Libraries supporting e-Science
--… combining cultures …
Pauline Simpson
National Oceanography Centre
University of Southampton, UK
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Tilburg University
27-31 Aug 2007
Not about Libraries supporting research per se
Open Data
Digital Repositories and Open Access
Vision of ‘joined up research’
Issues for e-Science
Combining cultures, connecting people
– New roles for libraries
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Whoo are you?
Information Specialist
Information Scientist
Information Manager
Information Advisor
Data Librarian
Computer Specialist
Data Manager
Data Technician
Data Processor
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Scientific evolution
 Thousand years ago:
Experimental Science
- description of natural phenomena
 Last few hundred years:
Theoretical Science
- Newton’s Laws, Maxwell’s Equations …
 Last few decades:
Computational Science
- simulation of complex phenomena
 Today:
e-Science or Data-centric Science
- unify theory, experiment, and simulation
- requires data exploration and data mining
(With thanks to Jim Gray)
 ‘e-Science’ is a shorthand for a set of technologies to support
collaborative networked science
 HPC and Information Management are key technologies to
support this e-Science revolution
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
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Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
e-Science – not only
e-Science - data driven
(Natural and Physical Sciences)
e-Research (includes e-Science and Arts & Humanities now joining in – ACLS – report 2004 –
great opportunity to bring new analytic and interpretive power to humanities and social science)
Cyberinfrastructure (NSF : Revolutionizing science and engineering through
CyberInfrastructure, 2003 (Atkins Report)
describes the new research environments in which advanced computational,
collaborative, data acquisition and management services are available to
researchers through high- performance networks … more than just hardware
and software, more than bigger computer boxes and wider network wires.
It is also a set of supporting services made available to researchers by their home
institutions as well as through federations of institutions and national and
international disciplinary programs.
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Key elements of e-Infrastructure
Research Network
International authentication
and authorisation
OS Middleware Engineering
and Software Repository
Access to international Data
Sets and Publications
Portals and Discovery
Digital Curation and
• Remote Access to Large
Scale facilities
• Interoperable Institutional
and Thematic Repositories
• Support for International
• Tools and Services to
support collaboration
• International Grid
Computing Services
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Early Vision of the Grid
J.C.R Licklider - The Computer as a Communication Device (1968)
predicted the use of computer networks to support communities of
common interest and collaboration without regard to location. Foretold
of graphical computing, point-and-click interfaces, digital libraries, ecommerce, online banking, and software that would exist on a network
and migrate wherever it was needed.
“Lick had this concept of the intergalactic network which he believed was
everybody could use computers anywhere and get at data anywhere in the
world. …, but he had the same concept – all of the stuff linked together
throughout the world, that you can use a remote computer, get data from a
remote computer, or use lots of computers in your job. The vision was really
Lick’s originally.” Larry Roberts – Principal Architect of the ARPANET
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
1990’s The Web
• Tim Berners-Lee developed the Web at CERN as a tool for exchanging
information between the partners in physics collaborations
• It was the international particle physics community who first embraced
the Web
• The first Web Site in the USA was a link to the SLAC Library Catalogue
(Stanford Linear Accelerator Center)
 Web has transformed the modern world – science, academia,
business and leisure
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
 Scientists developing collaboration technologies that go far beyond the
capabilities of the Web
– To use remote computing resources
– To integrate, federate and analyse information from many disparate, distributed,
data resources
– To access and control remote experimental equipment
 Capability to access, move, manipulate and mine data is the central
requirement of these new collaborative science applications
– Data held in file or database repositories
– Data generated by accelerator or telescopes
– Data gathered from mobile sensor networks
 Grid = set of services for sharing computing power and data storage. Use
middleware to handle the complex authentication and scheduling, linking
together applications, devices and computing resources as seamlessly as
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Web 2.0
 Web as a platform
– Regardless of operating system – open network enables collaboration and
communication – serves + involves
– Social software all relevant to scientific research
Hannay: CT Quarterly Aug 2007
• File sharing - much used documents, videos, slides
• Tagging (for later retrieval)
• Folksonomies (informal ontologies developed by community)
• Virtual Worlds eg Second Life - education, conferences
• Wikis (OpenWetWare), Blogs (Useful Chemistry)etc
– Library 2.0 (Web 2.0 + Library) – reinvention of the Library?
