```Reading SOL
Review
Narrative Elements (SOL 4.4)
• The most important elements of a story are characters,
setting, and plot. The narrative elements of a story work
together. Changing one narrative element causes changes
in the others. This results in a different story.
• Setting: when and where the story takes place
• Tip: Look for words such as in, on, or at that tell where the
story takes place. Also, look for words that tell when the
story takes place (time of day, season, etc.)
• Characters: the people or animals in the story
• Tip: Find the names of the most important characters in
the story. Who does the talking and performs the action in
the story?
• Plot: what happens in the story--the sequence of actions
or events
• (A plot usually contains a conflict, or problem, and a
resolution, or the way the problem is solved.) The solution
of a story's problem comes at the end of the story.
Internet Activities: Narrative
Elements
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ex_pre.htm
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_zoo.
asp?src=tip218a.swf&skill=Plot%20Development
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_spac
e.asp?src=tip126a.swf&skill=Similarities%20%26%20Differences%20in
%20Characters
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_spac
e.asp?src=tip127a.swf&skill=Similarities%20%26%20Differences%20in
%20Settings
Video Clip: Narrative Elements
Drawing Conclusions/
Inferences (SOLs 4.4 & 4.5)
• Drawing conclusions or making inferences helps you understand
information the author does not state directly. You can draw
conclusions or make inferences using story information and your
own knowledge. You might draw conclusions about the story
setting, the character's traits, actions of the characters, and why
the characters act as they do.
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EXAMPLE:
Judd likes the color blue.
He says it gives him a peaceful feeling.
Judd bought paint for his living room.
What color paint do you think he bought?
Since it doesn’t SAY EXACTLY which color he bought, we have to
make an INFERENCE or DRAW A CONCLUSION based on the
information that we’ve been given. The clues include Judd’s
favorite color and how it makes him feel. We can now INFER that
Judd PROBABLY chose BLUE!
Internet Activities: Drawing
Conclusions/ Inferences/
Predictions
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_spac
aits
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http://www.quia.com/pop/89733.html
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http://www.quia.com/pop/89736.html
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_spac
e.asp?src=tip104a.swf&skill=Word%20Meaning%20From%20Context
Video Clip: Inferences
Figurative Language
(SOL 4.4)
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A simile compares two things using words like or as.
A metaphor suggests a similarity between two unlike things without using like
or as.
Sometimes an author describes animals or objects as if they have feelings or
can do things that people can do. This is called personification.
Example: Wild sunflowers turned bright faces to the east, and occasional
dust devils went spiraling off across the plain in merry abandon. The author
has given the sunflowers and dust devils human qualities to show that this will
be a happy place.
An idiom is an expression whose meaning is different from the meaning of the
individual words.
Example:
Ramon lost his temper when he missed the bus.
Janna's performance stole the spotlight.
I made the cake from scratch.
A hyperbole is a statement of exaggeration.
Example:
The snow was piled in mountain-high drifts.
Internet Activities: Figurative Language
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http://www.funbrain.com/funbrain/idioms/
http://bugges.wcpss.net/Do%20You%20Know%20What%20It%20Means.htm
http://www.quia.com/hm/80390.html
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http://languagearts.mrdonn.org/figurative.html
http://www.kidskonnect.com/subject-index/20-language-arts/343-figurativelanguage.html
http://www.gameclassroom.com/skill/3494/figurative-language-similemetaphor-hyperbole-personification
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Video Clip: Figurative Language
Simile, Metaphor, Hyperbole
Video Clip: Figurative Language
Simile, Alliteration, Repetition
Word Relationships
(SOL 4.3)
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Synonyms are words that have similar, or almost the same meaning.
Example: closed and shut
Antonyms have opposite meanings. Example: in and out
Homophones are words that sound the same but have different
spellings and meanings.
Example: see ("to look") and sea ("the ocean")
Homographs are words that have the same spelling but different
meanings and pronunciations.
Example: close (Jane and Mark are close friends.)
Multiple-meaning words are spelled the same way, but have more than
one meaning and sometimes different pronunciations.
Use context clues to figure out which meaning is being used. The
context (the way the word is used in a sentence) tells which meaning
or pronunciation is being used.
Example: trunk ("elephant's nose") and trunk ("square storage case")
words. Many words are related to other words. Related words may
share a prefix, suffix, or root word.
Internet Activities: Word
Relationships
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http://www.funbrain.com/whichword/index.html
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http://www.funbrain.com/roots/index.html
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http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/english/homophones.htm
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http://www.quia.com/rr/186396.html
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http://www.quia.com/jg/1068781.html
Video Clip: Homophones
Fact and Opinion
(SOL 4.5)
• A fact is a statement that can be proven.
• Facts tell what is happening or what has happened.
In non-fiction, a fact describes something that can be
seen or that really occurred.
• An opinion tells how someone feels and cannot be
proven.
• Opinions tell how the writer or speaker thinks or feels
about something. Opinions may include words such
as:
• Should, must, and ought, or phrases such as "in my
opinion", "I think", or "I believe." An opinion may also
contain adjectives such as worst or best. A
newspaper editorial, written to persuade, is nonfiction
and mostly opinion. If an opinion seems to be right,
that doesn't make it a fact. Even if many people agree
with the author, the statement is still an opinion.
Fact & Opinion Video Clip:
Internet Activities: Fact and Opinion
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http://www.quia.com/pop/12709.html
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http://cuip.uchicago.edu/www4teach/97/jlyman/default/quiz/factopquiz.
html
Cause and Effect
(SOL 4.5)
• A cause is why something happens.
