Welcome
Session Norms:
•All pagers and cell
phones on vibrate
•Stay on topic being
discussed
•Use professional
courtesy
High Quality Sheltered Instruction:
Strategies
Presented by Region Specialist
June 28, 2007
Housekeeping
• Explain the time schedule for your day.
Include items like: breaks, location of
restrooms, lunch, etc.
High Quality Sheltered Instruction
“Sheltered Instruction is an approach to teaching content to English
language learners in strategic ways that make the subject matter concepts
comprehensible while promoting the students’ English language
development.”
--Echevarria, Vogt, and Short
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Lesson Preparation
Building Background
Comprehensible Input
Strategies
Interaction
Practice/ Application
Lesson Delivery
Review/Assessment
Session Objectives
Content Objectives:
• Select learning strategies that are appropriate to
a lesson’s objectives.
• Recognize the value of scaffolding instruction
and identify techniques used for understanding.
Language Objectives:
• Identify language learning strategies to use with
students.
• Discuss the importance of asking higher-order
questions to students of all proficiency levels.
Features of Strategies
• Provides opportunities for students to use
strategies.
• Consistently use scaffolding techniques.
• Use multiple questioning strategies that
promotes higher order thinking, throughout the
lesson.
Vogt, M., & Echevarria, J. (2006). Teaching Ideas for Implementing the SIOP
Model
Strategies
Mental processes that teach students to…
• Access information in memory.
• Make connections between what they
know and what they are learning.
• Problem-solve.
• Retain new information.
Strategies
There is a growing body of research
evidence to indicate that learning
strategies include the following three
types:
metacognitive
cognitive
social affective
O’Malley & Chamot, 1990
Learning Strategies
Numbered heads together & Jigsaw
1. Number off 1-3
2. Read assigned text:
Ones read metacognitive strategies.
Twos read cognitive strategies.
Threes read social affective strategies.
O’Malley, J.J., & Chamot, A.U. (1990) Learning strategies in second language
acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (pg. 137-139)
Learning Strategies Continue
3. After reading, discuss:
How does this relate to language learning
and what strategies you are incorporating
into daily instruction to support this?
4. Re-group to your original tables and share
your ideas and strategies with the rest of your
colleagues.
Strategies
The mediocre teacher tells.
The good teacher explains.
The superior teacher demonstrates.
The great teacher inspires.
-William Arthur Ward
Crystallized (learned) Intelligence
Background
Knowledge
Working
Memory
Personal
Experiences
Permanent
Memory
Sensory
Memory
Discuss and Reflect
What do you have to
know in order to
complete any task?
Scaffolding Instruction
Two types of scaffolding – Verbal and Procedural:
• Verbal scaffolding uses strategies such as
prompting, questioning, and elaboration to
facilitate student's movement towards higher
levels of language.
• Procedural scaffolding incorporates one-to-one
teaching, small group instruction, partnering and
cooperative learning.
Vygotsky Simplified
I do, you watch
I do, you help
You do, I help
You do, I watch and check
•Tompkins, G. E. (2006). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. Boston: Pearson.
Questioning
Skinny Questions:
• Require simple
yes/no/maybe oneword answers.
• Take up no time or
space.
Fat Questions:
• Require a lot of
discussion and
explanation with
interesting
examples.
• Take time to think
through and answer
in depth.
Our challenge is to develop threestory students
• Read the Three-Story Intellect poem.
• With a partner, discuss your interpretation of the
poem.
• What are the learning implications in our
teaching of ELL students?
• How will you plan for students with limited
proficiency in English?
Three–Story Intellect
There are one-story intellects, two-story
intellects, and three-story intellects with
skylights. All fact collectors, who have no aim
beyond their facts, are one-story men. Two-story
men compare, reason, generalize, using the
labors of the fact collectors as well as their own.
Three-story men idealize, imagine, predict– their
best illumination comes from above, through the
skylight.
-Oliver Wendell Holmes
Questioning Techniques
• Teachers promote strategy use by asking
questions that promote critical thinking.
• Learning proceeds from concrete knowledge to
abstract values.
• Learning progresses from denotative to
connotative.
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Student Thinking
Student Behavior
1. Knowledge
Student is able to recall information.
2. Comprehension Student shows understanding.
3. Application
4. Analysis
5. Synthesis
6. Evaluation
Student is able to use learning in a
new situation.
Student is able to show that s/he can
see parts and relationships.
Student takes parts of information to
create an original whole.
Student makes a judgment based on
criteria.
Educational Objectives
Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation
Lvl
1
point to
choose
reproduce
put in order
sequence
identify
compute
chart
change
diagram
illustrate
distinguish
model
design
create
rank
rate
Lvl
2
name
list
fill-in-theblank
give an
example
review
estimate
participate
predict
transfer
apply
categorize
differentiate
examine
invent
visualize
perform
choose
select
Lvl
3
describe
recall
define
paraphrase
discuss
conclude
role play
report
interview
compare
contrast
point out
correspond
pretend
rewrite
criticize
appraise
judge
Lvl
4
record
quote
enumerate
summarize
explain
interpret
extend
instruct
inform
debate
outline
research
criticize
appraise
judge
justify
prove
evaluate
Time to Discuss
Questions teachers may ask based on
a social studies text:
• Who was the first President of the
United States?
