```From a strictly Mathematical View Point
What Equals 100%? What does it mean to give
MORE than 100%? Ever wonder about those
people who say they are giving more than
100%? We have all been in situations where
someone wants you to give over 100%. How
about achieving 101%? What equals 100% in
life?
Here’s a little mathematical
• Question:
• If:
• ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWX
YZ
• Is represented as:
• 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
Then:
H-A-R-D-W-O-R-K
8+1+18+4+23+15+18+11=98%
And
K-N-O-W-L-E-D-G-E
11+14+15+23+12+5+4+7+5=96%
But,
A-T-T-I-T-U-D-E
1+20+20+9+20+21+4+5=100%
And, look how far the love of God will take
you
L-O-V-E-O-F-G-O-D
12+15+22+5+15+6+7+15+4=101%
Therefore, one can
conclude with
mathematical certainty
that: While Hard work
and Knowledge will get
you close, and Attitude
will get you there, it’s
the Love of God that will
put you over the top!
Correction
Correction is among the five Pillars of
the PCJS and patterned from the
system of United States and Great
Britain. Originally, the third component
was penology but due to modern and
democratic trends in the field of
Criminal Justice, it was changed to
Correction. Thus, Correction evolved
from Penology
Penology
Greek term – PIONE – Penalty
Latin word - “POENA”- Pain or Suffering.
Latin word– PENO – Punishment
Penology is the study of punishment for crime or
of criminal offenders. It includes the study of
control and prevention of crime through
punishment of criminal offenders.
NATURE
Penology is otherwise known as Penal Science. It is actually a
division of criminology concerned with the philosophy and
practice of society to repress criminal activities. Traditional
penologist stood for the policy of inflicting punishment on
the offenders as a consequence of their wrongdoing.
However modern penologists have reasonably extended
their field such that Penology today covers other policies
that are not punitive in character, such as:
1. Probation
2. Parole
3. Medical Treatment, and
4. Education
These programs are designed to cure or rehabilitate the
offender; in fact this is the accepted nature of the
penology.
What is Penal Management?
• Refers to the manner or practice of managing
or controlling places of confinement as in jails
or prisons.
What is Correction?
A. A branch of the CJS concerned with the custody,
supervision and rehabilitation of the convicted
offenders.
B. Is that field of criminal justice administration
which utilizes the body of knowledge and
practices of the government and the society in
general involving the processes of handling
individuals who have been convicted of offense
for purposes of crime prevention and control.
What is Correction as a Process ?
• Correction as a process is the reorientation
of the criminal offender to prevent him or
her from repeating his delinquent actions
without the necessity of taking punitive
action but rather introduction of individual
measures of reformation.
The study and practice of a systematic
management of Jails or Prison and other
Institution concerned with the custody,
treatment, and rehabilitation of criminal
offenders.
What is Correctional Psychology?
• That aspect of forensic psychology which is
concerned with the diagnosis and
classification of offenders, the treatment of
correctional populations, and the
rehabilitation of inmates and other law
violators
Theories of Punishment
• RETRIBUTION – An eye for an eye philosophy
of justice
-It generally requires harsh punishment
• Just Deserts -philosophy of punishments,
implying that offenders get what they deserve
-Emphasizes the idea of penal censure of
defendant. Sees the punishment as being
proportional to the seriousness of the crime.
• DETERRENCE – The theory of punishment
which envisages that potential offenders will
refrain from committing crimes out of fear of
punishment
Theories of Deterrence
1. Classical theory
2. Choice theory or rational choice theory
2 Types of Deterrence
1. General deterrence: The offender is
punished to serve as an example to all
others who may be contemplating a
similar offense
2. Specific or Individual deterrence: To
prevent the offender from re-offending
Types Correctional Model
1. Custodian Model -based on the assumption
that prisoners have been incarcerated for the
protection society and for the purpose in
incapacitation, deterrence and retribution. It
emphasizes maintenance and security and order
through the subordination of the prisoner to the
authority of the warden. Discipline is strictly
applied and most aspect of behavior is
regulated.
Types Correctional Model
2. Rehabilitation Model - security and house
keeping activities viewed primarily as a
framework for rehabilitative efforts. Professional
treatment specialist enjoys a higher status than
the employees, in accordance with the idea that
all aspect of prison management should be
directed towards rehabilitation with the
rethinking of the goal of the rehabilitation.
Types Correctional Model
3. Reintegration Model - is linked to the structures and goals
of community corrections but has direct impact on prison
operations. Although on offender is confined in prison, that
experience is pointed toward reintegration into society. This
kind of treatment gradually gives inmates greater freedom
and responsibility during their confinement and move them
into a halfway house, work release programs, or community
correctional center before releasing them to supervision.
Consistent with the perspective of community corrections,
this model is based on the assumption that it is important for
the offender to maintain or develop ties with free society the
entire focuses this approach is on the resumption of a normal
life (Clear and Cole, 1986).
•
What is Punishment ?
• - is the infliction or imposition of a penalty as
retribution for an offense. "The penalty
inflicted".
- it is the redress that the state takes against
an offending
• member of the society that usually involve
pain or suffering.
– it is also the penalty imposed on an offender for a
crime or wrongdoing.
Redress (Compensation) of a wrong
act.
• Retaliation (Personal Vengeance) – the earliest
remedy for a wrong act to any one (in the primitive
society). The concept of personal revenge by the
victim’s family or tribe against the family or tribe of the
offender, hence “blood feuds” was accepted in the
early primitive societies.
• Fines and Punishment – Customs has exerted effort
and great force among primitive societies. The
acceptance of vengeance in the form of payment
(cattle, food, personal services, etc.) became accepted
Ancient Forms of Punishment:
1. Death Penalty – affected by burning, beheading,
hanging, and pillory and other forms of medieval
executions.
2. Physical Torture – Barbaric forms of inflicting pain. ex.
Mutilation, Whipping.
3. Social Degradation – Putting the offender into shame
or humiliation.
4. Banishment or Exile – The sending or putting away of
an offender which was carried out either by prohibition
against coming into a specified territory such as an
Island to where the offender has been removed.
5. Other similar forms of punishment like transportation
and slavery.
Method of Punishment
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Public Humiliation - Shame punishment
Exile/banishment
Payment to the victim
Branding - (Stigmatizing) - is the process by which a
mark is burned into the skin of a living person.
Flogging - (flagellation) - is the act of methodically
beating or whipping the human body.
Mutilation - (maiming) - is the act of physical injury
that degrades the appearance or function of any living
body usually without causing death.
burning
Early Forms of Prison Discipline:
1. Hard Labor – Productive works.
2. Deprivation – Deprivation of everything except the bare essential of
existence.
3. Monotony – Giving the same food that is “off diet”, or requiring the
prisoners to perform drab or boring daily routine.
4. Uniformity – “We treat the prisoner alike”. “The fault of one is the
fault of all”.
5. Mass Movement – Mass living in the cellblocks, mass eating, mass
recreation, mass bathing.
6. Degradation – uttering insulting words or languages on the part of
prisoners to degrade or break the confidence of prisoners.
7. Corporal Punishment – Imposing brutal punishment or employing
physical force to intimidate a delinquent inmate.
8. Isolation or solitary confinement – Non- communication, limited
news. “ The lone Wolf’.
Contemporary Forms of Punishment:
1. Imprisonment – putting the offender in prison for the purpose of
protecting the public against criminal activities and at the same
time rehabilitating the prisoners by requiring them to undergo
institutional treatment programs.
2. Parole – a conditional release of a prisoner after serving part of
his/her sentence in prison for the purpose of gradually reintroducing him/her to free life under the guidance and supervision
of a parole officer.
3. Probation – a disposition whereby a defendant after conviction of
an offense, the penalty of which does not exceed six years
imprisonment, is released subject to the conditions imposed by the
releasing court and under the supervision of a probation officer.
4. Fine – an amount given as a compensation for a criminal act.
5. Destierro – the penalty of banishing a person from the place where
he committed a crime, prohibiting him to get near or enter the 25kilometer perimeter.
Justifications of Punishment
1. Retribution – The punishment should be provided by
the state whose sanction is violated; to afford the
society or the individual the opportunity of imposing
upon the offender suitable punishment as might be
enforced. Offenders should be punished because they
deserve it.
2. Expiation or Atonement – It is punishment in the form
of group vengeance where the purpose is to appease
the offended public or group.
3. Deterrence – Punishment gives lesson to the offender
by showing to others what would happen to them if
they violate the law. Punishment is imposed to warn
potential offenders that they cannot afford to do what
the offender has done.
