INTRODUCTION OF ECTS AND
DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENTS (DS) IN LATVIA:
DIFFICULTIES AND PROGRESS
Prof. Mara JURE,
National Academic Contact Point of LATVIA
Faculty of Material Science and Applied Chemistry
Riga Technical University
International Seminar “DEVELOPING ECTS AS A NATIONAL CREDIT
SYSTEM: EXPERIENCES AND CHALLENGES AT INSTITUTIONAL AND
NATIONAL LEVELS”. Yerevan, Armenia, 4-6 May 2006
3 cycles
ECTS/DS
Grading
Quality Assurance
Qualification frameworks Learning outcomes
Signatory countries of the Bologna Declaration
Bologna, 1999:
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Swiss Confederation
United Kingdom
Prague, 2001:
Croatia
Cyprus
Liechtenstein
Turkey
Berlin, 2003:
Albania
Andorra
Bosnia-Herzegovina
Holy See
Russian Federation
Serbia-Montenegro
Macedonia
Bergen, 2005:
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Georgia
Moldova
Ukraine
Initial moves to reform the Latvian higher education system got
underway well before the Bologna Declaration. The first major
development was the Education Law of 1991. In accordance with
this law, a degree structure based on two main cycles
(Bachelor’s/Master’s) was introduced in most disciplines but only in
academic programmes.
The 1995 Law on Higher Educational Establishments (LHEE) led
to further strengthening of this structure but also underlined the
division between academic and professional programmes. The
amendments to the LHEE in 2000 established professional Bachelor’s
and Master’s degrees which replaced the former five-year
programmes, introducing the Bachelor’s/Master’s structure into the
whole system and thus facilitating the transfer from one type of
education to the other. The total period of study for a Master’s degree
should be no less than five years.
Amendments to the LHEE introduced doctoral studies as part of
academic education (previously, doctoral degree candidates were
research workers not involved in education). A degree structure
based on three main cycles is thus fully established.
The procedure and criteria for awarding the doctoral degree in
accordance with the Law on Scientific Activities (LoSA) are
further set out in the regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers.
Doctoral study programmes are developed by the higher education
institution, and contain the list of compulsory and optional subjects
along with the corresponding number of credit points, the content of
research, the previous level of education necessary to embark on
studies, and other provisions for implementing the programme. A
doctorate is obtained only after fulfilling the requirements for the
doctoral study programme and after the public defence of the
doctoral thesis.
•
•
•
•
PROBLEMS
Professional and academic education –
obstacles for transfer between cycles;
Professional programmes of 5 years still
exist;
Employment of bachelors’ degree holders
Language of education and joint degrees;
difference between privat and state HEI
Since 1998, the majority of higher education institutions have
introduced a Latvian credit point system compatible with
ECTS, which has been used for both accumulation and
transfer since it was first implemented. A Latvian credit point
is defined as the full-time workload of a student in one week.
As the academic year lasts 40 weeks, this corresponds to 40
Latvian credits per year and, on this basis, one Latvian credit is
worth 1.5 ECTS credits. So far, the ECTS grading scale is used
only in the case of credit transfer.
As of 1 January 2004, all graduates receive the Diploma
Supplement automatically and free of charge, in accordance
with the Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers on the order
concerned with the issuing of state-recognised education
documents testifying to the completion of higher education, and
the awarding of degrees. The Supplement is issued in Latvian
and English.
Austria
Azerbaidjan
Belgium
Bulgaria
Cyprus
Estonia
Germany
Finland
France
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Latvia
Macedonia
The Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
3
1
13
1
1
1
1
6
5
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
”ECTS Label” 55  48  3
applied 01.11.2004.
(9111 applied 01.11.2003.).
