Group 2
Christi Felton
Vic Ashdown
Lydia Palma
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Quick Facts
History
Geography
Culture
Economy
Business in the UK
England vs. Ethiopia
UK made up of England, Northern Ireland,
Scotland, and Wales
 Population – 63 Million
 Size - 243,610 km2 (Oregon)
 71.6 % Christian, 23.1% None
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London Fire
London Bridge
Big Ben is NOT a clock
Honeymoons and Lead Cups
England
Scotland
Union Jack
Flag of St. Patrick (Irish)
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Roman Invasion – 55 B.C.-77 A.D.
Roman occupation ends in 407
Extensive clashes with Picts, Scots, Saxons
Wars with Norway, Gaul (France), Danes
Magna Carta – 1215
Wales Conquered - 1283
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First Representative Parliament – 1295
Capture and Death of William Wallace – 1305
1337-1453 Hundred Years’ War
1534 - Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII declared
supreme head of the Church of England
 1605 – Gunpowder plot
 1665 – Great Plague, 1666 – Great Fire
 Imperialism spreads – Early 1700s
 Industrial Revolution – 1750 - 1850
 World Wars – Early 1900s
 Stablization - Present
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0 - 1400
1400-1750
1750 - Present
Regional
Military
Influence
Global
Military
Influence
Global
Economic
Influence
Time Periods in British History
Location is critical to economy
 Proximity to Europe
 North Sea
 Vast natural gas, iron,
oil, and coal deposits
 Being an island lends
to sea capability
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Similar lifestyle to Americans except:
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Afternoon Tea
Driving on the opposite side of the road
Soccer is a favorite sport to watch and play
Royalty
Fish and Chips
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For the first time ever, the UK has more people
aged over 60 than under 16
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British Comedy
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9th Largest in World
3rd Largest in Europe
GDP per capita $35,900, (33rd)
Unemployment Rate is 7.9%
Inflation Rate is 4.5% (2011)
Industries:
 Agriculture: 0.7%
 Industry: 21.6%
 Services: 77.7%
Be Punctual, on time, and never late…
Be prepared for diverse cultural interaction
Rank/Experience matters, show respect
Among friends English tend to be more open but
still reserved in mannerisms
Generational gaps can be significant in terms of
customs
Business Dress
* Business attire is conservative.
* Men should wear a dark colored, conservative business suit.
* Women should wear either a business suit or a conservative dress.
Greetings
* Shake hands with everyone at a meeting upon arrival.
* Maintain eye contact during the greeting.
Titles
* Only medical doctors and the clergy use their professional or academic titles in
business.
* Most people use the courtesy titles or Mr, Mrs or Miss and their surname. (Mr
and Mrs are words in the United Kingdom and do not require a period)
* Wait until invited before moving to a first-name basis.
Business Cards
* Business cards are exchanged at the initial introduction without formal ritual.
* The business card may be put away with only a cursory glance.
Business Gifts
* Business gift giving is not part of the business culture.
* If you choose to give a gift, make certain it is small and tasteful.
ETHIOPIA
GDP = $94.76 billion
Population = 93,815,992
Market Makeup =
 agriculture: 49.3%
 industry: 11.1%
 services: 39.6%
Government System =
Federal Democratic Republic
Trading Partners (Exports) =
 China 13.9%,
 Germany 10.5%
ENGLAND
GDP = $2.25 trillion
Population = 63,047,162
Market Makeup =
 agriculture: 0.7%
 industry: 21.6%
 services: 77.7%
Government System =
Constitutional Monarchy
Trading Partners (Exports) =
 US 11.4%
 Germany 11.2%
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Quick Facts
History
Geography
Culture
Economy
Business in the UK
England vs. Ethiopia
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Capital – Kuala Lumpur
Population – 29,179,952
Government – Constitutional Monarchy
Language – Bahasa Malaysia (official) &
English
Ethnic Groups –
 Malay – 50%, Chinese – 24%, Indigenous – 11%,
Indian – 7%
http://youtu.be/RCDeWHnr19E
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During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established
colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these
were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945.
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In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula
formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in
1957.
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The first several years of the country's history were marred by a
Communist insurgency, Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia,
Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's secession from the
Federation in 1965.
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Race riots occurred in 1969 against Chinese, because of these
riots- bumiputras system was formed by the government.
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“Return to the Village”
Getting away from everyday hectic life
Time to relax and enjoy life
Leave all stress at the door of the spa
Element of the Malaysian value system –
allowing the Malays to return back to their
origins & families
Time for all extended family to come
together.
