Careers in Science and Engineering OR Everything you might never hear about cool science careers that we want you to know! Part I: Science and Alternative Careers Developed by Mark Hartman, Emily Dunkel GK-12 Fellows: Harvard University & Cambridge Public Schools Sponsored by National Science Foundation How much is a “good” salary? City of Cambridge (2003) Apartment Size Typical Monthly Rent Minimum Household income required (assume 30% goes toward rent) 1 Bedroom $1400 $56, 000 2 Bedroom $1725 $69, 000 3 Bedroom $2300 $92, 000 HUD estimated median income for family of 4: $80,800 How to think about salary Some jobs are offered as a salary per year, others as wages by the hour. Assuming a 40 hour week, a year is 2000 hours and the following rates of pay are equivalent: Yearly salary $10,300 $20,000 $30,000 $50,000 $80,000 Hourly wage $5.15 (minimum wage) $10.00 $15.00 $25.00 $40.00 Higher Degree = More Earnings Average Yearly Salary / Cost 70,000 60,000 Salary 50,000 40,000 "1 bedrm Apt in Cambridge" doctorate master's bachelor's 2-yr college hs diploma no hs diploma 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 What do you want to be? Physician? – Median salary up to $100k/yr ($250k for surgeons) – 4 years of university (you pay) – 4 years of medical school (you pay) – 4 years of residency (you make about $40k/year) – Malpractice insurance anywhere from $50k – $200k per year Lawyer? – Median salary around $80k / year – 4 years of university (you pay) – 3 years of Law school (you pay) – Pass Bar Exam – High profile lawfirms pay well but require much more than 40 hours of work per week for the first 2-3 years Musician? – Begin training at early age – 40% are part-time – Talent alone is no guarantee of success – Few benefits (vacation, health insurance) – Median salary $36,500 (although highest 10% earn above $96,000) Professional Athlete? – Extreme dedication, irregular work hours – 37% part time, 27% self-employed – 8 to 10 years of preparation (college, farm teams, etc.) for a career of only a few years, due to injury or age – Median salary: $45,000 (although highest 10% earn above $145,000) Science/Engineering? – Salaries range from $30k – $100k/yr depending on education… – Training without 4 year college: Level of education Time commitment past high school Yearly tuition What you get Level of ($1k = $1000) when you science job come out you are prepared for High School -- -- Diploma Community college/Tech School 2 years $2k – $3k Associate in Technician / Science (A.S.) Data analyst degree Military service 2-3 years You GET paid Technical Technician/ skills, GI bill to Data analyst pay for college if you want Basic technician / Data entry Science/Engineering? – 4 year college/university and beyond: Level of education Time commitment Yearly tuition What you get Level of job when you you are come out prepared for College / University 4 years $5k – $15k (public) $20k – $35k (private) Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree Engineer, Programmer, Lab technologist, grad student Graduate School 2 years beyond University You GET paid OR Same as university above Master of Science (M.S.) degree Same as above, but with equivalent of 2-3 years experience Graduate School 5-6 years beyond University You GET paid $17k – $30k Ph.D. (Doctor Professor, of Philosophy) senior engineer, senior scientist Overarching Science/Engineering Skills Complex problem solving (analyzing): – Seeing a large problem as made of its essential parts. Teamwork: – Almost no one works on their own in the real world! Creativity (synthesizing): – Bringing together seemingly unrelated pieces of information and skills to accomplish a new task! Biology: Life Sciences Median total cash compensation of some jobs in survey of 12, 600 individuals employed in the life sciences: Research Vice Presidents/Directors 2 or 4 year degree $142,000 Research Managers $139,000 Chief Operating Officers $129,000 College/University Department Heads $129,000 "Distinguished" Researchers $126,000 Professors (12-month appointment) $118,000 