14 Presenting Qualitative Data
For 2004: consider starting with the
Crowd warmer up, that is telling the
Biggest lie you have ever heard
Then do the writing on the board of
What makes a good and bad presentation
Ideas for making sure your presentation is good
What makes a good presentation?
What makes a bad presentation?
philosophy of communication
tell them what you are going to say
say it clearly
summarize what you have said
Effective Communication:
"Make them laugh, make them cry, make them think."
Presentation Plan
Topic (clear in your mind)
Audience (their backgrounds, interest, knowing
terminology) Skagit Leadership tomorrow
Expectations/Outcomes
CAN YOU SAY IN ONE SENTENCE WHAT
YOU WANT THEM TO COME AWAY WITH?
Time Frame (15 minutes 5-8 main points)
Presentation Plan
Learning Principles
– Motivation (content relevant to audience's experience, or
to important issues)
– Association (associate material to ideas, concepts,
experiences they already have)
– Repetition (hear things over and over)
– Senses (appealing to more may get more retention
Presenter Functions
Set tone or mood early
Objectives stated clearly, early
Explanation
Examples
Alternative view of same idea
Indicate your mastery of material
Active involvement of audience
Bridging/transitions between ideas
Summarizing
Frame Presentation: Learning Objectives
Step 1:
Describe the
–
–
–
–
information,
skills,
behaviors, or
perspectives
that participants in the session will acquire through
attendance and participation.
Learning Objectives Step 2 :
Clearly identify the
– outcomes or
– actions
participants can expect to demonstrate as a result of
the educational experience.
Use the action words
Learning Objectives Step 3:
Write the learning objectives that relate to these
outcomes and that reflect the content of the
session.
Objectives describe the behavior of the learner, and
a. are stated clearly;
b. define or describe an action;
c. are measurable, in terms of time, space,
amount, and / or frequency.
Write learning objectives in realizable
language:
Ana lyz e
App ly
Arti culate
Assess
Con struct
Create
De fine
De scrib e
Deve lop
Discus s
Enum erate
Eva lua te
Iden tify
List
Prioriti ze
Recogn ize
Learning Objectives for this class
describe different methods of presenting
qualitative data, and their applicability to
answering research questions posed
list factors to consider in making a good
presentation
Display of data is crucial:
“a visual format that presents information
systematically, so user can draw valid
conclusions and take needed action”
Required reading in Bernard Ch 16, is
good here
Miles and Huberman: Qualitative Data
Analysis is excellent resource
PRESENTING QUALITATIVE DATA
Unstrucutred
Direct
Observations
FORMS OF DATA PRESENTATION
Quotations
**
Structured
Direct
Observations
Simple
Tables
Matrices
Maps
Diagrams
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*****
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T ax o no m ie s
TYPE OF
QUALITATIVE
DATA
COLLECTION
ETHNOGRAPHIC MODELS
Scales
(Single
...MDS)
Conceptual
Behavioral
ConceptualBehavioral
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Key Informant
Interviews
*****
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*
*****
**
**
Focus Groups
*****
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*
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*****
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*
**
**
*
*
PRA Group
Techniques
Free Lists
Pile Sorts
Triads
Paired
Comparisons
**
*****
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**
**
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* less useful
less complex
**
*****
*****
*****
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most useful *****
more complex
Choice of Forms of Presentation
mode of presentation: from simpler to more
complex forms
– start with quotes
complexity
– don’t want to lose people by complex arguments
data sufficiency & reliability
– describe triangulation if used, ie all methods
produce same information (or didn't)
Choice of Forms of Presentation
select forms of presentation which best
explain the data
be creative: these are not the only forms
available, they are modifiable
know your audience
– do you have to explain terms/concepts you use?
if so, do it well
Use of visuals
Best speeches ever, except perhaps one of the
first, were made without visual enhancements
One of the earliest used two stone tablets
Quotes
quotes should support themes
balance between excessive analysis, and
lengthy quotes without any analysis
– "analysis is the search for patterns in data
and for ideas that help explain why those
patterns are there in the first place" Bernard
“smoking is a handicap. Other
handicapped people get ramps and such
things. Smokers get kicked out."
Quotes
quotes are memorable, may be the only
aspect of your paper/presentation people
remember
your EXAMPLES…….
