14 Presenting Qualitative Data For 2004: consider starting with the Crowd warmer up, that is telling the Biggest lie you have ever heard Then do the writing on the board of What makes a good and bad presentation Ideas for making sure your presentation is good What makes a good presentation? What makes a bad presentation? philosophy of communication tell them what you are going to say say it clearly summarize what you have said Effective Communication: "Make them laugh, make them cry, make them think." Presentation Plan Topic (clear in your mind) Audience (their backgrounds, interest, knowing terminology) Skagit Leadership tomorrow Expectations/Outcomes CAN YOU SAY IN ONE SENTENCE WHAT YOU WANT THEM TO COME AWAY WITH? Time Frame (15 minutes 5-8 main points) Presentation Plan Learning Principles – Motivation (content relevant to audience's experience, or to important issues) – Association (associate material to ideas, concepts, experiences they already have) – Repetition (hear things over and over) – Senses (appealing to more may get more retention Presenter Functions Set tone or mood early Objectives stated clearly, early Explanation Examples Alternative view of same idea Indicate your mastery of material Active involvement of audience Bridging/transitions between ideas Summarizing Frame Presentation: Learning Objectives Step 1: Describe the – – – – information, skills, behaviors, or perspectives that participants in the session will acquire through attendance and participation. Learning Objectives Step 2 : Clearly identify the – outcomes or – actions participants can expect to demonstrate as a result of the educational experience. Use the action words Learning Objectives Step 3: Write the learning objectives that relate to these outcomes and that reflect the content of the session. Objectives describe the behavior of the learner, and a. are stated clearly; b. define or describe an action; c. are measurable, in terms of time, space, amount, and / or frequency. Write learning objectives in realizable language: Ana lyz e App ly Arti culate Assess Con struct Create De fine De scrib e Deve lop Discus s Enum erate Eva lua te Iden tify List Prioriti ze Recogn ize Learning Objectives for this class describe different methods of presenting qualitative data, and their applicability to answering research questions posed list factors to consider in making a good presentation Display of data is crucial: “a visual format that presents information systematically, so user can draw valid conclusions and take needed action” Required reading in Bernard Ch 16, is good here Miles and Huberman: Qualitative Data Analysis is excellent resource PRESENTING QUALITATIVE DATA Unstrucutred Direct Observations FORMS OF DATA PRESENTATION Quotations ** Structured Direct Observations Simple Tables Matrices Maps Diagrams **** **** ***** **** **** ** T ax o no m ie s TYPE OF QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION ETHNOGRAPHIC MODELS Scales (Single ...MDS) Conceptual Behavioral ConceptualBehavioral *** *** ***** **** Key Informant Interviews ***** **** **** *** **** * ***** ** ** Focus Groups ***** **** **** *** ** * **** *** *** **** **** ***** ** *** * ** ** * * PRA Group Techniques Free Lists Pile Sorts Triads Paired Comparisons ** ***** ** ** ** *** *** * less useful less complex ** ***** ***** ***** *** *** most useful ***** more complex Choice of Forms of Presentation mode of presentation: from simpler to more complex forms – start with quotes complexity – don’t want to lose people by complex arguments data sufficiency & reliability – describe triangulation if used, ie all methods produce same information (or didn't) Choice of Forms of Presentation select forms of presentation which best explain the data be creative: these are not the only forms available, they are modifiable know your audience – do you have to explain terms/concepts you use? if so, do it well Use of visuals Best speeches ever, except perhaps one of the first, were made without visual enhancements One of the earliest used two stone tablets Quotes quotes should support themes balance between excessive analysis, and lengthy quotes without any analysis – "analysis is the search for patterns in data and for ideas that help explain why those patterns are there in the first place" Bernard “smoking is a handicap. Other handicapped people get ramps and such things. Smokers get kicked out." Quotes quotes are memorable, may be the only aspect of your paper/presentation people remember your EXAMPLES……. Maps/Diagrams patient’s home social map of area – Slides or photographs body map CARTOONS Very culture dependent, if you use, know your audience and the effect it will have Examples – Following cartoon, I use for my tourism and health of local populations talk, at the end PHOTOGRAPHS A thousand words Concern about exploiting people financially by showing their photographs Ethical issues Cultural issues as well in sense that photograph steals the soul Permission and model release Matrix Displays Not everyone is visually oriented to them Trying to produce good ones help you understand your data, – is analysis Involves information crossing two