– Scientific Web?
• Web invented for sharing scientific communication – relatively few scientists
have embraced the potential
• Barriers: social, psychological, technical
• New technology, impacts on the way science is practiced : increase in rate of
new discoveries and exploitation
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Some e-Science projects
 Particle Physics
– global sharing of data and computation
 Astronomy
– ‘Virtual Observatory’ for multi-wavelength astrophysics
 Chemistry
– remote control of equipment and electronic logbooks
 Bioinformatics
– data integration, knowledge discovery and workflow
 Healthcare
– sharing normalized mammograms
 Environment
– climate modelling
– Undersea sensors
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Since September 2003:
61,000 registered participants in 130
countries have…
Donated 5,000 years of computer
Completed 33,000 experiments
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Data Workbench
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Data Workbench
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The ‘Data Deluge’ – science is turning to e-Science
 In next 5 years e-Science projects will produce more scientific data
than has been collected in the whole of human history
 Some normalizations:
The Bible = 5 Megabytes
Annual refereed papers = 1 Terabyte
Library of Congress = 20 Terabytes
Internet Archive (1996 – 2002) = 100 Terabytes
 New high throughput devices, sensors and surveys
 In terms of bytes - moving beyond giga 109 through tera 1012 onto
peta 1015 and onto exabytes 1018
(petabyte (PB) 1015 = 10005 = quadrillion bytes)
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Data-centric 2020 vision resulting from
Microsoft ‘Towards 2020 Science’ (2006) ……………..
Nature 440, (23 March 2006) |
Data gold-mine
‘Multidisciplinary databases also provide a rich environment for performing
science; that is, a scientist may collect new data, combine them with data from
other archives, and ultimately deposit the summary data back into a common
archive. Many scientists no longer 'do' experiments the old-fashioned way.
Instead they 'mine' available databases, looking for new patterns and
discoveries, without ever picking up a pipette.’
‘For the analysis to be repeatable in 20 years' time requires archiving both
data and tools’.
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Data Loss
 e-Science is about improving the use and reuse of research
 Huge amounts of research data cease to exist each year.
– Hardware, software obsolescence
– Represents the loss of expensive intellectual resources; a huge
opportunity cost for comparative and longitudinal research
 Unintentional data loss in the sciences due to:
– lack of incentives to maintain them, or due to neglect (benign and
otherwise – forget where or what it is!
– personal computers, Web sites, blogs, wikis, e-mails, digital photo
and film etc.
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Digital Preservation
 “Digital information lasts forever, or five years,
whichever comes first” Jeff Rothenberg, RAND 2001
Practical Physical Lifetime
Av. Time to obsolete
Optical (CD
Digital tape
Magnetic disk
5-59 years
2-30 years
5-10 years
5 years
5 years
5 years
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Preservation - Trusted Repositories
 Preservation
– UK Digital Curation Centre: advice, tools & services
• RepInfo Registry – representation information adding meaning to data for preservation
– EU CASPAR Integrated Project
– EU Task Force on the Permanent Access to the Records of Science
– EU projects DPE and PLANETS
(leverage library and archive experience)
 Long-term access: trust, responsibility, policy
– Trusted DR Audit Checklist for Certification Draft - Research Libraries
Group-NARA Taskforce 2005
• Defined criteria under 4 categories
Functions, processes & procedures
Designated community & usability
Technologies & technical infrastructure
• Can these concepts be extended to data repositories?