Institutions awarded the ECTS Label 2004/05 - 2006/07
AT TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT GRAZ
BE FACULTÉ UNIVERSITAIRE DES SCIENCES AGRONOMIQUES DE
GEMBLOUX
BE UNIVERSITEIT ANTWERPEN
BE UNIVERSITEIT GENT
ES UNIVERSIDAD DE DEUSTO
FI ARCADE NYLANDS SVENSKA YRKEHOGSKOLA
FI LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
PL AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY OF WROCLAW
PT UNIVERSITY OF AVEIRO
PT UNIVERSIDAD DE MINHO
NO HÖGSKOLEN I AGDER
Institutions awarded the ECTS Label 2005/06 - 2007/08
AT FACHHOCHSCHULE VORARLBERG GMBH
BE KATHOLIEKE UNIVERSITEIT LEUVEN
NL WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITEIT
ASSESSMENT RESULTS FOR THE ECTS LABEL
Very
Good
Country
Very
Good
Good
Very
Good
Fair
Fair
Weak
Fair
Weak
Weak
LV
AT
1
Not
eligible:
basic
criteria
not
fulfilled
BG
1
1
1
dossier
incomplet
ECTS
Total
1
1
2
3
AZ
BE
Not
eligible:
8
1
1
2
13
1
1
CY
1
1
1
1
EE
1
1
ES
2
2
1
6
CZ
DE
DK
FI
FR
3
2
3
2
5
GR
1
1
HU
1
1
1
2
IE
IS
IT
1
MK
1
NL
1
1
1
NO
1
2
3
PL
1
1
2
PT
2
1
3
SE
2
2
TR
1
1
2
UK
1
1
2
Grand
Total
1
2
10
2
1
32
7
55
ECTS Label requirements
Information Package and Course Catalogue
(IP/CC) of ALL I and II cycle programms in
national language and English (published on
Web); see Checklist of ECTS User’s Guide)
ECTS credits = student workload
Academic recognition of studies periods
Complete ECTS documentation (Learning
agreement, Transcript of Records)
Label is awarded for 3 years
Grades
Achievement level
very high
high
Grade
Meaning
Approx. ECTS
grade
10
izcili (with distinction)
A
9
teicami (excellent)
A
8
ļoti labi (very good)
B
7
labi (good)
C
6
gandrīz labi (almost good)
D
5
viduvēji (satisfactory)
E
medium
4
low
3–1
gandrīz viduvēji
(almost satisfactory)
negatīvs vērtējums
(unsatisfactory)
E/FX
Fail
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Cyprus
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Greece
Ireland
Iceland
Latvia
The Netherlands
Norway
Portugal
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
5
4
1
1
8
1
14
2
1
1
1
2
1
11
3
11
3
2
“DS Label” 72  6330
applied 01.11.2004.
(85  28 applied 01.11.2003.)
DS in Latvia
Institutions awarded the DS Label 2004/05 - 2006/07
AT PADAGOGISCHE AKADEMIE DES BUNDES IN NÖ
DE FACHHOCHSCHULE IN STRALSUND
DE HANDELSHOCHSCHULE LEIPZIG GMBH
DK SYDDANSK UNIVERSITET
DK DANMARKS PAEDAGOGISKE UNIVERSITET
EE ESTONIAN BUSINESS SCHOOL
FI OULUN SEDUN AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU
FI TAMPEEREN YLIOPISTO
FI LAUREA AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU
NO HÖGSKOLEN I BODÖ
NO HÖGSKOLEN I LILLEHAMMER
NO HÖGSKOLEN I NARVIK
NO UNIVERSITETET I BERGEN
NO HÖGSKOLEN I AGDER
NO NORGES VETERINAERHOGSKOLE
NO HÖGSKOLEN I NORD-TRÖNDELAG
NO HÖGSKOLEN I TROMSÖ
NO HÖGSKOLEN I SÖR-TRÖNDELAG
NO UNIVERSITETET I OSLO
NO UNIVERSITETET I TROMSÖ
NO HÖGSKOLEN I MOLDE
NO HÖGSKOLEN I GJÖVIK
NO HÖGSKOLEN I ALESUND
PL WYZSZA SZKOLA HUMANISTYCZNO-EKONOMICZNA W LODZ
PT UNIVERSIDAD DE MINHO
SE UPPSALA UNIVERSITET
SE MALARDALENS HÖGSKOLA
SE VAXJÖ UNIVERSITET
Institutions awarded the DS Label 2005/06 - 2007/08
AT FACHHOCHSCHULE VORARLBERG GMBH
AT FACHHOCHSCHULE TECHNIKUM KÄRNTEN
AT FACHHOCHSCHULE DES BFI WIEN
CZ VYSOKA SKOLA BANSKA - TECHNICKA UNIVERZITA OSTRAVA
FI HELSINGIN AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU
FI PIRKANMAAN AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU
FI TAMPEREEN AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU
FI KAJAANIN AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU
FI POHJOIS-KARJALAN AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU
FI KYMENLAAKSON AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU
FI SATAKUNNAN AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU
FI HANKEN SVENSKA HANDELSHÖGSKOLAN
FR ECOLE INTERNATIONALE DES SCIENCES DU TRAITEMENT DE L'INFORMATION
IE LETTERKENNY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
IS HASKOLINN I REYKJAVIK
LV LATVIJAS UNIVERSITATE
LV TRANSPORTA UN SAKARU INSTITUTS
NO HÖGSKOLEN I BERGEN
NO NORGES IDRETTSHÖGSKOLE
NO HÖGSKOLEN I HARSTAD
NO HÖGSKOLEN STORD/HAUGESUND
NO HÖGSKOLEN I BUSKERUD
NO HÖGSKOLEN I HEDMARK
NO HÖGSKOLEN I TELEMARK
PT UNIVERSIDADE DE TRÁS-OS-MONTES E ALTO DOURO
PT UNIVERSIDADE DA BEIRA INTERIOR
SE KUNGL TEKNISKA HÖGSKOLAN
SE ÖREBRO UNIVERSITET
TR EGE ÜNIVERSITESI
TR GAZIANTEP UNIVERSITESI
