IS Management Introduction and
Issues

CIS 679 Management of Information
System
New Jersey Institute of Technology
First Set of Notes for course

© Copyright 2000 Murray Turoff


(c) Murray Turoff 2000
1
First Set: Table of Contents





Management Challenges & Issues
Specific Management Functions
Forecasting Methods
IS Issues Overview
Historical IS Background
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
2
Management of IS wisdom







Learn the signals of problems
Act to minimize mistakes based upon signals
No rules only understandings work
Be aware of alternatives and what is going on
externally as well as internally
Be both a risk taker and a risk avoider
Be flexible, calm, recognize talent and advance
it
Don’t build empires
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
3
Management IS Problems I



New generations 3-7 years
 Hardware & Software
Highly skilled people
 Short supply
 Highly priced
 Too specialized
 Too many unskilled
 Mavericks
 Rapid Obsolescence
Rapid cost changes
 Relative bases
 Declining & Increasing
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
4
Management problems II


Shifting applications
 Clerical automation
 Office automation
 Management information
 Decision support
 Strategic relevance
 Collaborative Systems
Foreign vocabulary to users
 MIS, GDSS, AI, VR, CMC, Expert
Systems
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
5
Management problems III

Multiple objectives


Reductionism training & approaches


Tradeoffs (not optional)
Difficult to deal with or see forest
Changing management wisdom
No recipes
 Management rules change


Scope, Size & Complexity
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
6
Grand management issues for IS




MIS quarterly, December 1991, June
1996
Delphi study
Every four years
IS executives


Chief Information Officers (CIO)
200 – 300 participated
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
7
Rank order of issues I






1991 original ranking (#), 1996 issue
1. Developing information architecture,
(6)
2. Effective use of data resource,
Facilitating and Managing Business
Process Redesign
3. Improving IS strategic planning, (13)
4. Specifying, recruiting, and
developing IS human resources, (1)
5. Facilitating organizational learning
and use of IS technologies, (10).
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
8
Rank order of issues II





6. Building a responsive it
infrastructure, (9)
7. Aligning the IS organization with
that of the enterprise, (2)
8. Using information systems for
competitive advantage, Recruiting and
developing IS human resources.
9. Improving the quality/effectiveness
of software development, (7)
10. Planning, implementing, and
managing telecommunications
networks/systems, (3)
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
9
Rank order of issues III





11. Increasing understanding of role and
contribution of IS. Implementing and
Managing Collaborative Support Systems
12. Enabling multi-vendor data
interchange and integration, (16).
13. Developing and managing distributed
systems, Increased understanding of IS role
and contribution
14. Planning & using case technology, (5)
15. Planning and managing the
applications portfolio, Managing the
existing portfolio of legacy applications.
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
10
Rank order of issues IV





16. Measuring the IS effectiveness and
productivity, (18)
17. Facilitating and managing decision and
executive support system, (8)
18. Facilitating and managing end-user
computing, planning, integrating, multivendor, and open systems.
19. Improving information security and
control, Developing and managing electronic
data interchange
20. Establishing effective disaster recoveries
capabilities, Outsourcing selected information
services.
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
11
1. Data resources

1991
Information architecture*
 Data resource*


* indicates it made both the 1991 and
the 1996 lists
12
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
2. Communication resources

1991
Telecommunications systems
(1991)/networks(1996)*
 Electronic data interchange*
 Distributed systems*
 Global systems*

(c) Murray Turoff 2000
13
3. Development management

1991
IS human resources*
 Software development*
 Case technology


1996

Outsourcing IS
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
14
4. Planning

1991
IS role and contribution*
 Strategic planning*
 IS organization/enterprise alignment*
 IS asset accounting
 IS effectiveness (1991)/quality
measurement(1996)*


1996
Business process redesign
 Organizational learning

(c) Murray Turoff 2000
15
5. Applications management

1991
Applications portfolio
 Organizational learning
 Competitive advantage (old
business/new business)*
 End-user computing*
 Executive/decision support


1996

Legacy applications
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
16
6. Cost control