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Key drivers for e-Science
 Access to Large Scale Facilities and Data
– eg CERN, EBI , etc
 Need for production quality, open source
versions of open standard GRID
– eg. OMI, NMI, C-Omega
 Imminent ‘date deluge’ : Particle physics,
astronomy, bioinformatics
 Data Loss/Preservation
 Open Access movement
– Publications AND Data
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Open Data
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Open Access – Wellcome Trust
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Open Access to Data – European Research Council
 It is the firm intention of the ERC Scientific Council to issue specific
guidelines for the mandatory deposit in open access repositories of
research results -- that is, publications, data and primary materials -obtained thanks to ERC grants, as soon as pertinent repositories become
 The ERC Scientific Council moreover hopes that research funders across
Europe will join forces in establishing common open-access rules and in
building European open access repositories that will help make these
rules operational.
 To facilitate this process for EU funded research, it recommends that the
European Commission sets up a task force including representatives from
the various FP7 programmes … to develop an operational FP7 policy on
open access by the end of 2007 …
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
 Jan 2004 : Promoting Access to Public Research Data for
Scientific, Economic, and Social Development
 Open access to, and unrestricted use of, data promotes scientific
progress and facilitates the training of researchers
 Open access will maximise the value derived from public investments
in data collection efforts
 The risk that undue restrictions on access to and use of research data
from public funding could diminish the quality and efficiency of
scientific research and innovation
 Dec 2006 : Recommendation of the Council concerning
Access to Research Data from Public Funding
“each Member country, to develop policies and good practices related
to the accessibility, use and management of research data”
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Open Access to Data following OA for Publications
 1990’s – Subject Repositories (high energy physics,
economics, mathematics etc).
 HEP (ArXiv) v.successful
 Economics (RePEc) - successful
 Limited success otherwise
 1994 ‘Subversive proposal’ (Harnad)
 2000’s - Institutional Repositories
 Powered by Project funding, driven by the Information
Community (Libraries)
 Libraries already supporting e-Science by development of OA
digital repositories of research publications – providing global and
immediate discovery and access to new research
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Over 900/1400 repositories
Over 20 Different Software Systems
Repository Growth
Directory of Open Access Repositories(DOAR)
ROAR Registry of Open
Access Repositories
112 Repositories in 2002
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Digital Repositories – where are we?
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Repository Landscape
• Subject • Institutional –
arXiv, Cogprints, RePEc,
Universities, Research Institutes -Southampton, Glasgow, Nottingham
(SHERPA), Max Planck
National National / Subject
International Regional Consortia Funding Agency –
Project Conference Personal –
Media Type -
DARE (all universities in the Netherlands), Scotland IRIS),
- OceanDocsAfrica
Internet Archive ‘Universal’, OAIster (Harvester)
White Rose UK
SHERPA-LEAP (London E-prints Access Project)
NIH (PubMed), Wellcome Trust (UK PubMed), NERC (NORA)
Public Knowledge Project EPrint Archive
11th Joint Symposium on Neural Computation, May 2004
Peer to peer
VCILT Learning Objects Repository, NTDL (Theses),
Museum Objects, Exhibitions
• Publisher –
Journal archives
• Data Repositories - UK Data Archive; World Data Centre System; National
Oceanographic Data Center(USA)
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Support - Declarations on Open Access
 Berlin Declaration in Support of Open Access 2003 (50 + signatories)
Germany: Fraunhofer Society, Wissenschaftsrat, HRK, Max Planck Society
Leibniz Association, Helmholtz Association, German Research
Foundation, Deutscher Bibliotheksverband
Austria : FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds
Belgium : Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek – Vlaanderen)
Greece : National Hellenic Research Foundation
The IFLA Statement on Open Access to Scholarly Literature and Research
Documentation 2004
India, Australia, China, Africa, USA …
Scotland (2005) 16 Universities and Research Orgs
Russell Group (UK Universities) 2005
Buenos Aires, British Columbia, Bethesda Statement (2003)
Budapest Open Access Initiative Feb 2002 (Soros Open Society Institute)
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Support - Mandates for Open Access
 Real mandates:
– Wellcome Trust
– RCUK (Research Councils UK)
– Universities – Southampton UK, Minho Portugal, NIT India, CERN …
 Proposed mandates: public funders
– DFG, Germany; FWF, Austria; DARE network; Finland; USA; Sweden (?)