dimensions to see how they interact Matrices F igu re 3 Metho d Reasons to Smoke Outside the Workplace C onclu sion Type o f Info rmation Step ob tained K ey Informant interview general informat ion regarding people's perc eption of s moking outs ide t he work place N ext Investigative some people c learly see t hey are addict ed, ot hers claim Observation of t he ac tivit y naiveit y varied appearance of D irect t he ac tivit y, not clearly confirms addictive gather more informat ion Observation seen as relaxing when behavior on places people s moke besides outs ide the work plac e hurriedly done out side t he work place Free Lists names for plac es where people s mok e clearer unders tanding of obtain informat ion on how reas ons people smoke muc h people s moke in outs ide t he Workplace different loc at ions People smok e more in Pile Sorts Relat ive frequenc y of confined locations t han where people s mok e before and expose others and t hems elves t o side strea smoke See how t he frequenc y of cigarett es s moked has changed as a res ult of the ban Smoking out side buildings Paired C omparisons Changes in locations has increased expos ure of Confirmat ion by Focus of where people s moke people t o side stream s moke Groups, and c ons ideration as a res ult of the ban NOT born out by our s mall of cessation at tempts sample siz e, but warrants further invest igation Fo cu s Grou p D iscu ssions Plan an intervention to help t hos e smok ing outs ide buildings to s top TAXONOMIES How people – Divide up domains – Connect domains taxonomies of illness (lexicon) could derive from informant interviews, or from successive pile sorts Tree structure Lend themselves to multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) – e.g. Pain Descriptors for Anglo-American Dentists Other visual help POPULATION health, INDIV IDUAL health, CELL health individual cardiac muscle cell POPULATION Ethnographic Models CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHNOGRAPHIC MODELS Types of Ethnographic Models Types of data What the model collection used represents to generate Examples model Conceptual What goes on inside Key informant Individual explanatory people's heads-- Focus groups models of illness cognitive processes Pile Sorts Group ethnomedical Free lists Behavorial What people do Direct observation Reported Behavior models of illness Treatment seeking for a particular illness Patterns of intrahousehold food allocation Mixed What goes on inside Conceptual of people's heads Behavior AND what people do Decision-making models All of the above Box and Arrow Model Causal Flow Charts – takes a long time to get right, – if do it the night before, connect arrows between everything Box and Arrow Model Presenting Show business Presentation Handouts Part of syllabus obtained beforehand Distributed before or afterwards Content: Essential elements – – – – Graphics References Contact info Note space Brief or expanded? NOT THE BULLET POINT SLIDES If you don't have enough for everyone? -Distribute to every 2nd or 3rd person -Offer to send to everyone who gives address Presenting as a group harder to do well if people have varying capabilities tell audience how the presentation will flow use the strengths of the individual presenters well Data for Communication: words -psychoneurolinguistics pictures feelings emotions understanding Words, feelings emotions: microphone Don't use if can project voice and all can hear easily Can be a hindrance, especially if have to hold it and use hands as well Can be booming and obtrusive best is a lavalier clipped to you, especially if you move around (get right volume level) – wired or wireless? microphone if have a microphone on a stand, – if it is cardiod (directional), then it will sound very boomy/bassy if you are close (3-4 inches), so stand back – if it is omnidirectional, then it will feed back (howl), if the gain is turned up • better you speak close to it, and not so loud with any microphone find out where the gain control is PICTURES visual information presented slides, overheads, – don't talk and expect people to read material that isn't spoken out FONT, font, font, font, FONT, font, font Font: serif (text) sans-serif (visuals) visual displays should reinforce what you are presenting orally Passing out material (photos, cards), maybe in small group and only if few (1-2) materials 35 mm slide projector can do with large and small audiences – less intimate problem in putting too much on slides so they are illegible -7 lines max – Should be able to read content without loupe modern computer graphics can distract from content, keep it simple 35 mm slide projector if put up quotes and have a large audience far from screen, read the quote – always read or not? pointer point out stuff, don't wave it around use it sparingly for effect overheads more intimacy useful to write on during session, if interacting you may stand in the way for some in the audience image may be too low, or too small image not centered, or focused small movements of transparency get magnified blackboard less popular these days (UBC health sciences) takes more time, audience may appreciate the