1991
Security and control
 Disaster recovery


1996


None
This signaled the new technology
cycle where costs are very secondary
starting in 1995.
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
17
7. Technology management

1991
Technology infrastructure
 Image technology
 Technology islands


1996
Collaborative Systems
 Vendor integration/open systems

(c) Murray Turoff 2000
18
Major constant management
concerns







Applications management
Technology management
Development management
Planning
Cost control
Data resources
Communication resources

What do you think are the three top
issues in each category today?
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
19
Specific Management Functions


The functions that management must
carry out and be responsible for
Importance or significance of each
function depends upon:
Nature of the business
 Nature of the organization
 External Environment

(c) Murray Turoff 2000
20
Major management functions








Surveillance
Evaluation
Planning
Forecasting & assessment
Policy formulation & analyses
Development & implementation
Maintenance & operations
General management
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
21
Surveillance
Technology, Applications, Industry,
Public Policy, Legal, Ethical,
Complexity & control of systems,
Education & training, System
accreditation, User self
implementation approaches,
Computer & information industry,
Industrial v/s governmental
practices, etc.
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
22
Evaluation
User, Costs, Organization structure,
Efficiency, Effectiveness/Quality,
Strategic relevance, Goals &
objectives, Learning, Power and
authority, Culture. Information value
and flow, Life cycles, Sunset,
Evolution, Accountability, Crisis
management ability, Public services
delivery, Social responsibility. User
participation and management
involvement
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
23
Planning
IS and organizational objectives, Long
range approaches, Measures of
planning effectiveness, System
obsolescence, System evolution,
Acquisitions, Hardware, Systems
interconnection, Manpower needs,
Short term/long term, Normative
approaches, etc.
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
24
Forecasting & Assessment
Hardware, software, and service
performance and costs, Vendor offerings,
Networks, Regulation and liability,
Applications, Markets, Technology,
Industry change & overlap (e.g.
ecommerce, communications),
Computer crime, Exports & imports,
Employment demands, Technology
performance, Computer literacy and
training, Vendor evaluation, Electronic
marketplace
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
25
Policy formulation & analyses I
Standards, Privacy & information
rights, Paperwork reduction, Database
quality and duplication, Records and
performance compliance, Liability,
Ownership, Remote work, Impact of
metaphors, Technology transfer,
Public access to information systems,
Top management involvement,
People, Organizational, Technology,
or System obsolescence
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
26
Policy Formulation and Analysis II
Organizational structure, Centralized
vs. Decentralized, End user
computing, Steering committees,
Acquisition policies, Life cycle
analysis, ZBB analysis, Sunset
analysis, Strategic relevance, Labor &
job impacts, Productivity & Quality
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
27
Development & implementation
User acceptance and involvement,
Prototyping systems, Evolutionary &
modular approaches, Estimations &
overruns, Programming productivity,
Requirements definition, Validation &
verification, Conversion, Auditing, Off
the shelf software, Role of research &
development
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
28
Maintenance & operations
Software performance measurement,
Structured design & programming,
Benchmarks, Quality & data
assurance, Security & disaster
recovery, Reliability, Obsolescence
detection, Saturation detection,
Conversion, Auditing, Services
contracting, System acceptance
testing, Operational user feedback
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
29
Management

Personnel


Classification, Pay, Moral.
Certification, Mobility, Training &
continuing education, Adequacy &
demand, Turnover
Decentralization, End user
computing. Life cycle costing,
Productivity measurement, Software
engineering & standards, Interface
systems design & standard,
Programming support technology,
Multiple vendor systems,
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
30
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
31
Forecasting Methods and Examples





Can be done with a great deal of
accuracy on the right variables
Extrapolation for 2 to 5 years as long
as no structural (technology, social
system, organizational, industrial,
governmental) changes.
Normative for longer periods like 1015 years.
5-10 considered the “no man’s land”
of forecasting in computer field
Time scale of change decreasing
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
32
Forecasting Methods









Single trend extrapolation
Growth Analogy (limit or not)
Substitution
Subjective estimations
Personal judgment
Genius & Expert Opinion
Consensus & Focus Group
Delphi
Normative Techniques
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
33
Trend Analysis