– Canada, Australia, India, S.Africa, Ukraine etc
 NIH:
Strengthening now very likely, Require not request
 CURES Act: 6-month delay to OA permitted but must deposit at acceptance
Mandatory deposit: all research funded by the
largest agencies Federal Research Public Access Act
 EU :
Petition for guaranteed public access to publicly-funded
research results, Feb 2007
Signed by 20,000 individuals, 500 educational, research and cultural
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Open Access Research Repositories - developing
• There will be many types of
repository software and more
powerful interoperability
protocols such as OAI-ORE (need
more than OAI-PMH to enable sharing
and reuse)
• Thematic and Institutional
Repositories contain not only full
text versions of research papers
but also ‘grey’ literature such as
technical reports and theses
• In addition, repositories in the
future will also contain data,
images and software
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
UK JISC Projects –linking text and data
Source-to-Output Repositories
Exemplar : eBank UK – linking research: data,
publications, learning objects …
New JISC Call for data related
projects 2007
Geospatial data in IRs and issues
around reuse
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
More digital repositories more content
 Publications, working papers, primary data, audiovisual,
 Hardware in research labs will automatically deposit
experimental data
 Desktop tools will deposit content
 Rich data flow between networks of repositories
 Rich data flows between repositories and other components
in information landscape
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Federation of Digital Repositories
Federated repository architecture (joined up research)
• Global
• Data, publications, images…
e-Research Framework
Multiple format types
Defining common services +
domain-specific services +
repository services
From Andy Powell:
heterogeneous - metadata
formats, content formats,
identifiers, packaging
homogeneous - metadata
formats, content formats,
identifiers, packaging
fusion layer ‘repository federator’
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
End to End
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
(With thanks to Tony Hey)
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Issues for e-Science
 Macro and micro issues are similar for
both text and data repositories:
 IPR and Licenses **
Distributed over many researchers
Over National boundaries
 Lack of awareness amongst researchers
 Cultural roots and resistance to change
 Funding
 Policies
 Standards
 Interoperability
 Vocabularies
** Necessary to understand science practices:
technical social and communicative
structure in order to adapt licensing
solutions to the practice of e-Science.
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Arzberger, P. et al Science 2004 303. 1777 –
1778. DOI: 10.1126/science.1095958
Research Issues:
information retrieval,
information modelling,
ontologies, authentication,
systems interoperability, and
policy issues associated with
providing transparent access to
complex data sets
Combining Cultures
Many of the same research issues
that the international digital library
community has been grappling
with for the past decade.
 NSF Report “Long lived digital data
collections”. 2005
“Data scientist” - hybrid skills
 Facilitate collaboration
– “Multidisciplinary teams: computer
scientists, domain scientists, digital library
experts, statisticians/modellers
– Lessons learnt: e-Science Human Factors
Audit Report (to be published 2006?)
Roy Kawalsky, Loughborough
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Combining Cultures
NSF Report :
 “It is timely to seriously consider the role that digital libraries can and
should play in this emerging e-Science computational infrastructure”.
 “Bringing the digital library and the emerging scientific infrastructure
worlds together can lay the foundation for providing truly integrated
support for the entire process of science, from formulation of research
questions to the publication of the outcomes”.
 “Specifically, the e-Science and digital libraries research communities
need to work together to identify the potential contributions of each
of these communities for supporting the conduct of science and to
articulate a shared research agenda”
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Calls for Combining Cultures for e-Science needs
– EU Framework 7 – e-Research Infrastructure development
– UK – JISC – Report on future requirements for curation and
– Australia DEST – e-Infrastructures Reflection Group includes CAUL
(Council of Australian University Librarians) member - Interim Report
– UK –CURL/SCONUL Joint e-Research Task Force (2006)
– USA – ARL Libraries and Changing Research Practices (2004)
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
CURL/SCONUL Joint e-Research Task Force Nov 2006
Terms of Reference
1. To raise awareness and understanding of the issues associated with support of
e-research in CURL and SCONUL member libraries and to stimulate discussion
about them at institutional level.