DS Label requirements
DS issued to all students:
Automatically (without special request)
Free of charge
2 languages (national and widely spoken
foreign language)
Avarded for 3 years
The national Higher Education Quality Evaluation Centre, or HEQEC (Augstākās
izglītības kvalitātes novērtēšanas centrs: http://www.aiknc.lv/en/), was established
in December 1994. The Centre does not participate in the evaluation of a higher
education institution or study programme itself, but assists higher education
institutions in preparing their internal assessment reports, and appoints Evaluation
Commissions (expert teams) which include one Latvian and at least two foreign
experts.
The continuous quality assurance process consists of self-evaluation and evaluation
by external experts, and ends with accreditation.
Both the higher education institution as a whole and the programme in question have
to be accredited before a state-recognised higher education credential can be issued.
The first step in the process is the self-assessment report that representatives of the
administration, academic staff and students at higher education institutions have to
prepare in English. Experts evaluate it and other documents, and arrange for an
evaluation visit to the higher education institution, submitting a common statement
as well as written individual opinions. Institutions are accredited by the Council of
Higher Education (Augstākās izglītības padome), and study programmes are
accredited by the Accreditation Commission established by the Ministry of
Education and Science.
Students are represented in both these national bodies.
The accreditation process began in 1996 and the first round of accreditation was
completed in 2002.
Accreditation proceeds in accordance with the regulations entitled “On
accreditation of Higher Education Institutions and Study Programmes” approved in
October 2001. Foreign experts are involved in each evaluation.
Study programmes are accredited once every six years. In exceptional cases, the
Accreditation Commission grants only temporary accreditation, implying a
repeated assessment after two years.
The self-assessment reports and reports by expert teams are made publicly available
via the Internet and the educational newspaper Izglītība un Kultūra (Education and
Culture). The quality assurance system is also used for quality improvement and as
a means to reforms in higher education. In order to start implementing higher
education programmes, a higher education institution has to receive a licence from
the Ministry of Education and Science both for the institution itself and for each
particular study programme. Licensing is a kind of preliminary quality assurance, in
that within three years after getting a licence, a higher education institution has to
submit the study programme for accreditation. The HEQEC has been a member of
the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA)
since 2003, and of the International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in
Higher Education (INQAAHE) since 1997.
How far has
Latvia progressed
in elaborating
qualifications
frameworks?
General issues
• working group was established in October 2004,
• The level of Latvian qualifications in the Bologna 3cycle system has been clarified,
• The issue of “academic” and “professional” bachelor
and master degrees has been discussed
• Known examples of qualifications frameworks: Irish,
UK (E,W,NI), Scottish and Danish have been
discussed
• Danish model has been chosen as a prototype
Progress
Descriptions have been created for
• Short-cycle (college) higher education
• Bachelor (academic and professional profile)
• Master (academic and professional profile)
• Doctor
They have been discussed at a national seminar on Jan 28,
2005
Next steps:
• Giving the descriptions a legal status,
• Starting work at inter-institutional and programme level
http://www.aic.lv/LO/index.htm
Learning outcomes and Workload:
their relationship
 Learning outcomes: Statements of what a learner is expected
to know, understand and/or be able to demonstrate after
completion of learning. They can refer to a single course unit
or module or else to a period of studies, for example, a first or a
second cycle programme. Learning outcomes specify the
minimum requirements for award of credit.