4. Incapacitation and Protection – The public will protect,
if the offender has being held conditioning where he
cannot harm others especially the public. Punishment
is effective by placing offenders in prison so that
society will be ensured from further criminal
depredations of criminals.
5. Reformation or Rehabilitation – It is the establishment
of the usefulness and responsibility of the offender.
Society’s interest can be better served by helping the
prisoner to become law abiding citizen and productive
undergo intensive program of rehabilitation in prison.
Penalty – Is defined as the suffering inflicted by the state against an
offending member for the transgression of Law.
Juridical Conditions of penalty:
Punishment must be:
1. Productive of Suffering –Affecting the integrity of the human
personality.
2. Commensurate with the offense – Different crimes must be punished
with different penalties (Art. 205, RPC).
3. Personal – The guilty one must be the one to be punished, no proxy.
4. Legal – The consequences must be in accordance with the law.
5. Equal – Equal for all person.
6. Certain – No one must escape its effects.
7. Correctional – Changes the attitudes of offenders and become lawabiding citizens.
Duration of Penalties:
1. Death Penalty – Capital punishment
2. Reclusion Perpetua – An imprisonment of 20 yrs
and 1 day to 40 yrs imprisonment.
3. Reclusion Temporal – an imprisonment of 12yrs
and 1day to 20yrs imprisonment.
4. Prison Correctional – 6 months and 1days to 6yrs.
5. Arresto Mayor – 1month and 1day to 6 months.
6. Arresto Menor – 1 day to 30 days.
7. Bond to keep the peace – Discretionary on the
part of the court.
Major types of prison organization in U.S
1. Northern Industrial Prison- under this type of
Prison, prisoner should work for the benefits of
the state.
2. Southern Plantation- a prison that the labor of
he convicted prisoner was concentrated on
agricultural plantation.
3. Chain gangs- labor on public works through
out the state were performed by the prisoners
rather than confining their labor were chains to
avoid escape. They called themselves chain gangs
Three “Revolutions” in the History of Corrections
• Age of reformation – replaced corporal punishment, exile, and
physical disfigurement with the penitentiary.
• Age of rehabilitation – assumed that criminals were
handicapped persons suffering from mental or emotional
deficiencies. Under this, individual therapy aimed at healing
these personal maladjustments, became the preferred style.
• Age of reintegration – society becomes the “patient” as well
as the offender. Much more emphasis is placed on the
pressure exerted on the offender by the social groups to which
he belongs and on the society which regulates his
opportunities to achieve his goals.
History of Corrections
• Twelve Tables of Wood- (451-450 BC)- represented the earliest
codification of Roman Law. The influence by the Twelve Tables
extended to the 6th century AD when they were largely
incorporated into the Justinian Code.
• Benefits of Clergy- provided an escape from severe punishment
of members of clergy such as ordained clerk, moves and nuns by
subjecting them to the jurisdiction of ecclesiastical courts.
Ecclesiastical punishment were more lenient because the focus of
the Church was on Penance and Salvation of the soul rather than
in the administering of physical punishment for the purposes of
deterrence or revenge.
• Securing Sanctuary- in the 13th century, a criminal could avoid
punishment by claiming refugee in a church, for a period of forty
(40) days at the end of which time he was compelled to leave the
realm by a road or part assigned to him.
History of Corrections
• Ordeal- was the church’s substitute for a trial until the 13th
century, where in guilt or innocence was determined by the
availability of the accused to come unscratched through
dangerous and painful tests.
• The Holy Inquisition- a general label for a succession of Roman
Catholic tribunals changed with the detection and punishment of
heresy. Inquisition proper did not begin until 1215 AD when the
Lateran council decided that the used of torture was appropriate
which was supplemented by an extensive system of informers
and detailed records kept of every element in proceedings.
• St. Bridget’s Well- England’s first Houses of Corrections, 1557
History of Corrections
• Hulks- were abandoned or unusable transport ships, which were
converted into prisons as a means of relieving prison congestion when
transported system was abandoned in rivers or harbors and were also
known as “floating wells”.
• Panoptican Prison- a type of prison conceived by Bentham which would
consist of large circular building of case irons and glass containing multitiered cells round the periphery.
• Cat-O’ nine- tails- a lash of none knotted hongs of raw hide attached to a
solid handle used in the administration of flogging which was the most
popular methods of corporal punishment in the 18th century.
History of Corrections
• Bridewell- the term applied to houses of corrections which were used for
locking –up, employing and beggars prostitutes and other misfits. These
were built around the acceptance of the value of regular work and the
formation of “habits of industry”.
• 1576- English Parliamentary passed a law calling for each county to build
its own Bridewell.
• 1703- Pope Clement XI built Hospicio de San Michelle in Rome designed
for incorrigible youths under 20 years of age, and which was the first
home for delinquent boys ever established.
The History of Corrections
• Important Personalities:
– William Penn ( America ). He included in his
legislation for Pennsylvania that imprisonment
shall be the prescribed punishment for criminals;
that all prisons shall be workhouses for felons,
vagrants, and idle persons, and that each county
shall build one. The colony of the New Plymouth
provided for the erection of House of Correction
for the confinement of Quakers.
The History of Corrections
• Important Personalities:
– George Fox (17th century, England ). He founded
the so-called “Quakers”, known as the Society of
Friends, a church known for pacifism,
humanitarian and emphasis on inner quiet, which
was persecuted for its rejection of organized
churches.
The History of Corrections
• Important Personalities:
- JOHN HOWARD – identified as the Great Prison Reformer
and author of “The State of Prisons in England
- John Howard. “Father of Prisons Reform”.
Visited every Jail and prison in Jurisdiction.
a. Documented conditions in the State of Prison in England –
1777
b. Lead to formation several prisons societies
c. Also led to Penitentiary Act of 1779 – Intended to make
prisons:
–
–
–
–
Safe and sanitary
Operate with out fees
Impose regimen of reform
Be Systematically inspected
The History of Corrections
• Important Personalities:
- VICOMTE JEAN JACQUES PHILIPPE VILLAIN XIV
– Father of Modern Penitentiary Science and
founder of the House of Correction in Ghent,
Belgium
Persons Responsible for Introducing Reforms in the
Correctional Field
1. Manuel Montesimos – He was the Director of Prisons at
Valencia, Spain in 1838, who divided prisoners into
companies and appointed prisoners as petty officers in
charge; allowed the reduction of the inmates’ sentences
by one third (1/3) for good behavior; offered trade training
2. Domets(Demetz) of France – Established an agricultural
colony for delinquent boys in 1839, providing house
fathers as in charge of these boys. He concentrated on reeducation; upon their discharge, the boys were placed
under the supervision of a patron.
3. Alexander Maconochie – As
Superintendent of the Penal Colony at
Norfolk Island in Australia in 1848, he
introduced a progressive humane system to
substitute for corporal punishment known as
the “Mark System” wherein a prisoner was
required to earn a number of marks based
upon proper department, labor, and study in
order to entitle him to a ticket of leave or
conditional release which is similar to parole.
Alexander Maconochie. He is considered as
one of the father of modern penology.
4. Sir Walter Crofton – He was the Director of the Irish
Prisons in 1854, who introduced the Irish system which was
later called the progressive stage system. The Irish system
was actually a modification of Maconochie’s system, and
consisted of four stages:
(1) Solitary confinement or prisoners for nine months,
receiving reduced diet and monotonous work, gradually
progressing to a better treatment toward the end of the first
stage,
(2) Assignment to public works in association with other
convicts,
(3) Sending to a place which was a sort of preparation for
release where the prisoner worked without custodial
supervision, exposing him to ordinary temptations of
freedom, and finally
(4) Release of the prisoner on supervision under conditions
equivalent to parole.
5. Zebulon R. Brockway (1827-1920). He was the
director of the Elmira Reformatory in New York,
1876. He introduced a certain innovational
programs like the following, training school type,
compulsory education of prisoners, caseworks
method, extensive use of parole, indeterminate
sentence.
Regarded as the father of prison reform in the
United States.
• Believed that the primary reason to have a
prisoner in custody was to rehabilitate and not
simply to punish. Warden at the Elmira
reformatory from 1876 to 1900.
6. Sir Evelyn Ruggles Brise – He was the
director of English Prisons who opened
the Borstal Institution after visiting
Elmira Reformatory in 1897. Such
Borstal Institutions today are considered
as the best reform institutions for young
offenders. This system was based
entirely on the individualized treatment.
Other Personalities
• PETER RENTZEL – established a workhouse in
Hamburg at his own expense(1669) because he
had observed that thieves and prostitutes were
hoped that they might improve by work and
religious instruction in a work house.