Research Section Heads $108,387 Government Section Heads $98,000 Laboratory Directors $90,000 Research Unit Supervisors $85,000 Professors (9-10 month appointment) $85,000 Laboratory Managers $53,000 Intermediate Researchers $50,250 Assistant Professors (9-10 month appointment) $49,713 Secondary School Teachers $44,200 Post-Doctoral Researchers (12-month appointment) $36,366 Laboratory Technicians $35,000 Intermediate Research Technicians $33,000 Source: Abbott, Langer & Associates, Compensation of Life Scientists in the United States of America – 2003, published 9/03 Biology: Life Sciences Zoo Keeper / animal care (HS, 4 year degree) – Care for lab or exotic animals Ecologist (4 year degree) – Analyze human environmental impact Food Science (4 year degree) – Study how nutrition is affected by additives, contaminants Genomics/Bioinformatics (graduate degree) – Extract statistical information from genetic material to develop new therapies, drugs Chemistry Chemical Technician (2 year degree) – Monitor production – Salary: $30k – $40k Chemical Sales (only 60% have chemistry degree) – Connect labs with customers – Speak foreign languages – Salary: $24k – high $40k Forensic Chemist (4 year degree) – Give evidence in court – Salary: high $30k – $60k Oil and Petroleum chemist (graduate degree) – “Fingerprinting” oil from a spill – Develop new plastics – Salary: mid $40k – $60k (BS), mid $80k – $95k (doctoral) Physics Bachelor’s Degree Holders Salary Ranges Master’s Degree Holders Ph.D. Holders Where do Physics B.S. holders go? Physics Telescope operator (4 year degree) – Perform the art of accurate observations Video Game Designer (4 year degree) – Program realistic 3D motion String Theorist (graduate degree) – Question the beginning of the universe/nature of reality – Probe smallest and largest scales of the universe Mathematics Statistician, IRS (2/4 year degree) – Analyze spending and identify patterns Actuary (4 year degree) – Calculate odds of accidents, death – Salary: $37k with Bachelor’s Computer encryption (graduate degree) – Develop algorithms to protect data transmission Gambling (for the Casino!) (4 year degree) – Calculate odds and advise owners on payouts Cross-Disciplinary: Government/Policy Bioethics advisor (Ph.D) – Should we do cloning? NSF grant administrator (B.S. – Ph.D.) – Help determine who’s science gets your tax money Genetic counseling (B.S. – M.S.) – Explaining options to parents-tobe Congressional science advisor / lobbyist (B.S.) – Nuclear waste, alternative energy Media / Arts Science Journalist (B.S.) – Convey difficult topics to the public Playwright (B.S. or “Life experience”!) – “Copenhagen”: Best Play Tony Award 2000 Science museum staff / director (High School, B.S.) – Develop engaging programs/exhibits Technology artist (High School, B.S.) – Andrea Polli: Atmospherics/Weather Works Historian of science (B.S. – Ph.D.) – Letter from Einstein to Roosevelt Business / Law Wall Street Analyst (M.S. – Ph.D.) – Apply complex mathematical modeling – Predict behaviour of stock market Intellectual property / Patent law (J.D.—law degree) – guarding rights to original ideas Degree Statistics High School Diploma (or more) Some college (or more) Bachelor’s Degree (or more) All 90.2 58.0 30.5 Professional/speci alty 99.2 93.4 76.7 Technician and support 98.8 78.5 30.4 Administrative support: secretaries/office workers 96.3 55.2 15.6 Profession Source: US Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March 1999 • Only about 25% of the US population has a bachelor’s degree! (34% in Massachusetts) • Although science jobs can be found at all levels, a B.S. degree gets you more opportunities and higher pay! If you forget everything else, remember this! The skills you develop in science classes are VERY widely applicable and valuable. Satisfying, well-paying jobs in science and engineering are available at ALL levels of education. Attempting higher degrees opens many more doors for interesting jobs and higher pay. If you don’t do it, who will be the engineers and scientists in the future?