more relaxed style good way to interact and present material more common in most parts of the world often just a board painted black +chalk-semblance material Poor handwriting: WRITE LARGE white marker board more modern, easy use of colors can be harder to read because of reflections don't use permanent markers easel with paper that is folded over FLIP CHARTS (NGT) have a record of what went on especially useful if it involves audience WHICH IS MORE EFFECTIVE? November 19, 1863 • Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us--that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion--that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth. Gettysburg Cemetery Dedication Abraham Lincoln 11/19/1863 home back next Agenda Met on battlefield (great) Dedicate portion of field - fitting! Unfinished work (great tasks) 11/19/1863 home back next Not on Agenda! Dedicate Consecrate Hallow (in narrow sense) Add or detract Note or remember what we say 11/19/1863 home back next Review of Key Objectives & Critical Success Factors What makes nation unique – Conceived in Liberty – Men are equal Shared vision – New birth of freedom – Gov’t of/for/by the people 11/19/1863 home back next Organizational Overview 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 New Nations 0.4 0.3 11/19/1863 0.2 0.1 0 -87 Years Now home back next Summary 11/19/1863 New nation Civil war Dedicate field Dedicated to unfinished work New birth of freedom Government not perish home back next computer presentation (Powerpoint) • overhead screen • special LCD projector – Have a backup until/even if you are confident • people may focus on the colors, other sidelights, rather than on the material – Limited colors with high contrast, or none in case of people being color blind – How it looks on the computer screen is not how it will look projected • POWERPOINTLESS PRESENTATION Cognitive style of powerpoint Inhibits discussion – Presenter-oriented, – NOT content oriented – NOT audience oriented Replaces serious analysis with – – – – – Chartjunk Over-produced layouts Cheerleader logotypes Branding Corny clip art Cognitive style of powerpoint Impoverished space: – – – – – Over-generalization Imprecise statements Slogans Abrupt & thinly argued claims Many true statements are too long to fit on a pp slide, so many many slides are needed, "one damn slide after another",… "visual reasoning usually works more effectively when relevant information is shown adjacent in space within our eye span" (Tufte) Cognitive style of powerpoint Bullet Outlines Dilute Thought increasingly seen in paper reports encourages laziness done instead of telling stories Lists communicate: sequences, priority, simple membership in a set Gives example of Columbia shuttle Jan 2003 reports made by Boeing engineers Cognitive style of powerpoint Bullet Outlines Dilute Thought increasingly seen in paper reports encourages laziness done instead of telling stories Lists communicate: sequences, priority, simple membership in a set Gives example of Columbia shuttle Jan 2003 reports made by Boeing engineers Cognitive style of powerpoint Data transmission speeds talk: 100 to 160 spoken words per minute picture worth thousand words people read 300 to 1000 printed words a minute printed map or 35 mm slide displays 5 to 40 MB ppt slide shows ~ 40 words, 8 seconds-worth of silent reading notes handouts simply reproduce those 40 words the more intense the detail, the greater the clarity and understanding, less is a bore Cognitive style of powerpoint Metaphor for software corporation itself big bureaucracy doing computer programming: deeply hierarchical, nested, highly structured, relentlessly sequential, one-short-line-at-a-time marketing: fast pace, misdirection, advocacy not analysis, slogan thinking, branding, exaggerated claims, marketplace ethics) powerpoint cognitive style Cognitive style of powerpoint sets up dominance relationship between speaker & audience (power points with bullets to followers) POWER IN ROMAN STATE: impression, theatre, persuading those over whom authority is wielded to collude in their subjugation "power is a matter of presentation" Elsner: Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph: The art of the Roman Empire AD 100-450 Metaphor of good teaching Explain something with credibility – explanation, reasoning, finding things out, questioning, content, evidence, credible authority not patronizing authoritarianism People learn from stories, and how well they're told Introducing powerpoint cognitive style into schools students no longer write in sentences, but learn how to make client pitches and info-mericals 10-20 words, + clip art Improving presentations Depend on quality, relevance and integrity of content Audience boredom usually a result of content failure, not decoration failure Avoid ready-made templates, elaborate bullet lists Never read aloud from the slides Use powerpoint as projector for showing lowresolution color images, graphics and videos that cannot be reproduced as printed handouts at a presentation "PowerPoint allows speakers to pretend that they are giving a real talk, and audiences to pretend they are listening"