Linear Regression Analysis
Good as long as no substitution
process taking place.
Easy if data is available
Must discover any underlying models
for confidence.
Should look at confidence limits
Speed of Computers, memory size
Cost verses quantity of product
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
34
Number of Transistors per Die
(symbols reversed)
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
35
Moore’s Law



Computing Power grows 100 times
every 10 years at state of the art!
Or costs of total systems go down by
a factor of 10 every 10 years
Logarithmic relationships of
performance or costs.
Year
1955
1965
1975
1985
1995
Dollars
10,000,000
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
1,000
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
36
Costs modified by performance and
adjusted for inflation
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
37
Technical Progress Function






T = A(X)**B
T = The value of the technological
parameter
X = the cumulative production
quantity
A = a constant associated with unit
number one
B = the rate of progress associated
with the external environment.
Log(T) = B*log(X) + log(A) (linear form)
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
38
Substitution Effects:
Cyclic investment in new technology
(U.S. Bureau of Statistics proxy measure for IS expenditures)
O C AM inv estm ent grow th rates
0 .8
DOS
0 .7
% /y r
0 .6
P erso n a l
C o m p u ters
XT
0 .5
W in d o w s 3 .1 1
M a in fra m es
0 .4
M in ico m p u ters
AT
0 .3
0 .2
0 .1
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
Ye a r
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
39
Technical Progress Alternative
Functions



Could be costs instead of technology
parameter.
Costs go down and performance goes
up with quantity of production.
Learning curve: Efficiency in
performing the Nth task is the same
function of the cumulative task
number.
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
40
Increased end user computing
1960
1970
1980
1985
1990
1515
45
50
3%
7%
- 20 %
- 50 %
- 75 %
Next decade (2000+) may reach plateau
between 80 – 90 %
Substitution of 100% of computing from
all by IS professionals to a growing
percentage by users.
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
41
Growth Analogy








Initial cell/invention
Cell division/Inventive Process
Cell division period/time between
inventions
Nutrient media/Economic support
Cell lifetime/Useful live of invention
Cell Death/Obsolescence
Cell mass/Technical area
Volume limit of mass/Limit on
demand
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
42
Growth Curves






Birth and rapid initial adoption
Steady growth over initial period
Heading toward a limit which should
be known
Turnover with age
Light efficiency of incandescent
lamps
Use Perl (logistic) curve and Gompertz
curve
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
43
Substitution





Growth Curve to 100% of market
Water based paints for oil based;
Percentage of plastic in automobiles,
synthetic rubber for natural rubber.
Good for measuring technical
substitution.
Usually 15% substitution sufficient
for projecting rest of curve.
Three and higher substitutions
possible
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
44
Substitution Example






The substitution of fiberglass &
plastic for wood in personal boats
Data taken from the yearly London
Boat Show (1950-1970)
Number of boats of each type
exhibited as ratio to total number
Results is a clear substitution curve
Indirect and imaginative data
collection a characteristic of good
forecasters
Often direct data unobtainable
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
45
Substitution/Growth Curves

Perl Curve, Logistics Curve, Fermi
Dirac Distribution
y = L(1/(1+ae**(-bt)))
Y = ln((L/y-1) = ln(a) –bt (linear form)

Gompertz Curve
y = Le**(be**(-kt))
Y = Ln(ln(L/y)) = ln(b) – kt (linear
form)
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
46
Technology Progress Function as
Substitution




Made up of overlapping substitution
curves
 Vacuum tubes
 Transistors
 Integrated Circuits
 Large Scale IC, etc.
Curve is really an envelope of data
points
Large difference between R&D and
product values at same time
Need to understand underlying causeeffect relationships
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
47
Extrapolation Exercise




Find a useful IS data set with ten or
more historical points.
Draw this curve and extrapolate five
years or more into the future either
by hand or analytically
Explain what the primary causes are
of the trend and if there is any
substitution processes taking place
Explain a situation where it would be
useful for a management decision
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
48
Single Subjective Estimates





Personal judgment
As good as data, models and
information to back it up
Expert Opinion
As many examples of wrong ones as
right ones by experts.
Xerox, Video text, Picture Phone,
X.400
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
49
Some interesting forecasts