 Workload: The estimated time required to complete the
activities foreseen for each course unit / module. Workload
includes all learning activities, i.e. lectures, practical work,
information retrieval, private study, placements, fieldwork,
preparation of examinations, etc.
Learning outcomes defined for a unit / programme should
match the available workload required by a typical student.
LATVIA in BOLOGNA PROCESS (2005)
http://www.bologna-bergen2005.no/Docs/Latvia/LATVIA.PDF
Institutions involved
Adoption of the model
based essentially on two
cycles
All institutions (33)
Inclusion of doctoral
studies as a third cycle
11 institutions
Adoption of ECTS
All institutions. 48 (including those
providing short-cycle higher
education programmes only)
Adoption of the
Diploma Supplement
All institutions (33)
Quality Assurance/
Evaluation
42 accredited HEI and institutions
providing short-cycle higher
education programmes
(1 January 2004)
Total accredited programmes: 598
(11 November 2004)
Number of students
99 416
1 425 students (1 % of total
number of students)
125 992
All 2004 graduates except
those from short-cycle higher
education programmes
(:)
Quo vadis?
http://www.aic.lv/ace/ace_disk/Bologna/
Reports/index.htm
Riga Technical University
http://www.rtu.lv
Faculty of Material Science
and Applied Chemistry
http://www.ktf.rtu.lv
Exchange students within ERASMUS
Incoming students
Outgoing students
800
693
700
607
600
500
400
308
300
200
100
182
166
23
40
48
246
232
209
153
45
70
0
1999/00
2000/01
2001/02
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
2005/06
ERASMUS STUDENTS BY COUNTRIES
LV
600
students
546
1999./002004./05.
Valsts
500
97
235
32
186
23
124
18
18685
30
83
26
124
77
71
32 23
18
57
m
G
er
Foreign students 1999./00.-2004./05.
20 77
85 83
71 57 56
49 34 29
30 26 20
23 16 20 22 20 14 12 11
9
2
0 11 0
1 46
9
56
a
Fi ny
nl
a
Sw n d
ed
Be en
N
et lgiu
he m
rl a
nd
Fr s
an
ce
France
UK 97
100
Denmark
Spain
0
Italy
Austria
Portugal
Lithuania
LV students 1999./00-2004./05.
2
23
41 30 22
18 10
U
en K
m
ar
k
Sp
ai
n
It a
Au ly
s
Po tria
rtu
Li ga
th
ua l
ni
Ire a
la
n
Po d
la
n
N d
or
w
G ay
re
e
Es ce
to
Sl nia
ov
ak
C
ze C ia
ch yp
R rus
ep
ub
Ic lic
el
a
Sl nd
ov
en
ia
200
546
49
16
34
20
29
22
D
Germany
Finland
400
Sweden
Belgium
300
Netherlands 235
Foreign
students
1999./00.2004./05.
ERASMUS in Latvia: http://www.socrates.lv
Latvian Academic Information Centre:
http://www.aic.lv/
Ministry of Education and Science: http://www.izm.lv/
Higher Education Quality Evaluation Centre Ltd.
http://www.aiknc.lv/en/index.php#
The Council of Higher Education http://www.aip.lv/
Prof. Māra Jure
National Academic Contact Point
ECTS/DS counsellor
Vice Dean of Faculty of Materials Science
and Applied Chemistry,
Riga Technical University
Azenes Str. 14/24, Riga, Latvia, LV-1048
E-mail:
[email protected]
Phone:
371 7089220
Fax:
371 7615765
http://www.lza.lv/scientists/JureM.htm
Bologna process in Latvia should not be seen as the beginning of higher
education reforms. Like in many central and eastern European countries, the
beginning of reforms in Latvia’s higher education started with the political changes
in Europe at the end of 1980’s - beginning of 1990’s.
Transition to bachelor/master structure in Latvia’s academic higher education
started already in the beginning of 1990s. In this respect Latvia is ahead of quite a
number of other countries engaged in the Bologna process.