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Common theme of – “triumph of good over
evil”
Children given gifts – money
Many Malaysians do balik kampung monthly
and even weekly
http://youtu.be/ULeylkSAuLI
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A market-oriented economy and government
policies that provide businesses with the
opportunity for growth and profits have
made Malaysia a highly competitive
manufacturing and export base
Malaysia according to GLOBE study, is a high
power-distance nation
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One of Malaysia's major pull factors is its
large pool of young, educated and trainable
workforce. Many of Malaysia's university
graduates are trained overseas in fields such
as engineering, and accountancy, allowing
them to adapt easily to an international
corporate environment.
http://youtu.be/eyITTdDmQK0
If in a team, introduce the most important person
first.
 Many Malays and Indians are uncomfortable shaking
hands with a member of the opposite sex.
 Foreign men should always wait for a Malaysian
woman to extend her hand. Foreign women should
also wait for a Malaysian man to extend his hand.
 It is important that professional titles (professor,
doctor, engineer) and honorific titles are used in
business. Malays and Indians use titles with their first
name while Chinese use titles with their surname.
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GDP - $447 billion
Labor Force – 11.9 million
Under current Prime Minister NAJIB,
Malaysia is attempting to achieve highincome status by 2020 and to move farther
up the value-added production chain by
attracting investments in Islamic finance,
high technology industries, biotechnology,
and services.
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https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/theworld-factbook/geos/my.html
http://www.mida.gov.my/env3/index.php?pa
ge=vibrant-business-environment
http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/gl
obal-etiquette/malaysia.html
Marketplace refers to the physical areas of a city,
town or rural village where indigenous commercial
activities are concentrated.
 The bulk of Nigerian history can be summed up in
one word: Trade.
 The Marketplace used to be
the center for a town,
it was the center of commerce.
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Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa,
and the 7th most populous in the world.
Its listed among the “Next Eleven” economies
as a major up and coming country.
Consist of 36 states
Nigerians are Hausa, Igbo or Yoruba
Official Language is English
Lagos is the largest city and Abuja is the
capital
$1 is 157.033 Naira
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1960
1966
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1967
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1970
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1979
1983
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1999
Nigeria became an independent federation.
In January, military leaders overthrew Nigeria's
government. In July, a second revolt established
a new military government in Nigeria.
Nigeria's Eastern Region declared itself an
independent republic called Biafra. Civil war broke
out between Biafra and the rest of Nigeria.
Biafra surrendered, and the civil war came to an
end.
Civilian rule was restored in Nigeria.
Military leaders took control of Nigeria's
government.
Nigeria returned to civilian rule.
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Nigeria is considered to represent both the
hope and the despair of Africa.
Considered to be a very corrupted society.
Very patriotic and their allegiance often takes
precedence over national allegiance.
47% Muslim, 38% Christian and 15% other
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Nigeria was included in the 2004 Globe Study
and it was found to be a high on power
distance, high on both institutional and ingroup collectivism, medium on gender
egalitarianism and relatively high uncertainty
avoidance or risk aversion. It also has Nigeria
scoring relatively high on future orientation.
http://youtu.be/ceFQLvNFl1A
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Nigeria has the second largest economy in
Africa and accounts for the highest
production of oil and gas in Africa.
Most exports consist of unprocessed raw
materials besides oil and gas they export
cocoa, rubber, cashew nuts and raw timber
Only 10% of the population controls the
wealth.
Have the central bank of Nigeria, the NSE
(Nigerian Stock Exchange)
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GDP$415 billion – According to Citigroup,
Nigeria will get the highest average GDP
growth in the world between 2010-2050
Population is 107,123,740
Life expectancy is 44-47 years of age
Worlds 13th poorest nation
Member of OPEC since 1960
Fastest growing
Telecommunications
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Nigeria’s economy is a free enterprise
Government policy is to promote the
commercialization, restructuring and
privatization of certain government owned
enterprises.
Seniority Rules in the home and business
Don’t use first names
When greeting someone its encouraged to bow
the head if the greeter is male or bending of the
knees if the greeter is female.
They do not pay much attention to the clock
Factors for Market success in Nigeria.
1. Do not rush out. Nigerian has hundreds of offering their services. Banks, as well
as the department of trade, would be able to offer some qualitative evaluation of
available agents, their financial standing and market performance. Think before
you select.