1953 IBM estimates market for only
50 computers in U.S. with IBM 650
1969 GE management claims BASIC
is useless
1975 HP rejects idea of personal
computer
1979 Tandy expects to sell only 4,000
portable computers
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
50
Group Subjective Estimates



If well structured can lead to more
reliable results
Normal committee approaches often
suffer from biases
Focus Groups and/or Delphi
recommended
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
51
Forecasting Delphi Round One


Provide historical curve
Ask for:
Future projection
 Assumptions used
 Uncertainties that would cause change
if true



Example: amount of sales of a product.
Assumptions & uncertainties: Modifications,
competitors actions, government policies,
economic conditions, etc.
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
52
Forecasting Delphi Round Two

Turn all into potential assumptions


Ask for vote on validity:


One persons assumption is another’s
uncertainty
Certain, Likely, Maybe, Unlikely, False
Show 50 % spread of projections
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
53
Forecasting Delphi Round Three






Show ordered assumption
Focus on Maybe range
Ask for modifications to original
projection
Ask for significance of impact
Determine actions organization can
take to force internal assumptions
Determine measures of external
assumptions
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
54
Forecasting Delphi Round Four



Determine desirability and feasibility
of actions
Determine usability of measures
Round five for significant
disagreements
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
55
Results of Trend Delphi




A projection which might not differ
from a regression analysis
A collaborative model of the groups
reasons (assumptions) for the
projection
A collaborative model of all the
factors that could change the forecast
A plan for:
Trying to influence the outcome
 Monitoring for surprise changes from
external sources

(c) Murray Turoff 2000
56
Modeling Delphi of Steel Industry

Flow diagram by three experts
45 flow of material legs between
different processes in the industry
 Only 15 legs reported in yearly data


40 other experts (planners) asked to
fill in missing data for prior year
Not asked to do anything else
 25 decided to modify the model
because they did not agree with it
being the “best” model for them


Modeling Delphis need more
exploration
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
57
Normative Approaches





Set objectives
Work backwards from the future
Build scenarios and models
Reverse engineering
Reverse of extrapolation approaches
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
58
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
59
IS Issues Overview


General background on IS
Themes that underlie almost every
area of IS management
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
60
Negative impacts of computers I



Job displacement
Job deskilling
Increased specialization





Decrease mobility
Decreased authority
Increased centralization
Rigidity (lack of resiliency)
Scapegoating
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
61
Negative impacts of computers II



Efficiency rather than effectiveness
Ends rather than means
Unanticipated consequences





Inventory & message systems
Over structuring and over qualifying
Over expectation
Privacy, monitoring and moral
Not meant for mortals, Godhood
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
62
Negative impacts of computers III








Escape (drunkard’s paradox)
Creating templates (prescriptive)
Substitution of unreal for real
Sub-optimization
Prior bad decisions & experiences
Status symbols
Unfriendly
Cold
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
63
Typical conflicts in IS I






Centralization or decentralization
Prescriptive or descriptive
Effectiveness or efficiency
Process, incentives or goals
Development or purchase
Outsourcing and contracting or inhouse
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
64
Typical conflicts in IS II





Privacy, security, and/or access
Qualitative or quantitative
Specialization or generalization
Extrapolative or normative Planning
IMS or MIS, MIS or DSS, IS or MIS
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
65
Roots of MIS







Well structured problems
Central database
Model of the firm
Computer Science
Information Science
Operations Research
General approach/DBMS
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
66
Roots of DSS







Unstructured problems
Tailored data and models
Management science
Industrial engineering
Each problem unique
User centered approach
Toolkits
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
67
Centralization properties I

Overhead more obvious




Distribute to users
Subsidize application development
Subsidize technology acquisition
Share expensive resources
People, software
 Equipment, network
 Data models

(c) Murray Turoff 2000
68
Centralization properties II








More talent & sophistication
Vulnerable to budget limits
Concentrate authority &
accountability
Maintaining standards & guidelines
Job security and advancement
Recognition of need for innovation
Communication problems with users
Conflicting objectives with users
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
69
Centralization