• DOMETS of FRANCE – established an agricultural
colony for delinquent boys
• THOMAS ALVA EDISON – discovered the electric
chair
Other Personalities
• Karl Menninger: He differentiate punishment is a pain
inflicted over the years for the sake of inflicting pain while
penalty is a predetermined drive leveled automatically for a
crime committed.
• Aristotle: First attempted to explain crimes in his book
“Nicomedian Ethics”. He discussed corrective justice thus
punishment is a means of restoring the balance between
pleasure and pain.
• Elizabeth Fry - An English reformer sometimes referred to
as the "angel of prisons" because of her driving force
behind new legislation to treat prisoners humanely.
Elmira Reformatory Movement
Elmira and the American Reformatory System – The Elmira Reformatory,
New York, a person constructed like typical Auburn Prison, was opened in
1876, with Zebulon R. Brockway as the first superintendent. The
reformatories housed youthful offenders between ages sixteen (16) and
thirty (30) and were first offenders. Under this program:
1. A new prisoner was classified as second grade,
2. Promoted to first grade after six months of good behavior,
3. Another six months of good behavior in the first grade qualified him
for parole. However, if the prisoner committed misconduct, he was
demoted to third grade where he was required to show good behavior
for one month before he could be reclassified to second grade.
Elmira Reformatory
• The is considered as the forerunner of modern
penology because it had all the elements of a
modern correctional system, among which
were a training school type, that is,
compulsory education, casework method, and
extensive use of parole based on the
indeterminate sentence.
OTHERS:
• Devil's island - French penal colony from 1852
to 1959 where
political prisoners are exiled.
• Robben island - A prison complex located at
the coast of Cape town south Africa which
serve as a refugee camp for people afflicted
with leper before converted into a prison.
OTHERS:
• Magna Carta - England's historic document
which states that no man could be imprisoned
without trial.
• Port Arthur - located in Tasmania, Australia, is
a penal colony which is the destination for
the hardest English prisoner during the middle
of the 19th century.
OTHERS:
• Banishment - to force offenders to leave a
country, home, or place by official decree.
• Piracy act of 1717 - was an act of the
parliament of Great Britain that established a
7 years penal transportation to North
America as a possible punishment for those
convicted of lesser felonies.
OTHERS:
• Auburn System - A penal method of the 19th century in
which persons worked during the day and were kept in
solitary confinement at night and silence enforced at all
times.
• Elmira correctional facility - The first reformatory prison.
• Notable elements of Auburn system
a. stripped uniform
b. lockstep
c. silence
• Auburn correctional facility - the site of the first execution
by electric chair in 1890.
OTHERS:
• Pennsylvania system - penal method based on
the principle that solitary confinement fosters
penitence and courage's reformation.
Superseded by the Auburn system.
• Separate system - is a form of prison
management based on the principle of
keeping prisoners in solitary confinement.
National Correction Conscious Week
•
•
•
•
Every last week of October.
By virtue of Proclamation Number 551.
March 15,1995
President FVR
Department of Justice
BUCOR
National Prisons & Penal Farms
Dept. of the Interior & Local Gov’t.
PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT
Provincial and sub-provincial jails
BJMP
District, city and municipal jails
Dept. of Social Welfare & Dev
Centers for youth offenders
The three executive departments of the
government .(Implementation)
1.DOJ - manages the national prisoners
2. DILG - manages inmates who are undergoing
investigation, awaiting or undergoing trial,
awaiting final judgment and those who are
convicted by imprisonment of up to three (3)
years
3. DSWD - manages sentenced youth offenders.
DOJ
A. Bureau of Corrections (BUCOR) - with a principal task of the
rehabilitation of prisoners so they can become useful members
of society upon completion of their service of sentence.
B. Board of Pardons and Parole (BPP) - recommends to the
President the prisoners who are qualified for parole, pardon or
other forms of executive clemency in the form of reprieve,
commutation of sentence, conditional pardon and absolute
pardon.
C. Parole and Probations Administration (PPA) -conducts postsentence investigation of petitioners for probation as referred
by the courts, as well as pre-parole/pre-executive clemency
investigation to determine the suitability of the offender to be
reintegrated in the community instead of serving their
sentence inside an institution or prison; exercises general
supervision over all parolees and probationers and promotes
the correction and rehabilitation of offenders outside the
prison institution.
DILG
A. Bureau of Jail Management and Penology
(BJMP) has jurisdiction over all municipal, city
and district jails nationwide.
B. Provincial Local Government Unit operates all
provincial jails.
C. Philippine National Police (PNP) likewise
maintains detention facilities in its different
police stations nationwide.
DSWD
Operates Regional Rehabilitation Centers and
assumes responsibility for the restorative part
of the correction system by maintaining
centers for the care and restoration of youth
and women who are in conflict with the law.
BUREAU OF JAIL MANAGEMENT & PENOLOGY
Legal Mandate
The Bureau of Jail Management and
Penology came into existence pursuant
to Section 60, RA 6975, which took effect
on 02 January 1991. This is an upgraded
version of its forerunner, the Office of
Jail Management and Penology of the
defunct PC/INP. As mandated by law,
the BJMP shall operate under the
reorganized Department of the Interior
and Local Government as line Bureau.
Oplan Greyhound
- unannounced inspection and
religious conduct of searches of
inmates’ quarters to flush out
weapons and to ensure the safety
and security of inmates, visitors
and personnel.
APPREHENDED
DRUG
COURIERS
Visitors
Inmates
TOTAL
CONTRABAND
CY
CY CONFISCATED
2004
Shabu
2004
309.23g & 96 sachets
Marijuana
47
2.1g & 43 sticks
Cellfones
62
62 units
109
Oplan Decongestion
the
release
of
inmates/prisoners through
the implementation of
applicable laws.
1. A P P L I C A B L E L A W S
Release on Recognizance (RA 6036)
Probation/Parole (PD 968)
Child Welfare Code (PD 603)
Preventive Imprisonment (BP 85)
GCTA (Art. 99, RPC)
2. O T H E R M O D E S of R EL E A S E
Released on Bail
Transfer to BUCOR & Other Penal
Institutions
ACTUAL
IDEAL
1:60
1:7
1 jailguard for every
60 inmates per shift
USA
1 jailguard for every
7 inmates per shift
2:1
2 jailguards guarding 1 inmate
in well-secured facility
ACTUAL
IDEAL
4:1
1:1+1
1 inmate is guarded
4 inmates under the
control of 1 jailguard
by 1 jailguard and 1
overall supervisor
Escort Personnel Requirement = 5,477
(10% of Jail Population)
Singapore
And Japan
2
+
1:1
2 jailguards plus 1 supervisor
escorting 1 inmate
Escort Procedure
• For court appearance: 2:1
Two(2) guards by one inmate(1)
Distance of guards from inmates:
A guard shall keep a distance of not less than
ten (10) paces from his charge.
Living Space:
• The average living space for each inmate is
1.82 square meters, In dormitories inmates
are grouped according to their gang affiliation
or region. Unmarked inmates, foreigners,
youth offenders are remand prisoners are
housed separately.
Institutional Programs
1. Inmate work program
2. Health care
3. education and skills training
4. Recreation and Sports
5. Religious guidance and behavior
modification using the therapeutic community
approach.
Correction
• Prison reform - is the attempt to improve
conditions inside prisons and aiming a a more
effective penal system.
• Rehabilitation - it came from latin word "habilis"
literally fit or suitable. Its meaning was expanded
to mean "restore to sound operation" or "to
establish the good reputation".
Correction
• Halfway house - also called recovery house or
sober house - is a place to allow people to begin
the process of reintegration with society while
still providing monitoring and support; this is
generally believed to reduce the risk of recidivism
or relapse when compared to a release directly
into society.
• Solitary confinement - is a special form of
imprisonment in which a prisoner is isolated from
any human contact, though often with the
exception of members of prison staff.
Total Institution
• “The prison, is a place of residence and work where
a large number of like-situated individuals, cut off
from wider society for an appreciable period of time,
round of life”. A total institution is one that
completely encapsulates the lives of the people who
work and live there. A prison must be such an
institution in the sense that whatever prisoners do
or not do begins and ends there; every minute
behind bars must be lived in accordance with the
rules as enforced by the staff.
Distinction of Jail and Prison
JAIL
1. A place of detention; a place
where a person convicted or
suspected of a crime is
detained.
2. BJMP
3. DILG
4. Holds people awaiting trial
and people sentenced for a
short duration.