2. Build relationships.
3. Practice marketing on offensive, no one is waiting for you.
4. Nigeria has more to it than Lagos – so move around, listen and learn.
5. Bureaucracy abounds and Nigeria has its own particular style of bureaucracy.
6. Flexibility is important but you have come out to do a deal, chances are that
you will conclude a bad one.
7. Accentuate the positive, as the old saying goes. British companies follow in
along established tradition of being one of the top suppliers to Nigeria. Source of
origin and home country base maybe accentuating in any bidding situation.
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Home to 62 million children under the age of 15.
20 million are estimated to be malnourished and
41 million living in poverty
1% of Nigerian children are immunized against
basic childhood illness
Education is free up to the 6th grade
Government is finally recognizing the value of
higher education and literacy for rapid
development.
Post secondary institutions are limited and
extremely competitive to get into.
Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and
Ethiopia is the 2nd
 Both are Federal Republics
 Same climate tropical
 Made up of Muslims and Christians
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http://www.uhy.com/media/PDFs/doing_busi
ness_guides/Doing%20Business%20in%20Ni
geria.pdf
http://history.howstuffworks.com/africanhistory/history-of-nigeria.htm
http://www.aneki.com/comparison
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/theworld-factbook/geos/ni.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigeria
The book mentions “The Key in global strategy
is to find the best balance between local
adaptation and global standardization. So
Global Marketing is not a blind adherence to
standardization of all marketing elements for its
own sake, but a different, global approach to
developing marketing strategy and programs
that blends flexibility with uniformity
Can be used to achieve one or more of the four
major categories of potential globalization benefits:
cost reduction, improved quality of products and
programs, enhanced customer preference, and
increased competitive leverage.
 Cost Reduction – consolidation of materials and
workforce. Lower Marketing costs.
 Helps build global recognition that can enhance
customer preference through reinforcement.
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Good ideas in marketing are scarce, so a
globalization program that overcomes local
objectives to allow the geographic spread of a
good marketing idea can often raise the average
effectiveness of programs around the world.
Increased competitive Leverage – focusing
resources into smaller number of programs,
global marketing can magnify the competitive
power of the efforts. Also it can the entire
organization behind one idea. (Avis – “we try
harder because we’re number2!”, not only
communicated to customers but to employees)
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Drawbacks of Global Marketing
 You can’t always use one slogan and translate it
into other languages
▪ Pepsi – “come alive with Pepsi generation” in Chinese it
becomes “come alive! You’re the Pepsi generation!”
 Running the risk of over averaging or aiming for
the lowest common denominator
 The difference in needs and wants from what is
influenced by their regional background
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Global Positioning
 Act of designing the company’s product and
marketing into the mix, to fit in the country
 Internet – website constitutes the company’s
position in cyberspace
 Language – making websites in local language,
higher benefits for company
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Global Brand Names
 Using a globally uniform brand name provides the
easiest way of building global recognition
 The desirability of a global brand name depends
in part on global acceptance of home country
 Requirements:
▪ Broad geographic reach, availability on most continents
and countries
▪ Uniform image and perception by consumers as global
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Global Packaging
 Amount of information needs to be
communicated
 Need for differentiation from local competitors
 Similarity of usage pattern and measurement
systems
 Acceptability of Multilanguage labeling
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Same Copy-Strategy
 Brand positioned in the same way making the
same claims (ex: Colgate)
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Same Script
 Actual execution of advertisement different, but
script is the same.
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Identical Advertisement
 Each country uses the same commercial or
advertisement with only voices translated
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Where to Use Global Marketing
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Conducting Research/Gathering Information
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Company Organization
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Basic Guidelines
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Not appropriate for every country
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Companies face trade-offs between
 Realizing benefits in cost reduction
 Market demand for specialized
marketing
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Large markets vs. Small markets
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Research is IMPORTANT, which kind is best?
 How can global programs work better
 How different countries compare
 What is the best core program
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Pitfalls to Avoid
 Comparing market research head to head with
regional competitors
Ex. Marlboro
May need global account and product managers
When using marketing firms:
▪ Consider using fewer firms rather than a firm for each
market
▪ Marketing network should be grown internally over time,
not through acquisitions
▪ Use fully owned subsidiaries rather than affiliates
▪ Frequent exchange system with managers and staff
between countries
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Marketing can be, and sometimes should be,
uniform
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Each element of the marketing mix has unique
opportunities and threats
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Encourage creativity of marketing managers
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Focus on similarities, not differences
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Avoid comparing to regional competitors
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Nigerian Marketplace - Texas Tech University