Professional control
Expert use
Complex operations
Reduced:
Hardware costs
 Expert costs
 Development costs



Staff specialization
Narrow central control
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
70
Decentralization




User control
User responsiveness
Simpler operation
Reduced:
User costs
 Communication costs
 Data quality costs



Staff generalization
Broad lateral control
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
71
Necessary Centralization

Databases for necessary data


Communications




Can be outsourced
Can be outsourced
Standards and Policies
Plans
Evaluation
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
72
Productivity Statistical study
(Strassmann)



Hundred of companies
20 years
For same industry

Low profitability companies
 High
investment in computers
 Lower profitability

High profitability companies
 High
investment in computers
 Higher profitability


Solve people & organizational
problems first
Contrary to computer industry advice
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
73
No Clear Relationship
(Prior Result from extremes;
need for more investigation)
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
74
Performance specifications



IBM & Baltimore school system
2.9 million for PC’s & software
If after 2 years:
First graders meet national average
reading scores
 IBM gets payment
 If not sale negated



Never saw the results of this
Suspect it might not have turned out
well
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
75
Averages vs. actual
US economy annual grow th rates
1947-1992 (from Brynjolfsson & Hitt, 19xx)
6.0%
45-92 avg. growth rate=3.42% per year
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
47-53
53-57
57-60
60-66
66-69
69-73
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
73-79
70-85
85-92
76
Clearly something going on
Suspect technology investment
Possible
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
77
Successful IS policies I




Link IS with business strategy
Visible & active support from senior
management
Change culture & structure of
organization
Invest in people and their
developments
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
78
Successful IS policies II





Disciplined project management &
accountability
Multi disciplinary design teams
Sound methods for monitoring and
reviewing progress
Emphasis on spreading benefits
through organization
Uniform methods for review &
evaluation
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
79
Counter productive effects


Invasion of personal privacy
Monitoring of work.
Drunker’s paradox
 Quantity not quality



Ergonomics ignored
Training and guidance ignored
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
80
Farmer's horse & tractor method I

New tractor: $50,000
450 hp for 10,000 hours
 Running cost $20/hour


Horse : $2000



Running cost $1/hours
Productivity ratio: 450:1
Tractor is worth:

449 hp x 2,000 horses = $898,000
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
81
Farmer's horse & tractor method II



Operating advantage:
 450 horses x 10,000 hours x $1/hour
minus
 10,000 hours x $20/hour equal
$4,300,000
Total: $5,198,000 gain for only $50,000
 When can you deposit the five million to
pay off the loan?
 Note lack of relationship to size and
nature of farm
Correct view:
 Value of computer is what you are willing
to pay for the results.
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
82
IS observations

IS subject to overall situation
Profits, plans, atmosphere
 Culture, management style, moral





No relationship between IS
investment and business success
No easy, standard way to measure
payoff of IS
Easy to manipulate results of IS
IS costs migrate to hidden areas
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
83
Cost of workstation example

Hardware cost
Total yearly cost
4 year life
Time to learn
Info support from others
Software
Formal training
Mainframe use
Corporate support

75% may be hidden cost (*)








(c) Murray Turoff 2000
$10,000
$23,500
10.3%
27.4% *
18.3% *
7.6%
5.3%
1.5%
29.7% *
84
Turoff’s Cycle Model




No Maturity ever reached (Nolan
Model)
No constant state (Cash Model)
Explains CIO job tenure (~5-7 years)
Minimum Mistakes Darwin process
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
85
Management Historical cycle I







Risk taker brought in as CIO
New technology investment
Encourage applications
Gain competitive edge
Effectiveness emphasis
Cost growth and runaway
Power acquisition by IS

Fire CIO
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
86
Management Historical cycle II








Risk avoider brought in as CIO
Cost control instituted
Efficiency emphasis
Inhibit innovation
Limit new applications/technology
Loss of competitive edge
 Fire CIO
Pragmatic view of management
 No excuse for failure
 The end result determines managers
capabilities
Return to prior cycle
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
87
Real management alternatives