Maps/Diagrams
patient’s home
social map of area
– Slides or photographs
body map
CARTOONS
Very culture dependent, if you use, know your
audience and the effect it will have
Examples
– Following cartoon, I use for my tourism and health
of local populations talk, at the end
PHOTOGRAPHS
A thousand words
Concern about exploiting people financially by
showing their photographs
Ethical issues
Cultural issues as well in sense that photograph steals
the soul
Permission and model release
Matrix Displays
Not everyone is visually oriented to them
Trying to produce good ones help you understand
your data,
– is analysis
Involves information crossing two dimensions to see
how they interact
Matrices
F igu re 3
Metho d
Reasons to Smoke Outside the Workplace
C onclu sion
Type o f Info rmation
Step
ob tained
K ey
Informant
interview
general informat ion
regarding people's
perc eption of s moking
outs ide t he work place
N ext Investigative
some people c learly see t hey
are addict ed, ot hers claim
Observation of t he ac tivit y
naiveit y
varied appearance of
D irect
t he ac tivit y, not clearly
confirms addictive
gather more informat ion
Observation
seen as relaxing when
behavior
on places people s moke
besides outs ide the work plac e
hurriedly done out side
t he work place
Free Lists
names for plac es where
people s mok e
clearer unders tanding of
obtain informat ion on how
reas ons people smoke
muc h people s moke in
outs ide t he Workplace
different loc at ions
People smok e more in
Pile Sorts
Relat ive frequenc y of
confined locations t han
where people s mok e
before and expose others and
t hems elves t o side strea
smoke
See how t he frequenc y
of cigarett es s moked
has changed as a res ult
of the ban
Smoking out side buildings
Paired
C omparisons
Changes in locations
has increased expos ure of
Confirmat ion by Focus
of where people s moke
people t o side stream s moke
Groups, and c ons ideration
as a res ult of the ban
NOT born out by our s mall
of cessation at tempts
sample siz e, but warrants
further invest igation
Fo cu s Grou p
D iscu ssions
Plan an intervention to help
t hos e smok ing outs ide
buildings to s top
TAXONOMIES
How people
– Divide up domains
– Connect domains
taxonomies of illness (lexicon)
could derive from informant interviews, or from
successive pile sorts
Tree structure
Lend themselves to multi-dimensional scaling
(MDS)
– e.g. Pain Descriptors for Anglo-American Dentists
Other visual help
POPULATION health, INDIV IDUAL health, CELL health
individual
cardiac muscle cell
POPULATION
Ethnographic Models
CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHNOGRAPHIC MODELS
Types of
Ethnographic
Models
Types of data
What the model
collection used
represents
to generate
Examples
model
Conceptual
What goes on inside
Key informant
Individual explanatory
people's heads--
Focus groups
models of illness
cognitive processes
Pile Sorts
Group ethnomedical
Free lists
Behavorial
What people do
Direct observation
Reported Behavior
models of illness
Treatment seeking for a
particular illness
Patterns of intrahousehold
food allocation
Mixed
What goes on inside
Conceptual
of people's heads
Behavior
AND
what people do
Decision-making
models
All of the above
Box and Arrow Model
Causal Flow Charts
– takes a long time to get right,
– if do it the night before, connect arrows between
everything
Box and Arrow Model
Presenting
Show business
Presentation Handouts
Part of syllabus obtained beforehand
Distributed before or afterwards
Content: Essential elements
–
–
–
–
Graphics
References
Contact info
Note space
Brief or expanded?
NOT THE BULLET POINT SLIDES
If you don't have enough for everyone?
-Distribute to every 2nd or 3rd person
-Offer to send to everyone who gives address
Presenting as a group
harder to do well if people have varying capabilities
tell audience how the presentation will flow
use the strengths of the individual presenters well
Data for Communication:
words
-psychoneurolinguistics
pictures
feelings
emotions
understanding
Words, feelings emotions:
microphone
Don't use if can project voice and all can hear easily
Can be a hindrance, especially if have to hold it and
use hands as well
Can be booming and obtrusive
best is a lavalier clipped to you, especially if you
move around (get right volume level)
– wired or wireless?
microphone
if have a microphone on a stand,
– if it is cardiod (directional), then it will sound
very boomy/bassy if you are close (3-4
inches), so stand back
– if it is omnidirectional, then it will feed back
(howl), if the gain is turned up
• better you speak close to it, and not so loud
with any microphone find out where the
gain control is
PICTURES
visual information presented
slides, overheads,
– don't talk and expect people to read material that isn't
spoken out
FONT, font, font, font, FONT, font, font
Font: serif (text) sans-serif (visuals)
visual displays should reinforce what you are
presenting orally
Passing out material (photos, cards), maybe in small
group and only if few (1-2) materials
35 mm slide projector
can do with large and small audiences
– less intimate
problem in putting too much on slides so they are
illegible -7 lines max
– Should be able to read content without loupe
modern computer graphics can distract from content,
keep it simple
35 mm slide projector
if put up quotes and have a large audience far from
screen, read the quote
– always read or not?
pointer
point out stuff, don't wave it around
use it sparingly for effect
overheads
more intimacy
useful to write on during session, if interacting
you may stand in the way for some in the audience
image may be too low, or too small
image not centered, or focused
small movements of transparency get magnified
blackboard
less popular these days (UBC health sciences)
takes more time,
audience may appreciate the more relaxed style
good way to interact and present material
more common in most parts of the world
often just a board painted black
+chalk-semblance material
Poor handwriting:
WRITE LARGE
white marker board
more modern, easy use of colors
can be harder to read because of reflections
don't use permanent markers
easel with paper that is folded over
FLIP CHARTS (NGT)
have a record of what went on
especially useful if it involves audience
WHICH IS MORE EFFECTIVE?
