘Ten’ Greece minus Greenland! ‘Twelve’ Portugal, and Spain southern East Germany (GDR) forgotten ‘Fifteen’ plus Norway? Austria, Finland, and Sweden EFTAN ‘Twenty-five’ Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, CEEC Slovenia, and the Slovak Republic (incl. Club Med) ‘Twenty-seven’ Bulgaria and Romania south-eastern } } } } } } treaty basis for enlargement Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe Article I-58 1. 2. The Union shall be open to all European States which respect the values [of the European Union, namely “respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities. These values are common to the Member States in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between men and women prevail”] … and are committed to promoting them together. Any European State which wishes to become a member of the Union shall address its application to the Council. The European Parliament and national parliaments shall be notified of this application. The Council shall act unanimously after consulting the Commission and after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament, which shall act by a majority of its component members. The conditions and arrangement for admission shall be the subject of an agreement between the Member States and the candidate State. That agreement shall be subject to ratification by each contracting State, in accordance with its respective constitutional requirements. source: “European countries”, European Commission, http://www.europa.eu/abc/european_countries/index_en.htm [5 October 2007] the next waves of enlargement? candidate countries Turkey applied in April 1987 Croatia applied in February 2003 FYROM applied in March 2004 potential candidate countries source: “Enlargement”, European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/index_en.htm [5 October 2007] Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Montenegro Serbia United Nations Mission in Kosovo Ireland’s European integration history “Ceart go Leor: Ireland, the UK, the Sterling Area and EMU”, in Francisco Torres, Amy Verdun & Hubert Zimmermann (eds.), EMU Rules: The Political and Economic Consequences of European Monetary Integration (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2006), pp.245-259 – ISBN 38329-1974-0 “The ‘mainstreaming’ of Irish foreign policy”, in Brian Girvin & Gary Murphy (eds.), The Lemass Era: politics and society in the Ireland of Seán Lemass (Dublin: UCD Press, 2005), pp.82-98 & 230-232 – ISBN 1-904558-29-1 "Ireland's relations with the EEC: from the Treaties of Rome to membership", in Journal of European Integration History, Volume 7 Number 1 2001, pp.11-24 – ISSN 0947-9511 – click on Loughborough University Institutional Repository for access Protectionism to liberalisation: Ireland and the EEC, 1957 to 1966 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000) – ISBN 0-7546-1456-5 – click on Loughborough University Institutional Repository for access "Irish neutrality and European integration, 1960-1972", in Michael Gehler & Rolf Steininger (eds.), Die Neutralen und die europäische Integration (Vienna: Böhlau Verlag, 2000), pp.144-172 – ISBN 3-205-99090-0 – click on Loughborough University Institutional Repository for access ‘deepening’ – key policy developments 1951 1957 1965 1968 1986 1992 1997 2001 2004 2007 Paris Maastricht 1951 1992 Rome Nice 1957 2001 } European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty of Paris European Economic Community (EEC) European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) Treaties of Rome merger treaty forms the European Communities (EC) e.g. CAP … & CFP completion of the Common Market ‘eurosclerosis’ Single European Act (SEA) QMV Treaty of European Union (TEU, also known as Maastricht) Treaty of Amsterdam … more QMV from Single Market (1992) to single currency (2002) Treaty of Nice … even more QMV Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe Treaty on institutional reform following an IGC? } < } € the future development of the eurozone? thirteen EU member states are part of the eurozone three other European countries formally use the euro three more countries use it without a formal arrangement fourteen EU member states are not in the eurozone seven are ERMII members, and thus linked to the euro two of these ERMII members are about to join the eurozone two EU member states have formal euro opt-outs what are the EU’s current concerns? The European Commission Representation in the United Kingdom http://ec.europa.eu/united kingdom/index.htm focus on: Metrication | Reform Treaty | Europe and Globalisation | Environment | Institutional Change | EU Budget Reform Portuguese Council presidency priorities include: 1. 2. 3. 4. Future of the Union – IGC (before the end of 2007) Lisbon strategy – new cycle (from 2008) Strengthening the area of freedom, security and justice – global approach to migration, southern maritime border, etc. Europe and the world – projecting our values a new EU constitution? yes, no, maybe so 16/18 say yes, two say no, seven have yet to decide Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Romania, Slovenia, and Spain have all completed this process of ratification Germany and Slovakia have very nearly ratified it the UK – slated under Tony Blair to hold a referendum on the issue – has put it on hold, as have the Czech Republic, Denmark, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, and Sweden, so their ratification is delayed the French and Dutch electorates have – through consultative referenda – flatly rejected it source: “EU constitution: where member states stand”, BBC, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3954327.stm [3 October 2007] the UK and the EU … a partnership made in heaven? Time, 13 July 1962 Time, 14 May 1979 will the real UK please step forward? other reasons for concern? Treaty of Nice implementation: having entered into force in 2003, its full realisation is well under way, but it will not be completed until the end of the decade EU27: with the composition and structures of the various institutions having changed in recent years, but the constitutional treaty having stalled, the EU is being forced to reinvent and reform itself through an upcoming IGC, or else it will become unworkable; meanwhile, the new member states have been tasked with addressing a whole host of problems – political, economic, judicial, and social CAP: following the agreement on the budgetary perspective for 2007-2013, plans for the reform of CAP will doubtlessly re-emerge before the end of the decade, not least within the realm of WTO negotiations, but also in terms of viability, future contributions, etc. internal market: the EU population has grown to 489 million consumers, the land mass having also grown in size, but the European Economic Area extends to include Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, while this area also has strong links with Switzerland through its membership of the European Free Trade Association security considerations: protecting peace and security near to the EU’s borders and near neighbourhood, with drugs, prostitution and terrorism – as well as ongoing preoccupations such as access to energy resources and the mass movements of people – remain at the forefront of government and media attention et cetera the EU – views from the BBC Mark Mardell Mark Mardell, “A whistle-stop tour of the key EU institutions”, BBC, http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_5330000/newsid_5333300/5333306.st m?bw=bb&mp=rm [2 October 2007] – circa 8:09 mins Mark Mardell, “Inside the European Commission”, BBC, http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_5330000/newsid_5333300/5333306.st m?bw=bb&mp=rm [2 October 2007] – circa 7:46 mins “Mark Mardell’s Euroblog”, BBC, http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/thereporters/markmardell/ [2 October 2007] “How euro are you?”, BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/programmes/howeuroareyou/html/live.stm [2 October 2007] Andrew Marr & Dara O’Briain conclusions ‘widening and deepening’ are relatively constant, certainly entwined, elements in a dynamic and ongoing integration process, an appreciation of which is central to a better understanding regarding the EU’s present progress and future potential evolving out of the battlefields of WWII, it has grown in terms of membership … from the original Six EC9 EC10 EC12 EU15 EU25 EU27 … but and also in terms of its competence from a Common Market to a Single Market, from European Communities to a European Union the term ‘widening and deepening’ goes some way towards explaining European integration history across the last half century, its continuing relevance and resonances what does the 21st century hold for the EU, Europe, and the wider world?