Dead end investments in hardware or
modular systems development
Assembly line or job enrichment?
Hidden cost or realistic life cycle
costs?
Organizational dinosaur or beyond
centralization/decentralization?
Invasion of new technology or sociotechnical design?
Occupational obsolescence or new
concepts of work and job?
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
88
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
89
Historical IS Background
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
90
Early IS images






Priest & wisdom
Ritual & language
Shrines & temples
Cures & salvation
Omnipotent
Beyond mortal understanding
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
91
Computer system fallacies










Usage as acceptance
Automation
Black boxing
Centralization
Performance maximization
Cost minimization
Efficiency
Descriptive only
Reductionism
Scientific & logical
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
92
Human impression fallacies

What the computer says is always
true






Garbage in is garbage out
The computer is too complicated to
understand
We are only automating what you are
doing now
We cannot change the way the
computer does it
It is the computers fault not ours
Drunkard’s paradox
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
93
IS prior determinants


Structured tasks
Handling “necessary” data






What is the value of necessary data?
Cost minimizing
Expensive hardware
Cheap people
Automating
Organizational support
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
94
IS new determinants









Expensive people
Cheap hardware
Performance maximization
New uses
Handling unnecessary data with finite
value.
Handling subjective data
Individual support
Unstructured tasks
Communications
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
95
Knowledge areas related to IS I







Computer Science
Information Science
Management Science
Operations Research
Industrial Engineering
Communication Science (media)
Electrical engineering
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
96
Knowledge areas related to IS II








Economics
Psychology
Sociology
Anthropology
English
Cybernetics
Systems Science
Mathematics
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
97
Changes past, present, & future











Work in a home office
Robots to do housework
Robots to eliminate assembly line jobs
Take a college course from home
Having a computer diagnose your illness
Have a computer operate on you
Purchase food, home, car through the
computer
Banking and investment through the
computer
Love and friendship through a computer
Wear a computer
Use a personal avatar to represent you
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
98
Impressions of computers






Smart
Friendly
Forgiving
Controlled
Easy to use
Easy to change
stupid
unfriendly
unforgiving
uncontrolled
hard to use
hard to change
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
99
Atmosphere

Human
Slow
 Sloppy
 Forgetful
 Brilliant


Computer
Rapid
Rigorous
Precise
Stupid
How to design a communication
between the two?
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
100
Information domains of users I

Common IS support levels
Simple inquiry, calculations,
messaging
 Organizing, filtering, summarizing
 Status briefing, report generation
 Tracking, monitoring

(c) Murray Turoff 2000
101
Information domains of users II

Current individual challenges
Exception reporting
 Modeling, structuring, relating
 Searching, retrieval
 Diagnosis
 Discovery
 Hypothesis testing and analysis


Current group challenges
Planning and decision analysis
 Decision implementation
 Command and control

(c) Murray Turoff 2000
102
Industry shifts I




Information & publishing going
electronic
Computers doing & offering
communications
Communications & broadcasting
offering computer & information
services
Financial institutions offering
computer and communication service
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
103
Industry shifts II



Communications offering financial
services
Education increasingly offered by
industry
Lines blurring between Information,
Publishing, Computers,
Communications, Broadcasting,
Finance & Investment, Education,
Training, Retailing, Services,
Brokering
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
104
E Commerce Integration I


Offer opportunities
Classified ads
Newspapers
 Broadcasters
 Publishers



Negotiate exchanges
Communications
Phone companies
 Mails


Contract & liability

Legal services
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
105
E Commerce Integration II

Clear funds



Tax analysis
Accounting


Banking
CPA firms
Regulatory factors:
Federal reserve board
 Federal communications commission
 Congress, state legislator
 State regulatory bodies, courts


Web/E Money is key
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
106
Relative cost changes





People more than hardware
Paper more than electronic storage
Communications more than
computers
Changing data more than fixed data
Regulation & policies can delay
economic driven change but not
prevent it in a world economy

Example: Look at recent history of
phone companies
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
107
Technology evolution I








Large machines
Batch operation
Multi-programming
Language development
Time sharing
Mini-computers
User oriented languages
Computer networks
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
108
Technology evolution II