PRISON
1. A place of long term
confinement for those
convicted of serious crimes.
2. Bureau of Corrections
3. DOJ
4. Holds people convicted of
crimes; sentenced for a longer
term.
THE COST OF JAILS AND PRISONS TO GOVERNMENT
Sept 11,2011
• Under the General Appropriations Act (GAA),
the subsistence allowance or the budget for
food for each detainee/prisoner is pegged to
P50 per day or P18,250 per year. The
medicine allowance per detainee/prisoner is
P3.00 per day or P1,095 per year. The two
allowances together amount to P19,345 per
detainee/prisoner, whether in the BJMP, or in
BuCor.
Transportation & Food Allowance
• Release:
A. NCR: Fifty pesos(P50.00)-Transportation
Two Hundred(P200.00)-Food
B. Provinces: Free Ticket-Transportation
Two Hundred(P200.00)-Food
What is Competent authority?
• shall refer to the Supreme Court, Court of
Appeals, Regional Trial Court, Metropolitan
Trial Court, Municipal Trial Court, Municipal
Circuit Trial Court, Sandiganbayan, Military
Courts, House of Representatives, Senate,
commission on Electrons, Bureau of
Immigration and the Board of Pardons and
Parole;
What is Carpeta?
• refers to the institutional record of an inmate
which consists of his mittimus/commitment
order, the prosecutor’s information and the
decision of the trial court, including that the
appellate court, if any.
What is Prison record?
• refers to information concerning an inmate’s
personal circumstances, the offense he
committed, the sentence imposed, the criminal
case numbers in the trial and appellate courts,
the date he commenced service of his sentence,
the date he was received for confinement, the
place of confinement, the date of expiration of
his sentence, the number of previous convictions,
if any, and his behaviour or conduct while in
prison.
What is Reception and Diagnostic Center?
• Reception and Diagnostic Center in every
prison which shall receive; study and classify
inmates and detainees committed to the
Bureau.
Quarantine
Upon admission in the Reception and Diagnostic
Center, an inmate shall be placed in quarantine for
at least five (5) days during which he shall be –
1. given a physical examination to determine any
physical illness or handicap or mental ailment and to
segregate those suspected of having an infectious or
contagious disease. If found sick, the inmate shall be
immediately confined in the prison hospital;
2. oriented with prison rules; and
3. interviewed by a counsellor, social worker or other
program staff officers. The interview shall be conducted
in private.
Assignment of inmate
After the quarantine period, the inmate shall
remain in the Reception and Diagnostic Center for
a period not exceeding fifty-five (55) days where he
shall undergo psychiatric, psychological,
sociological, vocational, educational and religious
and other examinations. The results of said
examinations shall be the basis for the inmate’s
individualized treatment program. Thereafter, he
shall be assigned to a prison facility as may be
recommended by a Chief of the Reception and
Diagnostic Center.
• After registration the inmate shall be
photograph front and side view, fingerprint
and assigned a permanent prison number, the
male inmate shall then be given a regulation
haircut and his beard mustache if any, shall be
shaven off.
An inmate shall be admitted in the Reception and
Diagnostic Center of a prison upon presentation of
the following documents;
a. Mittimus/Commitment Order of the court;
b. Information and Court decision in the case;
c. Certification of detention, if any; and
d. Certification that the case of the inmate is not on
appeal.
Note: A female inmate shall be received only at the
CIW.
Form on mittimus/commitment order
The mittimus/commitment order shall be under
the signature of the judge and shall bear the
seal of the court attested by the clerk of court
thereof.
Color of Uniform as to security
classification
The color of the uniform of an inmate shall be
based on his security classification, as follows:
• Maximum security – tangerine
• Medium security – blue
• Minimum security – brown
• Detainee – gray,
Classification of inmates as to entitlement
to privileges
Inmates shall be classified as follows to determine their entitlement to
prison privileges;
1. Detainee;
2. Third Class inmate – one who has either been previously committed
for three (3) or more times as a sentenced inmate, except/those
imprisoned for non-payment of a fine and those who had been
reduced from a higher class;
3. Second Class inmate – a newly arrived inmate; an inmate demoted
from first class; or one promoted from the third class;
4. First Class inmate – one whose known character and credit for work
while in detention earned assignment to this class upon
commencement of sentence; or one who has been promoted from the
second class;
5. Colonist.
Colonist
The Director may, upon the recommendation of
the Classification Board, classify an inmate who has
the following qualifications as a colonist:
a. Be at least a first class inmate and has served one
(1) year immediately preceding the completion of
the period specified in the following qualifications;
b. Has served imprisonment with good conduct for
a period equivalent to one fifth (1/5) of the
maximum term of his prison sentence, or seven (7)
years in the case of a life sentence.
Privileges of a colonist,
A colonist shall have the following privileges:
1. Credit of an additional GCTA of five (5) days for each calendar month while
he retains said classification aside from the regular GCTA authorized under
Article 97 of the Revised Penal Code;
b. Automatic reduction of the life sentence imposed on the colonist to a
sentence of thirty (30) years;
c. Subject to the approval of the Director, to have his wife and children, or the
woman he desires to marry, life with him in the prison and penal farm.
Transportation expenses of the family going to and the discharge of the
colonist from the prison and penal farm shall be for the account of the
government. The family may avail of all prison facilities such as hospital,
church and school free of charge. All the members of the family of a colonist
shall be subject to the rules governing the prison and penal farm;
d. As a special reward to a deserving colonist, the issuance of a reasonable
amount of clothing and ordinarily household supplies form the government
commissary in addition to free subsistence; and
e. To wear civilian clothes on such special occasions as may be designated by
the Superintendent.
An inmates who are spouses
• Husband and wife inmates may be allowed to
serve their sentence together in a prison and
penal farm as soon as both are classified as
colonist.
Revocation of colonist status
The grant of colonist status may, for cause, be
revoked at any time by the Superintendent with
the approval of the Director.
Confinement and Accommodations of Inmate
Place of confinement. – An inmates shall only be
confined in a place declared by the President of the
Philippines by Executive Order to be a place of
confinement of national inmates or by specific
direction of the court, provided that a male inmate
shall be committed directly to and shall be confined
in a prison nearest his actual place of residence. A
prison may also be used as a place of detention for
other classes of inmates or for the temporary
safekeeping of any person detained upon legal
process.
Security compounds
• A prison shall, whenever possible, have
separate prison compounds for the
segregation of inmates according to their
security classification. Each compound shall be
under s Superintendent who is assisted by an
Assistant Superintendent
To view the deceased relative
• Duration of the privilege. – The inmate may be
allowed more or less three (3) hours to view
the deceased relative in the place where the
remains lay in the state but shall not be
allowed to pass any other place in transit, or
to join the funeral cortege.
To view the deceased relative
Distance of travel. – the privilege may be
enjoyed only if the deceased relative is in a
place within a radius of thirty (30) kilometers by
road from the prison. Where the distance is
more than thirty (30) kilometers, the privilege
may be extended if the inmate can leave and
daylight hours of the same day.
Prison Labor
Prison labor of finally convicted inmate. – A
finally convicted able-bodied inmate may be
required to work at least eight (8) hours a day,
except on Sundays and legal holidays, in and
about the prison, public buildings, grounds,
roads, and other public works of the national
government.
Prison Labor
Prison labor of detainee – A detainee may not
be required to work in prison. However, he may
be made to police his cell and perform such
other labor as may be deemed necessary for
hygienic or sanitary reasons.
Female inmate
A female inmates shall only be assigned to work
on jobs suitable to her age and physical
condition. She shall be supervised only by
women officers.
Old inmate
Old inmate. – an inmate over sixty (60) years of
age may be excused from mandatory labor.
Place of work assignment
Place of work assignment – Only medium and
minimum security inmates may assigned to
work in agricultural field projects within a prison
reservation. Maximum security inmates shall
not be allowed to work outside the maximum
security compound.
Work programs
Work programs shall be conducted in prison to
promote good work habits and self-esteem
among inmates and not as a means to exploit
cheap prison labor or as a punishment for
deviant behavior.
Compensation Credits
Inmate compensation. – Six (6) months after
being permanently assigned to work in prison,
an inmate may receive compensation credits at
rates to be prescribed by the Director, provided:
a. He maintains good conduct; and
b. He shows interest and a definite degree of
progress in the particular work assigned to him.