2. To position CURL and SCONUL member libraries’ staffs to engage with their local
e-research stakeholders and to encourage them to make appropriate inputs at
the research proposal stage.
3. To identify skills gaps in relation to support of e-research and to assist member
libraries in addressing them.
4. To work with other e-research stakeholders, including the DCC, RLN and BL, to
ensure that information management to support e-research is a high priority for
future investment by funders.
5. To advise the CURL Board and the SCONUL Executive Board on matters relating
to the support of e-research.
6. To monitor, and report on, the Group’s progress against an action plan agreed
annually by the CURL Board and SCONUL Executive Board.
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Has your library engaged with the e-Research agenda?
 Management of the large datasets is likely area of
 Why are libraries not already involved:
– Lack of foresight by librarians?
– No e-Science funds for development of data management
in libraries – no call for projects
– No Customer demand for data curation
• Data curation - whose responsibility, individual, institution,
national or international?
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
WP 1 - Information and awareness
Recruit network of e-research liaison contacts in HE library & information
services; establish JISCmail list
Survey of e-research activity, e-research support requirements, and e-research
support work within HEIs (coordinate with WP2 needs analysis)
Survey of the policy and practice of research funders in relation to data curation
Disciplinary mapping of existing data curation services and gaps in provision
WP 2 - Workforce development
Training & development needs analysis (link with WP1 survey activity on
researcher support requirements)
Design, commissioning and delivery of training and development events for HEI
library & information services staff
WP 3 - Research Intelligence
Maintain awareness of funding and bidding opportunities for the eRTF
Lead on bid drafting
(with WP1) identify potential case studies/exemplar projects for development
with DCC
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
 Engaging ARL members in the development of new roles for libraries as
e- Science infrastructure and service needs emerge at research institutions and
promoting the contributions of research libraries in this arena.
 Identify the skills needed as information professionals move into the emerging
e-Science landscape and encouraging the development of information
professionals prepared to assume new roles.
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
ARL Workshop Recommendations
NSF should fund projects in which university research libraries develop
deep archives of irreplaceable data, assuring descriptions of these data
at a minimal level (floor, not ceiling) and facilitating discovery and
access to these data, according to prevailing community standards
NSF should partner with IMLS to train information and library
professionals (extant and future) to work more credibly and
knowledgably on data curation as members of research teams
NSF should foster the training and development of a new workforce in
data science
 Promote new curricula
 Develop new programs
 Link to training of domain scientists and information/library
ARL Workshop on New
Collaborative Relationships Sep 06
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Shared Goals and Responsibilities
 Data Authors
 Data Managers
 Data Scientists
 Data Users
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Digital Data
Research and
Education in
the 21st
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Combining cultures, connecting people
Information Specialist
Information Scientist
Information Manager
Information Advisor
What is a data scientist?