November 19, 1863
• Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new
nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created
equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any
nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great
battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final
resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is
altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense, we cannot
dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men,
living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to
add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it
can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here
to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us--that
from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they
gave the last full measure of devotion--that we here highly resolve that these dead
shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of
freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not
perish from the earth.
Gettysburg Cemetery
Dedication
Abraham Lincoln
11/19/1863
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Agenda
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Met on battlefield (great)
Dedicate portion of field - fitting!
Unfinished work (great tasks)
11/19/1863
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Not on Agenda!
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Dedicate
Consecrate
Hallow
(in narrow sense)
Add or detract
Note or remember what we say
11/19/1863
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Review of Key Objectives
& Critical Success Factors

What makes nation unique
– Conceived in Liberty
– Men are equal

Shared vision
– New birth of freedom
– Gov’t of/for/by the people
11/19/1863
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Organizational Overview
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New Nations
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11/19/1863
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Years
Now
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Summary
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11/19/1863
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New nation
Civil war
Dedicate field
Dedicated to unfinished work
New birth of freedom
Government not perish
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computer presentation (Powerpoint)
• overhead screen
• special LCD projector
– Have a backup until/even if you are confident
• people may focus on the colors, other sidelights,
rather than on the material
– Limited colors with high contrast, or none in case of
people being color blind
– How it looks on the computer screen is not how it will
look projected
• POWERPOINTLESS PRESENTATION
Cognitive style of powerpoint
Inhibits discussion
– Presenter-oriented,
– NOT content oriented
– NOT audience oriented
Replaces serious analysis with
–
–
–
–
–
Chartjunk
Over-produced layouts
Cheerleader logotypes
Branding
Corny clip art
Cognitive style of powerpoint
Impoverished space:
–
–
–
–
–
Over-generalization
Imprecise statements
Slogans
Abrupt & thinly argued claims
Many true statements are too long to fit on a pp slide, so
many many slides are needed, "one damn slide after
another",… "visual reasoning usually works more
effectively when relevant information is shown adjacent
in space within our eye span" (Tufte)
Cognitive style of powerpoint
Bullet Outlines Dilute
Thought
increasingly seen in paper
reports
encourages laziness
done instead of telling
stories
Lists communicate:
sequences, priority, simple
membership in a set
Gives example of Columbia
shuttle Jan 2003 reports
made by Boeing engineers
Cognitive style of powerpoint
Bullet Outlines Dilute
Thought
increasingly seen in paper
reports
encourages laziness
done instead of telling
stories
Lists communicate:
sequences, priority, simple
membership in a set
Gives example of Columbia
shuttle Jan 2003 reports
made by Boeing engineers
Cognitive style of powerpoint
Data transmission speeds
talk: 100 to 160 spoken words per minute
picture worth thousand words
people read 300 to 1000 printed words a minute
printed map or 35 mm slide displays 5 to 40 MB
ppt slide shows ~ 40 words, 8 seconds-worth of
silent reading
notes handouts simply reproduce those 40 words
the more intense the detail, the greater the clarity and
understanding, less is a bore
Cognitive style of powerpoint
Metaphor for software corporation itself
big bureaucracy doing
computer programming: deeply hierarchical,
nested, highly structured, relentlessly sequential,
one-short-line-at-a-time
marketing: fast pace, misdirection, advocacy not
analysis, slogan thinking, branding, exaggerated
claims, marketplace ethics)
powerpoint cognitive style
Cognitive style of powerpoint
sets up dominance relationship between speaker &
audience (power points with bullets to followers)
POWER IN ROMAN STATE: impression, theatre,
persuading those over whom authority is wielded to
collude in their subjugation
"power is a matter of presentation"
Elsner: Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph: The art of the Roman Empire AD 100-450
Metaphor of good teaching
Explain something with credibility
– explanation, reasoning, finding things out, questioning,
content, evidence, credible authority not patronizing
authoritarianism
People learn from stories, and how well they're told
Introducing powerpoint cognitive style into schools
students no longer write in sentences, but learn how
to make client pitches and info-mericals
10-20 words, + clip art
Improving presentations
Depend on quality, relevance and integrity of content
Audience boredom usually a result of content failure,
not decoration failure
Avoid ready-made templates, elaborate bullet lists
Never read aloud from the slides
Use powerpoint as projector for showing lowresolution color images, graphics and videos that
cannot be reproduced as printed handouts at a
presentation
"PowerPoint allows speakers to pretend that they are
giving a real talk, and audiences to pretend they are
listening"
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14 Presenting Qualitative Data