Compensation Credits
• Compensation credits. – Compensation credits shall be
allowed in the payment of those classified on
workmanship classification of skilled and semi-skilled
monthly in accordance with the approved
recommendation of the committee named for this
purpose. A copy of the committee’s recommendation,
duly approved by the Director or the Superintendent,
shall be furnished the Commission on Audit for his
information in connection with his duty of supervising
the proper accountability of the fund created, the
credits to which shall be part of the inmate’s Trust
Fund.
Compensation Credits
Compensation earned, how applied. – the whole or
part of the compensation credits earned by an
inmate may be forfeited and applied to the
payment of supplies and equipment lost or
damaged resulting from the inmate’s misconduct or
willful negligence. One-half (1/2) of said earnings
may be utilized by the inmate to purchase some of
his needs. The remainder shall be withheld, to be
paid to him upon release only. In exceptional cases,
however, upon satisfactory showing of a necessity
for withdrawal, the Director or the Superintendent
may authorize the disbursement of any part of the
amount retained.
Time allowance for Good Conduct and Loyalty
Who may grant Good Conduct Time Allowance
(GCTA). – The Director may grant GCTA to an
inmate who displays good behaviour and who
has no record of breach of discipline or violation
of prison rules and regulations.
Time allowance for Good Conduct and
Loyalty
Effects of GCTA – The good conduct or behaviour of an inmate shall
entitle him to the following dedications from the period of his
sentence:
a. During the first two (2) years of his imprisonment, he shall be
allowed a deduction of five (5) days for each month of good behaviour;
b. During the third to the fifth years, inclusive, of his imprisonment, he
shall be allowed a deduction of eight (8) days for each month of good
behaviour;
c. During the following years until the tenth year, inclusive, of his
imprisonment, he shall be allowed a deduction of ten. (10) days for
each month of good behaviour; and
d. During the eleventh and successive years of his imprisonment, he
shall be allowed a deduction of fifteen (15) days for each month of
good behaviour.
Time allowance for Good Conduct and
Loyalty
• Special time allowance for loyalty. – A deduction
of one-fifth (1/5) of the period of his sentence
shall be granted to an inmate who, after evading
the service of his sentence on the occasion of a
disorder resulting from a conflagration,
earthquake, explosion, or similar catastrophe, or
during a mutiny in which he has not participated,
gives himself up voluntarily to the authorities
within forty-eight (48) hours following the
issuance of a proclamation on announcing the
passing away of such calamity.
conducted four (4) times a day or as often as necessary
to ensure that all inmates are duly accounted for.
Control of prison keys. Only the following shall be
authorized to posses the keys of prison gates, cells,
dormitories and hospitals wants:
a. Gate officer;
b. Officer-of-the-Day or Shift Commander;
c. Keeper; and
d. Custodial or Medical Officer designated by the
Superintendent
Based on his assessment of the prevailing conditions, the
guard in command shall deploy the guards into the following
groups.
1st Group – this is the initial wave of anti-riot assault
contingent who shall be armed with wicker shields,
when these are available. The objectives of this group are to
disperse the rioters and get their leaders.
2nd Group – This is the back-up force of the 1st Group who
shall be equipped with tear gas guns and gas grenades.
3rd Group – This is composed of guards whoa re trained in
the proper handling and use of firearms. Under the direct
command of the guard-in-charge, they shall provide covering
fire to the first two groups.
Infant born to a CIW inmate. – an infant born while
the mother is serving sentence in the CIW may be
allowed to stay with the mother for a period not
exceeding one (1) year. After the lapse of said
period, if the mother of the infant fails to place the
child in a home of her own, the Superintendent
shall make arrangements with the Department of
Social Welfare and Development or any other social
welfare agency for the infant’s care. As far as
practicable, the CIW shall have a nursery staffed by
qualified personnel.
Classification of Sentenced Prisoners
1. Insular Prisoner – is a person who is sentenced to serve a prison term of
(over) three (3) years or to pay a fine or more than one thousand pesos
(1,000.00) or both fine and imprisonment.
2. Provincial Prisoners- one who is sentenced to a prison term of six months
and one day to three years.
3. City Prisoner – is a person who is sentenced to serve imprisonment for not
more than three (3) years or to pay a fine of not more than one thousand
pesos (P1, 000.00), or both fine and imprisonment.
4. Municipal Prisoner – is a person who is sentenced to serve imprisonment
for not more than six (6) months.
Classification Board
Chairman: Superintendent
Vice chairman: Chief RDC
Members: Medical Officer Chief
Education Section Chief
Agro Industrial Section Chief
Secretary: Chief Overseer
Classification of Prisoners according to Degree of Custody or
Security
1. Super Maximum Security Prisoners- – this is a special group
of prisoners composed of incorrigibles, intractable, and
dangerous persons who are so difficult to manage that they
are the source of constant disturbance even in a maximumsecurity institution
2. Maximum Security Prisoners- – thus consists of Chronic
troublemakers but not as dangerous as the super security
prisoners
Classification of Prisoners according to Degree of
Custody or Security
3. Medium Security Prisoners- these are the prisoners who may
be allowed to work outside the fence of the institution under
guard escorts. Generally, they are employed as agricultural.
4. Minimum Security prisoners- this group belongs the prisoners
who can already be trusted to report to their places of work
assignments without the presence of guards. They are free to
move around subject only to curfew houses during the night
time.
Level of Security Facility
1. Super Maximum Security Facility-The Alcatraz is the best
example of a super maximum security facility,
however,the operation cost of such facility is very
SMSF are situated inside the maximum security facility
which is more economical.
2. Maximum Security Facility- Usually enclosed by a thick
wall about 18-25ft high, on top are catwalk in every
corner a tower post manned by heavily armed guards.
Level of Security Facility
3. Medium Security Facility- Usually enclosed by
a two layer wire fences, the inner fence is 1214 feet high with top guard, the outer fence is
8-12feet high distance between the two
fences is from 18-20ft.
4. Minimum Security Facility- the fencing if there
is such, is intended not for the prisoners but
from civilians to deter them from entering the
premise.
PHILIPPINE PRISON SYSTEM
A. National Prison/Insular Prison
1. Bureau of Prisons/Corrections-Muntinlupa City Rizal
a. NBP- Maximum Security Prison
b. Camp Sampaguita- Medium Security Prison
c. Camp Bukang Liwayway- Minimum Security Prison
LT GEORGE M WOLFE
Director
1904 – 1910
First Bureau of Prison Director
BUCOR VS BJMP
BUCOR-Bureau of Prison
BJMP
Reorganization Act of 1905 created
under Dept. of commerce.
Nov. 1,1905
Proclamation No. 495 issued on
November 22, 1989. Change the
agencies' name to Bureau of
Corrections from Bureau of Prisons.
Created by pursuant to Sec. 20, RA
No. 6975
January 2, 1991
Under DOJ
LEILA M. DE LIMA
Secretary of Justice
Under DILG
Mar Roxas
For securing sentence of having a
sentence of 3 years 1 day to life
imprisonment
For detention of having a short
sentence of 3 years and below.
Secretary of DILG
Head – Director of Bureau of
Corrections; appointed by the
President with the confirmation
of the Commission on
Appointments
Franklin Jesus B. Bucayu- Acting
Director
Coverage:
* New Bilibid Prisons (Main Bldg.) Maximum
* Camp Sampaguita - Medium
* Camp Bukang Liwayway - Minimum
* Reception and Diagnostic Center (RDC)
* Correctional Institution for
Women (Mandaluyong)
* The Penal Colonies
Head – Chief of the BJMP;
appointed by the Secretary of
DILG with the confirmation of the
Commission on Appointments.
CSupt DIONY D MAMARIL, CESO
Officer-in-Charge
Coverage:
* cities, municipal and district jails
.
Throughout the country
BJMP Central Office-103 Vargas Building Kalayaan
Avenue, Quezon City.
Jail National Training Institute – Bicutan Taguig
Assistant Regional Director – Head of BJMP Regional
office.
offices.
District/City/Municipal Jail Warden – Head of
district/City/Municipal Jail
Old Bilibid Prison
- Old Prison is located at Oroqieta, Manila, and
Constructed in 1847 by virtue of Royal Decree of the
Spanish Crown.
- Pursuant to Sec.1708 of the Revised Administrative
Code.
- Constructed in a radical Spokes of a wheel form and
Royal Decree in 1865.
- Used today as Manila City Jail.
- Famous name of its name as “ May Haligue Estate”.
The New Bilibid Prison
- Commonwealth Act No. 67
- 1935
- November 15, 1940 -transfer
- January 22, 1941 –name new bilibid prison
- 587 hectares
- shop became a trademark for fine workmanship of
- three security Compounds :
a. Maximum
b. Medium- also known as Camp Sampaguita
c. Minimum-also known as Camp Bukang Liwayway
Penal Farm
1. San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm
- Established on August 21, 1869 in San Ramon, Zamboanga del Sur. For
the confinement of political offenders.