Since the beginning of introduction of national credit system in early 1990s, it is
used for credit accumulation. Credit point system has been endorsed by the Law
on Higher Education Establishments (1995) and by the standards of academic
and professional higher education. Similarly to other Baltic states and some
Nordic countries, Latvian credit point system is based upon the definition of credit
point as workload of one week of full-time studies, thus leading to 40 credits per
year; both the duration of programmes and of individual courses is being
expressed in credit points. This system is compatible with ECTS - a simple
multiplication by 1.5 allows to recalculate Latvian credits. Now Latvia considers a
transition to ECTS.
Latvia started implementation of the Joint European DS earlier than several other
European countries; since 2004 every HEI should issue DS automatically, in both
languages Latvian and English and to all graduates.
http://www.eua.be
Significant growth in
membership, now 764
members:
689 full individual
members, 45
countries, 17 associate
individual members
(Polytechnics,
Colleges, etc.)
34 full collective
members (Rectors
Conferences)
6 associate collective
members
18 affiliate members
(networks, specialised
associations)
ECTS:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/
programmes/socrates/ects/index_en.
html
DS:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/
policies/rec_qual/recognition/diplom
a_en.html
EUA:
http://www.eua.be/eua/en/projects_ec
ts.jspx
ECTS Users’ Guide:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/
programmes/socrates/ects/doc/guide
_en.pdf
University of Latvia (Erasmus Intensive Language
Courses)
Riga Technical University
Rezeknes augstskola
Vidzemes augstskola
https://luis.lanet.lv/pls/pub/kursi.startup?l=2
ECTS Atzinības zīmes pieteikumu
izvērtējums – biežākās kļūdas
IP/CC:
 Trūkst informācijas, kas prasīta Checklist of ECTS User’s
Guide
 Informācija nav dota abās - apmācību un angļu - valodās
 Nav kursu struktūras diagrammas ar KP (60 ECTS KP
gadā)
 Web lapa nav izveidota ērtai lietošanai
Dokumenti (LA un ToR):
 Studentu lietas nesatur visus prasītos dokumentus
 LA nav norādīti KP
 Nav izskaidrojuma par mācību iestādes atzīmju sistēmu
 Trūkst zīmogu un parakstu; datumi neatbilst studiju
periodam
 Nav ievērota prasība par 30/60 KP studiju periodā
ECTS Atzinības zīmes pieteikumu izvērtējums –
biežākās kļūdas
Atzīšana:
 Nav skaidrs, kā KP un atzīmes tikuši atzīti
 Akadēmiskās atzīšanas dokumenti bez parakstiem un
zīmogiem
 Nav skaidrs, kāds studiju periods (kursi) vietējā
universitātē ticis aizstāts ar studijām ārzemēs
ECTS ieviešana:
 KP balstīti uz kontaktstundām vai arī nav informācijas kā
tie veidoti
 Nav informācijas par akadēmiskās atzīšanas procedūru
 Trūkst informācijas par LO (?!)
DS Atzinības zīmes pieteikumu izvērtējums biežākās kļūdas
 Atsūtīts diploma pielikuma oriģināls
 Trūkst parakstu
 Nav izpildīta pieteikuma prasība par 2 dažādiem
cikliem un 2 dažādām studiju programmām katrā
ciklā
 Izmainīta DS galvas daļa (preamble)
 Nav skaidrs, kādi KP tiek lietoti
 Nav dota atzīmju statistika
 Nav pierādījumu, ka diploma pielikums tiek
izdots automātiski bez maksas visiem
studentiem
Underlying principles
• While striving for unitary HE system in Latvia,
a more professional and a more academic profile
of degrees will be kept,
• academic profile degrees should include competencies that
ensure employability using transversal skills and knowledge
in the academic field
• professional profile degrees should include competencies
that ensure ability of holders to research and innovation
• In any profile or level competencies should include skills for
further learning and self-development to ensure sustainable
employability over the whole life
• the competencies should address work and science ethics
Working group methodology
1. Description of the generic qualifications is based on:
• profile
• three groups of competencies:
– intellectual
– academic and professional,
– practical
• formal issues: access requirements and further study/
work options
Working group methodology (II)
2. Formulating of competencies was
• as much as possible based on wording of existing legal
texts:
– Academic education standard (Cabinet regulation)
– Professional HE Standard (Cabinet regulation)
but re-shaped and adapted according to the recent
developments
• Where there was no appropriate wording in the legal
texts, the wording was formulated, adapting wording of
Dublin descriptors and Danish QF to Latvian situation
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Signatory countries of the Bologna Declaration