Welcome Session Norms: •All pagers and cell phones on vibrate •Stay on topic being discussed •Use professional courtesy High Quality Sheltered Instruction: Strategies Presented by Region Specialist June 28, 2007 Housekeeping • Explain the time schedule for your day. Include items like: breaks, location of restrooms, lunch, etc. High Quality Sheltered Instruction “Sheltered Instruction is an approach to teaching content to English language learners in strategic ways that make the subject matter concepts comprehensible while promoting the students’ English language development.” --Echevarria, Vogt, and Short • • • • • • • • Lesson Preparation Building Background Comprehensible Input Strategies Interaction Practice/ Application Lesson Delivery Review/Assessment Session Objectives Content Objectives: • Select learning strategies that are appropriate to a lesson’s objectives. • Recognize the value of scaffolding instruction and identify techniques used for understanding. Language Objectives: • Identify language learning strategies to use with students. • Discuss the importance of asking higher-order questions to students of all proficiency levels. Features of Strategies • Provides opportunities for students to use strategies. • Consistently use scaffolding techniques. • Use multiple questioning strategies that promotes higher order thinking, throughout the lesson. Vogt, M., & Echevarria, J. (2006). Teaching Ideas for Implementing the SIOP Model Strategies Mental processes that teach students to… • Access information in memory. • Make connections between what they know and what they are learning. • Problem-solve. • Retain new information. Strategies There is a growing body of research evidence to indicate that learning strategies include the following three types: metacognitive cognitive social affective O’Malley & Chamot, 1990 Learning Strategies Numbered heads together & Jigsaw 1. Number off 1-3 2. Read assigned text: Ones read metacognitive strategies. Twos read cognitive strategies. Threes read social affective strategies. O’Malley, J.J., & Chamot, A.U. (1990) Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (pg. 137-139) Learning Strategies Continue 3. After reading, discuss: How does this relate to language learning and what strategies you are incorporating into daily instruction to support this? 4. Re-group to your original tables and share your ideas and strategies with the rest of your colleagues. Strategies The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires. -William Arthur Ward Crystallized (learned) Intelligence Background Knowledge Working Memory Personal Experiences Permanent Memory Sensory Memory Discuss and Reflect What do you have to know in order to complete any task? Scaffolding Instruction Two types of scaffolding – Verbal and Procedural: • Verbal scaffolding uses strategies such as prompting, questioning, and elaboration to facilitate student's movement towards higher levels of language. • Procedural scaffolding incorporates one-to-one teaching, small group instruction, partnering and cooperative learning. Vygotsky Simplified I do, you watch I do, you help You do, I help You do, I watch and check •Tompkins, G. E. (2006). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. Boston: Pearson. Questioning Skinny Questions: • Require simple yes/no/maybe oneword answers. • Take up no time or space. Fat Questions: • Require a lot of discussion and explanation with interesting examples. • Take time to think through and answer in depth. Our challenge is to develop threestory students • Read the Three-Story Intellect poem. • With a partner, discuss your interpretation of the poem. • What are the learning implications in our teaching of ELL students? • How will you plan for students with limited proficiency in English? Three–Story Intellect There are one-story intellects, two-story intellects, and three-story intellects with skylights. All fact collectors, who have no aim beyond their facts, are one-story men. Two-story men compare, reason, generalize, using the labors of the fact collectors as well as their own. Three-story men idealize, imagine, predict– their best illumination comes from above, through the skylight. -Oliver Wendell Holmes Questioning Techniques • Teachers promote strategy use by asking questions that promote critical thinking. • Learning proceeds from concrete knowledge to abstract values. • Learning progresses from denotative to connotative. Bloom’s Taxonomy Student Thinking Student Behavior 1. Knowledge Student is able to recall information. 2. Comprehension Student shows understanding. 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation Student is able to use learning in a new situation. Student is able to show that s/he can see parts and relationships. Student takes parts of information to create an original whole. Student makes a judgment based on criteria. Educational Objectives Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Lvl 1 point to choose reproduce put in order sequence identify compute chart change diagram illustrate distinguish model design create rank rate Lvl 2 name list fill-in-theblank give an example review estimate participate predict transfer apply categorize differentiate examine invent visualize perform choose select Lvl 3 describe recall define paraphrase discuss conclude role play report interview compare contrast point out correspond pretend rewrite criticize appraise judge Lvl 4 record quote enumerate summarize explain interpret extend instruct inform debate