- Was named after its founder Ramon Blanco, a Spanish captain in the
Royal Army.
- It has an area capacity of 1,542.61 hectares.
- It houses maximum, medium and minimum custody types of prisoners.
- Has an average population of 1,200 prisoners.
- The principal product is ´copra, which is one of the biggest sources of
income of the Bureau of Prison. It also produce rice, corn, coffee, cattle
and livestock.
• The San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm
- This penal farm was designed for agro-industrial activities
- This prison and penal farm formerly administered separately from that
of the Old Bilibid, was closed in 1898 during the Spanish-American
War.
- San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm which was closed as a result of the
war was re-opened by virtue of the approval of the Reorganization Act
No. 1407 of November 1, 1905 which created the Bureau of Prisons.
- The Bilibid Prison and the San Ramon prison and Penal Farm became
the nucleus of the present Philippine Prison System.
- General John J. Pershing was the Governor of Mindanao and Sulu, in
1912, he renovated the penal farm.
- San Ramon not only serves as confinement center for prisoners from
Mindanao, but also a receiving station for the Bureau of Mindanao.
Penal Farm
2. The Iwahig Penal Colony
- Establish in Sta. Lucia, Palawan on November 16, 1904.
-Foreman R.J. Shields, with sixteen prisoners left the Bilibid Prison by
order of Governor Forbes, who was the Secretary of Commerce and Police,
to establish the Colony in Palawan.
-Today, they enjoy the reputation of being one of the best open
institutions in the world.
- Only mutual trust and confidence between the wards and the prison
authorities keep them together, without walls of stones and guns.
- It has an area of 36,000 hectares and an average population of 4,000
prisoners.
• The Iwahig Penal Colony
- Americans(1904)
- Iuhit penal settlement
- Reorganization Act No. 1407
- November 1, 1905
- minimum custody
- 41,007 hectares by virtue of Executive Order
No. 67 issued by Governor Newton Gilbert on
October 15, 1912.
The colony is divided into four sub-colonies, namely; Central Sub-colony,
Sta. Lucia Sub-colony, Inagawan Sub-colony and Montible Sub-colony. Each
sub-colony operates as a small institution under the charge of a Penal
Supervisor.
The colony administers the Tagumpay Settlement. The settlement is a
1,000 hectares portion of the colony which was sub-divided into 6 hectares
homestead lots are distributed to released inmates who desire to live in the
settlement.
One of the important feature of the Iwahig Penal Colony is the privilege
granted to colonist (inmates) to their families transported to the colony at
government expense and live with them in the colonist village.
The principal products of the colony are rice, corn, copra, logs, forest
products and cattle.
Penal Colony
3. The Correctional Institution for Women
- Act. 3579 previously passed on Nov. 27, 1929
- In February 14, 1931, the Correctional Institution for women was
established on an 18-hectare piece of land in Mandaluyong to
segregate the women form men prisoners.
superintendent
- Correctional Institution for Women enjoys the privilege of being a
separate institution under the Bureau of Prisons with separate
budgetary outlay and necessary personnel.
- Conduct vocational courses in dressmaking, beauty culture,
handicrafts, cloth weaving and slipper making.
- Ramon Victoria, first Director of CIW
- Elizabeth Fry-first woman to advocate the rights of the women
inmates.
- Smallest penal colony
Penal Colony
4. Davao Penal Colony
- Banana is the major product
- established on January 21, 1932 in accordance with
Act. No. 3732 and Proclamation No. 414, series of
1931.
- General Paulino Santos, its founder then Director of
Prisons.
- The original purpose of this colony was to ease
congestion in the Bilibid Prison and to stop the
Japanese expansion in Davao.
- The area consists of 18,000 hectares mostly devoted
to abaca industry.
- In 1942 this colony was used as concentration
for American War prisoners and the Japanese
devastated the colony, destroying its buildings,
arms, machineries and industries.
- In August 1946, it was reestablished to its
former productive activity by slow
reconstruction.
- It is now the main source of income of the
Bureau from its vast abaca, rice and other
industries.
- The colony has the potential of producing rice
which will meet the whole bureau in rice.
• The colony is divided into three sub- colonies namely ,the
Panabo sub- colony, the Kapalong sub- colony, and the
Nafco sub colony. Each sub colony is headed by the Penal
Supervisor .
The institution also raises rice, corn, kernel, copra and cattle.
• The colony has the potential of producing rice which will
meet the whole bureau in rice.
• The Davao Penal Colony also operates the Tagumpay
Settlement where released prisoners of the colony are
Penal Colony
5.Sablayan Penal Colony
- President issued a Proclamation No. 72,declaring that
some hectares of the virgin Island in Sablayan, Occidental
Mindoro is for the Sablayan Penal Colony.
- September 27, 1954
- Director Alfredo M Bunye persuaded the Secretary of
Justice to make the President agree to the establishment
of a new colony.(Sablayan)
- enjoys the reputation of being the youngest and fastest
growing colony under this Bureau
- Rice is the principal product of this colony
- 16,403.5 hectares
- This institution is an open or minimum
security type of institution.
- It also raises vegetables, not only for the use of
the colony, but also for the inmates of the New
Bilibid Prison
Sub-colonies
Central sub-colony 3. Pasugui sub-colony
1. Pusog sub-colony 4. Yapang sub-colony
Penal Farm
6. Leyte Prison and Penal Farm
- Established on January 16, 1973 during the martial law
period with the aim of regionalizing prisons throughout the
country.
- Proclamation No. 1101 issued on January 16, 1973.
- It was located in Abuyog, Leyte.
- This institution is very similar to the other prison and penal
farm.
Note:
• The oldest Prison in the Philippines is the Fort Santiago in
Manila.
• The NBP Reservation houses the BuCor headquarters
The Reception and Diagnostic Center (RDC)
This is the office where newly arrived
prisoners is processed and evaluated.
Before a prisoners is admitted to the operating
institution, he must stay at the RDC for 60 days
where he will undergo staff interviews,
examination, documentation and initial
classification, this is known as diagnostic
examination.
FOUR SEPARATE BUT COORDINATED PROCEDURES OF
CLASSIFICATION
DIAGNOSIS
1. DIAGNOSIS – the prisoners’ case history is taken and his personality
studied. Through examination and observations, the RDC’s staff
determines the nature and extent of the person’s criminality and
the extent to which he may be rehabilitated.
2. TREATMENT PLANNING – this is the formulation of a tentative
treatment program best suited to the needs and interest of an
individual prisoner, based on the findings of the RDC’s staff.
3. EXECUTION OF TREATMENT PROGRAM - this is in the application of
the treatment program and policies by the classification committee.
4. RE-CLASSIFICATION – the treatment program is kept current with the
inmates changing needs and with new analysis, based on any
information not available at the time of the initial classification
committee meeting of the inmate’s case, which continues from the
time of the first classification until the inmates is released.
1. RECEIVING – The new prisoner is received either in the center (RDC)
or in prison, but later on transferred to the center.
2. CHECKING COMMITMENT PAPERS – The receiving checks the
commitment papers if they are in order, that is, if it contains the
signature of the judge of the signature of the clerk of court and seal
of the court.
3. ESTABLISHING IDENTITY OF THE PRISONER – The prisoner’s identity
is established through the picture and the fingerprint of the
prisoner appearing on the commitment order.
4. SEARCHING THE PRISONER – This step involves the frisking of the
prisoner and searching of his personal things.
5. ASSIGNMENT OF QUARTERS – The new prisoner is then sent to the
quarantines until where he spends five days.(5days)
The Institutionalized Treatment Programs
1. Prison Education – the cornerstone of rehabilitation. It is the process
or result of formal training in school or classrooms intended to
shape the mind and attitude of prisoners towards good living upon
their release.
2. Classes of Prison Education:
a. General and Academic Education – the objective of which is to
eradicate illiteracy among prisoners. This could be the best
contribution of correctional system can offer to society.
b. Vocational Education – the purpose of which is to provide prisoners
necessary skills for successful works in a socially acceptable
occupation after their release.
c. Physical Education – designed for those who have physical disabilities.
d. Work Programs – these are programs conducive to change behavior
in morale by training prisoners for a useful occupation. It is
purposely to eliminate idleness on the part of prisoners, which may
contribute to “Prison stupor”, and it affects the incidence of prison
riot.