• Given the topic of the presidency,
what are several additional
questions you could ask that
promote higher-order thinking?
Why is it important to use a variety of
questioning strategies?
Question-Answer Relationships
(QAR)
Right There
(Text explicit)
Think and Search
(Text implicit)
Why is Cinderella living with her
step-mother?
Why is the Step-mother making
Cinderella do all of the chores?
Author and You
(Extrapolated Question)
On my own
(Prior knowledge question)
Compare how the author feels
about step-families with how you
feel about step-families.
What is the worst chore you can
think of doing? Who does that at
your home and are you grateful?
Other Helpful Strategies for ELLs
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Anticipation/Reaction Guides
Questioning The Author – QtA
SQ3R/SQP2Rs
Thinking Maps
Visualizing
Literature Circles
Add your suggestions
Share with your colleagues
Anticipation/Reaction Guides
• Used to stimulate student interest in a topic and
activate their prior knowledge during pre-reading
phase.
• Prior to reading about a topic or thematic unit,
teacher prepares a list of 4-8 true and untrue
statements/misconceptions. Students discuss
each statement and agree or disagree with it.
• Use the same statements after reading as a
review.
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Tompkins, G. E. (2006). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. Boston: Pearson.
Anticipation/Reaction Guides
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Tompkins, G. E. (2006). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. P.468-469. Boston: Pearson.
Questioning the Author (QtA)
Students interact with text in order to understand and connect to previous
knowledge. The teacher facilitates the process.
•Teacher identifies major understandings presented by the author.
•Teacher segments the text so discussion can begin.
•Teacher develops queries so that students can construct meanings during
reading. What is the author saying here? What is the message? Does this
make sense with what the author told us before? How does this connect
to…? Does the author tell us why? Why do you think the author tells us this
now? How do things look for this character now? What is the character up
to now? How does the author let you know that something has changed?
How does the author settle this for us?
Tierney, R. J., & Readence, J. E. (2005). Reading strategies and practices (6th Ed.). Boston: Pearson.
SQ3R
Survey
Question
Read
Recite
Review
Tompkins, G. E. (2006). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. Boston: Pearson.
Visualization
• Making mental pictures can facilitate
comprehension of text.
• Used by strategic readers.
• Teach through Think Aloud—Read two
sentences and think aloud what you see in your
mind. Use brief passages as a read-aloud and
encourage students to describe what they see.
• Draw a picture/comic strip of what the text is
describing. Elaborate using the five senses.
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Johns, J., & Lenski, S. D. (2001). Improving reading strategies and resources. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt.
Literature Circles
•Teacher assembles a collection of books on a
variety of reading levels (interesting plots, welldeveloped characters, rich language, thoughtprovoking themes). Books can be related to a
theme. Teacher facilitates discussion.
•Students choose the books they will read and the
groups in which they will participate. Students
choose how they will share the book. Students
collaborate to set their schedules, discuss
reading, and develop responses. Students selfevaluate.
•Choice…literature…response.
•Tompkins, G. E. (2006). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. P.468-469. Boston: Pearson.
Graphic Organizers: Thinking Maps
Graphic Organizers: Thinking Maps
Video Presentation
Strategies
Teaching Scenarios
Refer to Strategies section for teaching
scenarios.
Teaching Scenarios
• All participants will read the lesson overview.
• Participants will number off into threes.
• Ones will read first scenario and so forth.
• Rate the teacher using rating scale provided.
• Discuss your rating with group and come to
consensus.
Review Session Objectives
Content Objectives:
• Select learning strategies that are appropriate to
a lesson’s objectives.
• Recognize the value of scaffolding instruction
and identify techniques used for understanding.
Language Objectives:
• Identify language learning strategies to use with
students.
• Discuss the importance of asking higher-order
questions to students of all proficiency levels.
Insanity is doing
the same thing
over and over
again and
expecting a
different result.
--Albert Einstein
My Aha Moment!
Presentation Topic:
Presenter:
Date:
Two ideas that were interesting to me:
1.
2.
Two ways I can apply the information presented in my classroom:
1.
2.
Two questions that I have for the presenter:
1.
2.
Two things I wish the presenter had done differently:
1.
2.
References
Echevarria, J., Short, D., Vogt, M. E. (2004). Making content
comprehensible: The SIOP model. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
O’Malley, J.J., & Chamot, A.U. (1990) Learning strategies in
second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Vogt, M., Echevarria, J. (2006). Teaching ideas for
implementing the SIOP model. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson Education, Inc.
Write Institute. (2005-2006). Standards-based professional
development in literacy. Learning Resources and Educational
Technology San Diego County Office of Education.
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Sheltered Instruction Strategies