Distributed systems
Personal computers
User developed systems
Expert systems
Case methodology
Networking users & systems
Workstation technology
Multi-media
Personal Networks
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
109
Application evolution












Administrative applications
Report systems
Data bases
MIS & DSS
Simulation & modeling
AI & expert systems
Office automation
Networks
Groupware
Toolkits
Operating system interfaces (GUI)
Structural modeling
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
110
Major application examples








Payroll systems
Inventory systems
Linear programming
Critical path scheduling
Manufacturing processing & control
Statistical analysis (e.g. marketing)
Transaction processing systems
The Web & Communications
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
111
Costs 1960's







Hardware 90%
People 10%
Make software
Free systems
Centralization
Utilities
Application development
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
112
Costs 1970's





Cost minimization
Application justification
Centralization data collection
Top down system design
Promise of IS to control operations
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
113
Costs 1980's








Hardware 10%
People 90%
Buy software
Office automation
Decentralization
End user computing
Get rid of IS empire
Reduce explicit costs
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
114
Costs 1990's








Hardware and software 20%
People 40%
Information 40%
Tailor software
Value of information
Balance of functions
Data & communications
Cognitive variability
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
115
Costs Future






Hardware and software 20%
People 60%
Information 20%
Creation and organization of
information
Decline of fixed data in value
Collective intelligence abilities
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
116
Typical Evolution I




Expansion
 Under utilization
 Do everything
Cost cutting
 Control
 Political reactions
Maturity
 End user computing
 Steering committees
Strategic
 Toolboxes
 Tied to corporate goals
 Distributed systems
 Communications
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
117
IS Management Issues










Remote work
Work at home
Lateral project groups
Multiple work roles
Standards & policies
Quality measurement
Prototyping
Evaluation
Evolution
User involvement
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
118
Factors generating IS demand I







Rapid evolution of technology
Penetration to end users
Multitude of alternatives
Changing skill levels
Quantification of office functions
Fragmented organizational
responsibilities
Psychological and social impacts
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
119
Factors generating IS demand






Environmental constraints
Time, travel, costs
Information as a commodity
More complexity
Dispersion of operations
Social pressures
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
120
Individual level considerations






Decision accountability
Remote work
Specialization/generalization
Skills & learning
Alienation/connectiveness
Superconnectivity & Information
Overload
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
121
Problem areas I

Privacy
Tracking of individuals
 Diverse sources of data
 Detection of values
 Value of a name




Job displacement
Specialization
Ownership of information
Copyrights
 Protectionism
 Proprietary

(c) Murray Turoff 2000
122
Problem areas II

Overlapping industries
Computers
 Information (publishing)
 Communication
 Financial


Complexity of systems
EFT, social security
 IRS, FBI, Census


Size of system



Integration, decomposition
Automation
Training
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
123
Areas of concern





Public understanding
Education
Information rights
Industry structure
Rate of change
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
124
Trends of concern






Specialization
Centralization
Measurement
Mobility
Reductionism
Sub-optimization
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
125
Understanding the art of
computing



Reducing a single complex problem to
a large number of simple problems
Inconsistent with process, incentive
and goal orientations
Inconsistent with understanding
users and organizations
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
126
Environmental Factors I





Future trends in computer &
communications technology
Shortening time intervals for change
Complexity of problems
Increasing information based work
force
Attitude of younger generations
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
127
Environmental Factors II





Costs of people & services
Increasing relative costs of energy
Networking as a social technology
The underground economy
Personal computing and bulletin
board systems
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
128
Current Management Wisdom I






Centralized core DP staff
Separate systems analyses
Separate maintenance
User groups & involvement
Application programmers
Evolutionary design
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
129
Current Management Wisdom II







Distributed equipment
Feedback approaches
Steering committees
Networks & End user computing
Strategic & operational systems
Standards & integration
Evaluation & evolution
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
130
THE END
  
CIS 679 Management Information Systems

Introduction and Issues

The first set

http://eies.njit.edu/~turoff
[email protected]
(c) Murray Turoff 2000
131
Descargar

Improving Individual Decision Making in Groups