Classification of Prison Work Programs
1. Educational Assignments – prisoners maybe assigned to either general
education, vocational or physical education.
2. Maintenance Assignments – the assignment involves labor related to care
and up keeping of the institution properties.
3. Agricultural and Industrial Assignments
4. Unassignable – prisoners who are nearly to leave the institution, awaiting
transfer, those in disciplinary status, and those who are chronically ill with
mental disabilities are considered unassignable prisoners. Prisoners over
60 years of age may be excused from hard work.
Classification of Prison Work Programs
5. Religious Services in Prison – the purpose of this program is to change the
attitudes of inmates by inculcating religious values or belief.
6. Recreational Program – the only program that is conducted during free
time schedule. Activities may include athletics/sports, musical and arts,
social games, special activities on special events, etc.
7. Medical and Health Services – includes mental and physical examination,
diagnosis and treatment, immunization, sanitary inspections, participation
in training.
Issuance of Uniforms
• The newly admitted inmate shall be issued two regulation
uniforms/suits and two t-shirts.
1. 1 blanket
2. 1 mat
3. 1 pillow with pillow case
4. 1 mosquito net
5. 1 set, mess kit, and
6. 1 pair slippers
The inmate shall be held responsible and accountable for the
items issued to him.
Separation and placement center
• An inmate shall,30days before his schedule
date of release, be transferred to the
separation and placement center to prepare
him for reentry into free society, provided he
is not under punishment or an escape risk,
and is cleared of his government property
accountability.
-Time release education.
Pre-release seminar
• All inmates eligible for release shall undergo a
1 day seminar in preparation for his life
outside prison.
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 10575
• AN ACT STRENGTHENING THE BUREAU OF
CORRECTIONS (BUCOR) AND PROVIDING
FUNDS THEREFOR:
• This Act shall be known as “The Bureau of
Corrections Act of 2013″
• Approved: MAY 24 2013
POLICY
• It is the policy of the State to promote the general welfare
and safeguard the basic rights of every prisoner
incarcerated in our national penitentiary. It also recognizes
the responsibility of the State to strengthen government
capability aimed towards the institutionalization of highly
efficient and competent correctional services.
• Towards this end, the State shall provide for the
modernization, professionalization and restructuring of the
Bureau of Corrections (BuCor) by upgrading its facilities,
increasing the number of its personnel, upgrading the level
of qualifications of their personnel and standardizing their
base pay, retirement and other benefits, making it at par
with that of the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology
(BJMP).
The Mandates of the Bureau of Corrections
• The BuCor shall be in charge of safekeeping and
instituting reformation programs to national
inmates sentenced to more than three (3) years.
(a) Safekeeping of National Inmates – The
safekeeping of inmates shall include decent
provision of quarters, food, water and clothing in
compliance with established United Nations
standards. The security of the inmates shall be
undertaken by the Custodial Force consisting of
Corrections Officers with a ranking system and
salary grades similar to its counterpart in the BJMP.
(b) Reformation of National Inmates – The
reformation programs, which will be instituted
by the BuCor for the inmates, shall be the
following:
(1) Moral and Spiritual Program;
(2) Education and Training Program;
(3) Work and Livelihood Program;
(4) Sports and Recreation Program;
(5) Health and Welfare Program; and
(6) Behavior Modification Program, to include
Therapeutic Community.
(c) The reformation programs shall be undertaken by
Professional Reformation Personnel consisting of Corrections
Technical Officers with ranking system and salary grades
similar to Corrections Officers.
(1) Corrections Technical Officers are personnel employed in
the implementation of reformation programs and those
personnel whose nature of work requires proximate or
direct contact with inmates.
(2) Corrections Technical Officers include priests, evangelists,
pastors, teachers, instructors, professors, vocational
placement officers, librarians, guidance counselors,
physicians, nurses, medical technologists, pharmacists,
dentists, therapists, psychologists, psychiatrists, sociologists,
social workers, engineers, electricians, agriculturists,
veterinarians, lawyers and similar professional skills relevant
to the implementation of inmate reformation programs.
Operations of the Bureau of
Corrections
(a) The BuCor shall operate with a directorial
structure. It shall undertake reception of inmates
through its Directorate for Reception and
Diagnostics (DRD), formerly Reception and
Diagnostic Center (RDC), provide basic needs and
security through its Security and Operations
through its Reformation Directorates, and prepare
inmates for reintegration to mainstream society
through its Directorate for External Relations (DER),
formerly External Relations Division (ERD).
(b) The DRD shall be responsible for the conduct
of classification of each and every inmate
admitted to the BuCor. Inmates shall be
classified according to security risk and
sentence. Included in the classification is
determining inmate’s certain skills or talents,
physical, spiritual, social, mental and
psychological evaluation and other behavioral
assessments, as reference of the DRD in the
preparation of individual inmate reformation
programs.
(c) Aside from those borne of the provisions under
Rule 8, Part I, Rules of General Application of the
United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the
Treatment of Prisoners and that of the existing
regulation of the BuCor on security classification
(i.e. maximum, medium and minimum security
risk), inmates shall also be internally classified by
the DRD and segregated according to crimes
committed based on the related penal codes such
as Crimes Against Persons, Crimes Against
Properties, Crimes Against Chastity, so on and so
forth, as well as by other related Special Laws,
Custom and Immigration Laws.
(d) From the DRD, the Custodial Force and Reformation
Personnel of respective security institutions/camps shall
be in charge for the security and the implementation of
the recommended inmate reformation program of each
and every inmate while serving sentence, respectively.
(e) The Directorate for External Relations (DER) shall be
responsible for pre-release and post-release programs of
inmates due for release. The DER shall also classify
inmates according to skills acquired for referral and
endorsement to appropriate companies or corporations
participating in the BuCor On-The-Job Training Programs
for newly reformed inmates. The DER shall also evaluate,
classify and apply necessary programs to inmates for
readiness to join the mainstream society upon release.
(f) Apart from handling inmates, the BuCor shall
Directorates with internal control and internal
audit units.
(g) The BuCor shall employ full computerization
in the build-up, maintenance and transmittal of
necessary inmate records to all its Prison and
Penal Farms and other recipient agencies (i.e.
Board of Pardons and Parole).
Facilities of the Bureau of Corrections
The BuCor shall operate with standard and uniform
design of prison facilities, reformation facilities and
administrative facilities, through all the operating
prison and penal farms, such as the following:
• (a) Dormitory;
• (c) Perimeter/Security fences;
• (d) Hospital/Infirmary;
• (e) Recreation/Multipurpose hall;
(f) Training/Lecture center;
(g) Workshop facility;
(h) Mess hall/kitchen;
(i) Visiting area;
(j) Water tank and pump;
(k) Reception and diagnostic center; and
(l) Service personnel facilities.
Supervision of the Bureau of
Corrections
The Department of Justice (DOJ), having the BuCor
as a line bureau and a constituent unit, shall
supervision with the latter as defined under Section
38(2), Chapter 7, Book IV of Executive Order No.
292(Administrative Code of 1987), except that the
DOJ shall retain authority over the power to review,
reverse, revise or modify the decisions of the BuCor
in the exercise of its regulatory or quasi-judicial
functions.
Organization and Key Positions of the
Bureau of Corrections.
(a) The BuCor shall be headed by a Director who
shall be assisted by three (3) Deputy Directors: one
(1) for administration, one (1) for security and
operations and one (1) for reformation, all of whom
shall be appointed by the President upon the
recommendation of the Secretary of the
DOJ: Provided, That the Director and the Deputy
Directors of the BuCor shall serve a tour of duty not
to exceed six (6) years from the date of
appointment: Provided, further, That in times of war
or other national emergency declared by Congress,
the President may extend such tour of duty.
(b) The Head of the BuCor, with the rank of
Undersecretary, shall have the position and title of
Director General of Corrections. The second officers
in command of the BuCor, with the rank of Assistant
Secretary, shall have the position and title of
Deputy Directors of Corrections. The third officer in
command of the BuCor, with the rank of Chief
Superintendent, shall have the position and title of
Corrections Chief Superintendent. The fourth
officer in command of the BuCor, with the rank of
Senior Superintendent, shall have the position and
title of Corrections Senior Superintendent. The fifth
officer in command of the BuCor, with the rank of
Superintendent, shall have the position and title of
Corrections Superintendent.
(c) The Department of Budget and
Management (DBM) shall rationalize the
existing organizational structure and staffing
pattern of the BuCor in accordance with the
provisions of this Act and relevant compensation
and position classification laws, rules and
regulations.
