1. What is the United Nations?
2. Why would powerful countries want to control
weaker nations? (imperialism)
3. What is a totalitarian government?
4. If citizens are unhappy with their totalitarian
government, what could they do to change it?
5. THINKER: If the dictator of one country is
implementing harsh laws, do you think the
U.S. should step in and help? Explain!
1. What is the United Nations?
2. Why would powerful countries want to control
weaker nations? (imperialism)
3. What is a dictatorship?
4. If citizens are unhappy with their dictator, what
could they do to change it?
5. THINKER: If the dictator of one country is
implementing harsh laws, do you think the
U.S. should step in and help? Explain!
Gaddafi comes to power
• Gaddafi joined the Libyan
military in 1961
• September 1, 1969 – a small
group of junior military
officers led by Gaddafi
staged a bloodless coup
against King Idris of Libya
• Next, they abolished the
monarchy and created the
new Libyan Arab Republic
• This republic was
immediately deemed a
“rogue state” by the U.S.
President Gamal Abdal Nasser of
Egypt (right) with the Leader of the
Libyan Revolution, Muammar alGaddafi, 1969
Rogue State
• Rogue State – a country whose conduct is
considered to be out of line with international
norms of behavior
• threatening to world peace
• This means meeting certain criteria, such as
being ruled by a dictator, restricting human
rights, sponsoring terrorism, and increasing
weapons of mass destruction
• Usually, rogue states are not supported by
democratic powers or the UN.
• What countries do you think the U.S. considers
rogue states?
Libya under Gaddafi control
• Gaddafi arrested members of the government and
named himself leader, prime minister, and defense
• Libya was now ruled as a single party police state
• Gaddafi soon expelled minority groups (Italians,
Jews) from the country and confiscated their
• He practiced Pan-Arabism, a belief in Arab
nationalism which said all Arabic countries should
join together and form political, economic & military
– Pan-Arabism strongly opposes Western involvement in
Territories of the Arab League
Libya under Gaddafi control
• In 1975, Gaddafi published The Green Book
– “required reading for all Libyans”
– Rejected democracy, free press, and capitalism
• Dissent is illegal - surveillance takes place in
government, factories, and education.
• Political conversations with foreigners is a crime
punishable by three years of prison.
• Gaddafi removed foreign languages from school
• Prisons are run with little or no documentation of the
inmate population or basic data as prisoner's crime and
• The regime has often executed dissenters publicly and
the executions are repeated in state television channels.
• According to the Freedom of the Press Index, Libya is
the most censored country in the Middle East and North
Libya under Gaddafi control
• Gaddafi's used “revolutionary committees” to
repress any political opposition or dissent
– 10 to 20 percent of Libyans work in surveillance for
these committees
• By 1979, the committees assumed control of
all elections.
• 95% of Libya’s economy is from oil production.
• Gaddafi passed laws for government control of
all oil fields (no private ownership),
businesses, and banks.
• By 1982, 100,000 Libyans had fled the country.
Gaddafi’s intervention in Africa
• In 1972, Gaddafi created the Islamic Legion to
unify the region under Arab control (priorities
were Chad and Sudan)
• 1973-1994: Libya invades Chad for control of
Aozou Strip.
• 1977: Libyan-Egyptian War
• In 1972, Libya tried to buy a nuclear bomb from
– Inspectors from the Chemical Weapons Convention
(CWC) verified in 2004 that Libya owned a stockpile
of 23 metric tons of mustard gas and more than
1,300 metric tons of chemical weapons
Gaddafi’s intervention in Africa
• 1978 – war with
• Gaddafi
supported the
inhumane Sierra
Leone diamond
• In 2001, Gaddafi
invaded the
Central African
Libya and International
1971 – Gaddafi threatens France with military
1973 – Irish Navy confiscated ships carrying Libyan
1976 – supported Irish bombing of England
1981 – conflicts between Gaddafi and Reagan (U.S.
prohibited travel to Libya, cut off oil shipments)
1986 – Gaddafi started training Libyan suicide squads to
attack the U.S. and Europe
1986 – bombing of Berlin (starts U.S. bombing of Libya)
1987 – broke off relations with Australia
1988 – Gaddafi ordered the bombing of London Pan Am
flight 103, killing 250 people
In the late 1980’s Gaddafi supported Islamic terrorist
UN Sanctions
• After the bombing of the Pan Am flight, the United
Nations implemented sanctions, or penalties, on
• These sanctions basically cut Libya off from the
rest of the world until 2003
• The sanctions included:
cut airline connections with the outer world
reduced diplomatic representation
prohibited the sale of military equipment.
froze Libya's foreign assets
banned the sale to Libya of refinery or pipeline
2011 Libyan Uprising
• On February 15, 2011 protests spread across the
country calling for new leadership and elections.
• Gaddafi responded with military force, censorship
and blocking of communications
• The uprising escalated into armed conflict, with
rebels establishing a coalition named the
Transitional National Council based in Benghazi.
• The International Criminal Court warned Gaddafi
that he and members of his government may have
committed crimes against humanity
• In early March, Gaddafi's forces rallied, push
eastwards and re-took several coastal cities before
attacking Benghazi
UN Involvement
• On March 17, The United Nations Security council
declared the following:
– no-fly zone over Libya, to prevent the use of military
aircraft against civilians
– freeze the assets of Gaddafi and ten members of his
inner circle and restrict their travel
– referred the actions of the regime to the International
Criminal Court for investigation
• UN Security Council is made up of 15 members
with 5 holding the power of veto (China, France,
Russia, Britain, U.S.)
• The Gaddafi government then announced a
ceasefire, but failed to uphold it
• On March 19, France, U.S., and England sent
planes to control the area and prevent attacks
Cities controlled
by pro-Gaddafi
Cities controlled
by anti-Gaddafi
forces (supported
by coalition
• ABC News Video:

US/ AZ BELLWORK - Ms. Bruggeman's History