outline research criticize appraise judge justify prove evaluate Time to Discuss Questions teachers may ask based on a social studies text: • Who was the first President of the United States? • Given the topic of the presidency, what are several additional questions you could ask that promote higher-order thinking? Why is it important to use a variety of questioning strategies? Question-Answer Relationships (QAR) Right There (Text explicit) Think and Search (Text implicit) Why is Cinderella living with her step-mother? Why is the Step-mother making Cinderella do all of the chores? Author and You (Extrapolated Question) On my own (Prior knowledge question) Compare how the author feels about step-families with how you feel about step-families. What is the worst chore you can think of doing? Who does that at your home and are you grateful? Other Helpful Strategies for ELLs • • • • • • • • Anticipation/Reaction Guides Questioning The Author – QtA SQ3R/SQP2Rs Thinking Maps Visualizing Literature Circles Add your suggestions Share with your colleagues Anticipation/Reaction Guides • Used to stimulate student interest in a topic and activate their prior knowledge during pre-reading phase. • Prior to reading about a topic or thematic unit, teacher prepares a list of 4-8 true and untrue statements/misconceptions. Students discuss each statement and agree or disagree with it. • Use the same statements after reading as a review. • Tompkins, G. E. (2006). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. Boston: Pearson. Anticipation/Reaction Guides • Tompkins, G. E. (2006). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. P.468-469. Boston: Pearson. Questioning the Author (QtA) Students interact with text in order to understand and connect to previous knowledge. The teacher facilitates the process. •Teacher identifies major understandings presented by the author. •Teacher segments the text so discussion can begin. •Teacher develops queries so that students can construct meanings during reading. What is the author saying here? What is the message? Does this make sense with what the author told us before? How does this connect to…? Does the author tell us why? Why do you think the author tells us this now? How do things look for this character now? What is the character up to now? How does the author let you know that something has changed? How does the author settle this for us? Tierney, R. J., & Readence, J. E. (2005). Reading strategies and practices (6th Ed.). Boston: Pearson. SQ3R Survey Question Read Recite Review Tompkins, G. E. (2006). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. Boston: Pearson. Visualization • Making mental pictures can facilitate comprehension of text. • Used by strategic readers. • Teach through Think Aloud—Read two sentences and think aloud what you see in your mind. Use brief passages as a read-aloud and encourage students to describe what they see. • Draw a picture/comic strip of what the text is describing. Elaborate using the five senses. • Johns, J., & Lenski, S. D. (2001). Improving reading strategies and resources. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. Literature Circles •Teacher assembles a collection of books on a variety of reading levels (interesting plots, welldeveloped characters, rich language, thoughtprovoking themes). Books can be related to a theme. Teacher facilitates discussion. •Students choose the books they will read and the groups in which they will participate. Students choose how they will share the book. Students collaborate to set their schedules, discuss reading, and develop responses. Students selfevaluate. •Choice…literature…response. •Tompkins, G. E. (2006). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. P.468-469. Boston: Pearson. Graphic Organizers: Thinking Maps Graphic Organizers: Thinking Maps Video Presentation Strategies Teaching Scenarios Refer to Strategies section for teaching scenarios. Teaching Scenarios • All participants will read the lesson overview. • Participants will number off into threes. • Ones will read first scenario and so forth. • Rate the teacher using rating scale provided. • Discuss your rating with group and come to consensus. Review Session Objectives Content Objectives: • Select learning strategies that are appropriate to a lesson’s objectives. • Recognize the value of scaffolding instruction and identify techniques used for understanding. Language Objectives: • Identify language learning strategies to use with students. • Discuss the importance of asking higher-order questions to students of all proficiency levels. Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different result. --Albert Einstein My Aha Moment! Presentation Topic: Presenter: Date: Two ideas that were interesting to me: 1. 2. Two ways I can apply the information presented in my classroom: 1. 2. Two questions that I have for the presenter: 1. 2. Two things I wish the presenter had done differently: 1. 2. References Echevarria, J., Short, D., Vogt, M. E. (2004). Making content comprehensible: The SIOP model. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. O’Malley, J.J., & Chamot, A.U. (1990) Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vogt, M., Echevarria, J. (2006). Teaching ideas for implementing the SIOP model. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Write Institute. (2005-2006). Standards-based professional development in literacy. Learning Resources and Educational Technology San Diego County Office of Education.