Increase of Personnel
The BuCor shall maintain the custodial
personnel-to-inmate ratio of 1:7 and
reformation personnel-to-inmate ratio of 1:24.
Hence, it is authorized to increase its manpower
to meet such ratio and may continue to increase
personnel per percentage rate increase of
committed inmates annually or as the need
arises.
Lateral Entry of Officer into the BuCor
In general, all original appointments of officers in the
BuCor shall commence with the rank of Corrections
Inspector wherein applicants for lateral entry into the
BuCor shall include all those with highly specialized and
technical qualifications such as, but not limited to, civil
engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers,
chemical engineers, chemists, architects, criminologists,
certified public accountants, nurses, physical therapists,
dentists, social workers, psychologists, sociologists,
guidance counselors and teachers. Doctors of Medicine,
members of the Philippine Bar and chaplains shall be
appointed to the rank of Corrections Senior Inspector in
their particular technical service.
(2) Colony Assistant Superintendent – Should
have the rank of Chief Inspector, who must have
finished at least second year Bachelor of Laws or
earned at least twenty-four (24) units in a
master’s degree program in management, public
penology, sociology, national security
administration, defense studies or other related
disciplines from a recognized institution of
learning, and must have satisfactorily passed the
necessary training or career courses for such
position as may be established by the BuCor;
(4) Regional Superintendent – Should have the rank of Senior
Superintendent or Chief Superintendent, who must be a graduate of
Bachelor of Laws or a holder of a master’s degree in management,
public administration, public safety, criminology, penology, sociology,
national security administration, defense studies or other related
disciplines from a recognized institution of learning, and must have
satisfactorily passed the necessary training or career courses for such
position as may be established by the BuCor: Provided, That in prison
and penal farms with an inmate population of three thousand (3,000)
but below five thousand (5,000), the Regional Superintendent shall
have the rank and qualification of a Colony Senior
Superintendent: Provided, further, That in prison and penal farms with
an inmate population of over five thousand (5,000), the Regional
Superintendent shall have the rank and qualification of a Chief
Superintendent.
• Any personnel of the BuCor who is currently occupying such
position but lacks any of the qualifications mentioned therein shall
be given five (5) years to comply with the requirements; otherwise,
the personnel shall be relieved from the position.
Attrition System for the Personnel of
the BuCor
There shall be established a system of attrition for the
personnel of the BuCor within five (5) years from the
effectivity of this Act, to be submitted by the said bureau
to the DOJ for approval. Such attrition system shall
include, but is not limited to, the provision of the
following principles:
(a) Attrition by Demotion in Position or Rank – Any
personnel of the BuCor who is relieved and assigned to a
position lower than what is established for the grade in
the respective staffing pattern, and who shall not be
assigned to a position commensurate to one’s grade
within two (2) years after such demotion in position shall
be separated or retired from the service;
(b) Attrition by Non-Promotion – Any personnel
of the BuCor who has not been promoted for a
continuous period often (10) years shall be
separated or retired from the service, except for
those who are occupying a third level position;
(c) Attrition by Other Means – Any personnel of the
BuCor with at least five (5) years of accumulated
active service shall be separated from the service
based on any of the following factors:
(1) Inefficiency based on poor performance during
the last two (2) successive semestral rating periods;
(2) Inefficiency based on poor performance for
three (3) cumulative semestral rating periods;
(3) Physical and/or mental incapacity to perform
one’s duties and functions; or
(4) Failure to complete the required career courses
and/or appropriate civil service eligibility for his/her
position except for justifiable cause or reason.
(d) Separation or Retirement from the BuCor
under this Section – Any personnel who is
dismissed from the BuCor pursuant to the
above-enumerated principles in this section
shall be separated if one has rendered less than
twenty (20) years of service, and be retired if
one has rendered at least twenty (20) years of
service unless the concerned personnel is
disqualified by law to receive such benefits.
(b) Requirements for Promotion –
(1) Any personnel of the BuCor shall not be eligible for
promotion to a higher rank unless one has met the
minimum qualification standards or the appropriate civil
service eligibility set by the CSC, and has satisfactorily
passed the required psychiatric/psychological, drug and
physical test; and
(2) Any personnel of the BuCor who has exhibited acts of
conspicuous courage and gallantry at the risk of one’s life
above and beyond the call of duty, or selected as such in
a nationwide search conducted by any accredited civic
organization, shall be promoted to the next higher
rank: Provided, That these shall be validated by the DOJ
and the CSC based on established criteria.
Standardization of the Base Pay and Other Benefits of the Uniformed Personnel of the BuCor. – In
order to enhance the general welfare, commitment to service and professionalism, the following
are considered uniformed personnel of the BuCor:
CUSTODIAL RANK
REFORMATION RANK
Corrections Chief Superintendent
Corrections Senior Superintendent
Corrections Technical Senior Superintendent
Corrections Superintendent
Corrections Technical Superintendent
Corrections Chief Inspector
Corrections Technical Chief Inspector
Corrections Senior Inspector
Corrections Technical Senior Inspector
Corrections Inspector
Corrections Technical Inspector
Corrections Senior Officer IV
Corrections Technical Senior Officer IV
Corrections Senior Officer III
Corrections Technical Senior Officer III
Corrections Senior Officer II
Corrections Technical Senior Officer II
Corrections Senior Officer I
Corrections Technical Senior Officer I
Corrections Officer III
Corrections Technical Officer III
Corrections Officer II
Corrections Technical Officer II
Corrections Officer I
Corrections Technical Officer I
Previous Board Exam
1. The Iwahig Penal Colony is located at:
a. Palawan
c. Davao
b. Zamboanga
d. None of the above
2.The New Bilibid Prison was established by virtue
of the Revised Administrative Code, specifically
section:
a. 1807
c. 1709
b. 1708
d. 1878
Previous Board Exam
3. The prisoners who cannot be trusted in open condition and maybe
allowed to work outside the fence or walls of the penal institution but
under guards or escorts are known as:
a. Medium Security Prisoners
c. Maximum Security Prisoners
b. Minimum Security Prisoners
d. Super Maximum Security
Prisoners
4. The special group of prisoners composed of incorrigibles and highly
dangerous persons are also known as:
a. Maximum Security Prisoners
c. Medium Security Prisoners
b. Super maximum security prisoners
b. None of the above
5. Maximum security prisoners are confined in the:
a. NBP Main Building
c. Camp Bukang Liwayway
b. Camp Sampaguita
d. None of the above
•
Previous Board Exam
6. The procedure in admitting prisoners which purpose is to insure that the
person being committed is the same as the person being named in the
commitment order.
a. Receiving
c. checking of commitment papers
b. Searching
d. Identification
7. Use of telephone of inmate in prison after showing a good behavior is
earned after 90 days. In such case an inmate is entitled to:
a. 5 minutes
c. 3 minutes
b. not exceeding 5 minutes
d. not exceeding 3 minutes
8. The only program that is conducted during the free time schedule is called:
a. Religious services
c. Recreational programs
b. Prison Education
d. All of the above
•
Previous Board Exam
9. An inmate can view the remains of his relative at a
distance of ___ from the place of confinement.
a. not less than 30 Kilometers
c. 50 Kilometers
b. not more than 30 Kilometers d. 40 Kilometers
10. If an inmate is given the privileged to view the remains
of his relative for:
a. 4 hours
c. 3 hours
b. not more than 3 hours
d. less than 3 hours
Previous Board Exam
11. They are compose the initial wave of anti-riot assault contingent whose
main objectives shall be to disperse the rioters and get their leaders and shall
sticks or batons, when these are available.
a. 1st Group
c. 3rd Group
b.2nd Group
d. 4th Group
12. . They serve as backup force to support the first group and for this
purpose shall be equipped with tear gas, guns and grenades.
a. 1st Group
c. 3rd Group
b.2nd Group
d. 4th Group
13. They are composed of guards trained on proper handling and use of
firearms who shall be ready to fire when the lives of the guards are in peril on
orders of the Officer-in-Command.
a. 1st Group
c. 3rd Group
b.2nd Group
d. 4th Group
Previous Board Exam
14. Which of the following is a place for the confinement of minimum
security prisoner?
A. Camp Sampaguita
C. Quarantine Unit
B. RDC
15. The required ratio in the routinary custody of inmate in Jail is:
A. 1:5
C. 1:7
B. 1:6
D. 1:8
16. A procedure that is conducted in jail and in prison where an inmate
upon arrival at the place of confinement will be stripped out for search
of contrabands.
A. Operation thunderbolt.
C. Operation Bakal.
B. Operation Greyhound.
D. Operation Shakedown.
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