Data Librarian
Computer Specialist
Data Scientist
Data Manager
Data Technician
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Data Scientist
New skills requirements:
data curation
Integrate data management
within the LIS curriculum
Various approaches to develop and
obtain digital curation skills
Skills are there but often in discrete
communities: we need to bring
communities together
Integration within the curriculum:
undergraduate students, library &
information science, archival studies,
computer science
Provide recognition and a career
path for emerging ‘data scientists’
 There must be a blurring of the boundaries between previously well
defined silos that existed between information managers and
data managers
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Connecting People – how to
Encouraging partnerships - Inter-institutional partnerships
Institutional management support
Competencies – shared and developed
Common issues – authentication, metadata, ontologies, standards, IPR,
New curricula - CPE
Share experience of Institutional repositories- libraries fundamentally
transforming research publication practices and scholarly communication
forerunner of e-Science
Libraries involved in the research underlying the design of e-Science. Is there
new research on Digital Libraries over the Grid
Funding Agencies – JISC, NSF, EU etc
– define project members from library and data communities
– promote the necessary international dialog between communities
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007uuee
Role for Libraries in digital data universe
• Data as primary source material –
Libraries :
– Will not be primary providers of large
scale storage infrastructure required
– Will not provide the specialized tools to
work with data
– Will not provide the detailed information
about the data
– Unlikely to provide the solutions to
digital preservation because of cost
Can contribute library practices :
• Data as part of ‘enhanced
publications’ – Libraries:
– Well positioned to define standards
• Taxonomies and ontologies (for
complex publications that include data)
Persistent identifiers
Consistent description practices
Data structuring conventions
Interoperability protocols for
searching and retrieval
• Collection policies (appraisal, selection,
– Well positioned to exploit IR
weeding, destruction etc)
• Data clean up, normalisation, description
and submission to repositories
• Data Citation
• Curation and Preservation
• Collaboration with researchers re
scholarly communication ,deposit,
education and training
• Innovative discovery and presentation
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Role of Digital Libraries - IRs
 Institutional repository is a key component of e-infrastructure
Mostly in library domain
Access and preservation
Digitization – data archaeology
Interoperable with departmental, national, subject repositories
 Data Curation
– Creation, metadata, preservation institutional intellectual assets
• but disparate data types and ontologies
 Training Provision
– Research methods training for researchers
• Data creation, documentation, management
 Advocacy, policy setting
– Cross disciplinary approach to key issues
• Expand OA agenda
– Interweave e-Research, OA and
– Virtual Research Environments
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Roles for Libraries
 Institutional repositories accept ‘small’ datasets (size or subject outside
remit of Data Repositories). Data deposited in IR until accepted by data
 Development of Regional or Discipline Repositories alongside IRs (singly
or consortia) . Research libraries a natural home for content curation,
(with funding)
 Mapping of commonalities (eg metadata) across disciplines, maintaining
ready interoperability
 Management of metadata throughout a research project
 Address conditional and role-based access requirements for scientific
 Support e-Science interface functions for local users
 Adding Value: linking, annotation, visualization
 Libraries and researchers can add value by creating ‘e-Science Mashups’ data needs to be re-used in multiple ways, on multiple occasions and at
multiple locations (reuse, remix)
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
The “mash-up”
Data from
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Role for Libraries – build on the strengths
 Serving the needs of the scientific community
 Systematically managing and making accessible information from
heterogeneous sources
– Metadata, discovery mechanisms, portals, VRE , “Science World”
– Publication and Citation
– Selection and use of tools and resources
– Digitization of legacy content
– access management, copyright, IPR, Licenses
– Curation and Preservation advice
 Provide specialist assistance to end-users
– expertise in user services and training
Exploit strengths in designing and implementing innovative and
useful e-Science information infrastructure.
 Reduce the risk of "re-inventing the wheel".
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Lyon, Bielefeld Conference Feb 2006
Facing the future
 Build Institutional Repositories
 Develop leadership & vision for e-Research engagement
– Web 3.0?, Semantic web - publishing?
 Review organisational structures
– Extend & re-profile the Faculty/Subject/Reference Librarian role?
– Closer collaboration with Computing Services, and Data Services?
 Provide eServices for data
– We “do” e-Learning so why not e-Research?
– Include in institutional digital asset management
 Promote professional development of staff
– Awareness-raising activities, new skills
– Greater engagement, hybrid roles and hybrid teams
 Build new partnerships, new business models , new research
 Facilitate Transformational Change in Libraries
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Combining Cultures, Connecting People for e-Science
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
With special thanks to
Prof Tony Hey, Vice-President for Technical Computing. Microsoft Corporation ,
(previously Director of UK e-Science Programme)
Dr Liz Lyon,
Director, UKOLN
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007
Thank You
Pauline Simpson ;
1. What is the role of libraries in supporting e-research?
2. What are the risks of :
getting involved?
not getting involved?
3. Should e-research data be held locally or in large-scale
4. What skills are needed
to manage and curate e-research data?
to advise researchers on e-research data management?
Do we have them?
5. Who pays for the e-research information infrastructure?
Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007