• An effect is what happens because of another event,
or as a result of a cause.
• Sometimes a signal word helps you to see the
cause-and-effect relationship. Some signal words
are: so, because, if, and then.
• Example:
• I got a new bike because I outgrew my old one.
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(EFFECT)
(CAUSE)
• I outgrew my old bike, so I got a new one.
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(CAUSE)
(EFFECT)
• Both sentences say THE SAME THING! Sometimes
the cause is stated first and sometimes the effect is
stated before the cause.
Internet Activities: Cause & Effect
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_spac
e.asp?src=tip129a.swf&skill=Cause%20%26%20Effect
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http://www.smccd.net/accounts/sevas/esl/gramcheck/8-7.html
Summarize
(SOLs 4.4, 4.5, 4.6)
• To summarize, you need to briefly retell the
main idea and most important details of a
selection. Use your own words and retell the
events in the order in which they happened.
• Remember, the main idea is the most
important idea in a paragraph, passage, or
selection.
• Details tell more about the main idea. Details
are pieces of information that tell more about the
main idea. They answer questions such as who,
where, when, what, and how.
Video Clip: Summarizing
Nonfiction Text Structure/
Locating Information (SOL 4.5)
Nonfiction books are factual. Your science and social studies books are
nonfiction. Weekly Readers are also nonfiction.
Tables. graphs, charts, cutaways, labels, headings, venn diagrams, captions,
understand important nonfiction material. Please review these important
nonfiction conventions:
Label: Identifies parts of something.
Heading: Title of a section, page, or chapter.
Cutaway: Part of an illustration moved so you can see the inside.
Graph: Picture type diagram of data.
Caption: Words located under a picture describing what it’s about.
Index: Alphabetical list of topics at the back of a book with page numbers.
Glossary: List of terms and definitions at the back of a book.
where the chapters begin.
Venn Diagram: Two interlocking circles that is used to help us see how two things
are alike and different.
Table/Chart: A set of data in a box-like format that can be read to learn about facts,
numbers, etc…
Internet Activities: Nonfiction Text
Structure/ Locating Information
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http://www.quia.com/cm/92637.html
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_spac
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_zoo.
asp?src=tip216a.swf&skill=Using%20Photos
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http://library.thinkquest.org/5002/Basic/ficnf.htm
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http://www.factmonster.com/
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Nonfiction
Powerpoint
Video Clip: Fiction Vs. Nonfiction
Video Clip: Parts of a Book
Compare/Contrast
(SOL 4.4, 4.5)
• Compare= tell how things are alike
• Contrast= tell how things are different
• To compare, look for clues that tell how things are alike.
This means to look for similarities, or what two things
have in common.
• To contrast, look for clues that tell how things are
different, or differences.
• When writers compare things, they may use words such
as also, both, and too.
• Venn Diagrams are very useful tools for comparing and
contrasting.
• When writers contrast things, they may use words such
Internet Activities:
Compare/Contrast
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http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/actbank/tvenn.htm
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/6gr/en/skills_review_popup.asp
(click on compare and contrast links)
Venn Diagram Video Clip
Sequence
(SOLs 4.4 & 4.5)
• The sequence of events tells what happens first, next,
and last in a story.
• Sequence is the order in which events happen.
• An author may use signal words such as first, next,
then, finally, afternoon, later, or tomorrow to show
sequence.
• Sometimes other words or phrases tell about time.
Dates can also help readers understand time.
understand what you read. Sometimes the clues to a
sequence of events are not stated, but you can use your
knowledge to identify the order.
Internet Activities: Sequence
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http://www.funbrain.com/order/index.html
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_zoo.
asp?src=tip209a.swf&skill=Chronological%20Order
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http://www.quia.com/pp/1298.html
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http://www.quia.com/pp/1308.html
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http://www.quia.com/pp/1312.html
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http://www.quia.com/pages/sequencingfun.html
Sequence and Story Elements
Video Clip
Main Idea
(SOLs 4.4 &4.5)
The main idea is the most important idea in a
paragraph, passage, or selection. The main idea of a
selection is what it is mostly about. Sometimes the
main idea is stated at the end or it may not be stated at
all. If a main idea is not stated in a sentence or title, a
reader must look for details such as clues to figure out
the main idea.
Details tell more about the main idea. Details are
pieces of information that tell more about the main idea.
They answer questions such as who, where, when,
what, and how. The details give information to explain
and support the main idea.
Internet Activities: Main Idea
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_zoo.
asp?src=tip208a.swf&skill=Significant%20and%20Minor%20Details
• http://harcourtschool.com/activity/book_buddy/rosie/skill_pre.h
tml
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_spac
e.asp?src=tip105a.swf&skill=Main%20Idea
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http://www.manatee.k12.fl.us/sites/elementary/palmasola/psmain.htm
Video Clip: Main Idea
Video Clip: Main Idea
Author’s Purpose
(SOL 4.4)
• Every author has a reason, or purpose, for writing.
• Author's purpose= to entertain, to inform, to persuade, to give
instructions
• An author may have more than one purpose.
• A paragraph’s title should reflect the author’s purpose.
• 3 main reasons:
• Entertain- tell a story; to give readers enjoyment or amusement
• An author who wants to entertain will often use sequence to tell the
story events in order.
• Inform- to explain or give information
• An author who wants to inform may use main idea and details to tell
the information.
• An author who wants to persuade usually will give reasons and
details to support his or her opinion.
Internet Activities: Author’s Purpose
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_zoo.
asp?src=tip210a.swf&skill=Author's%20Purpose
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_spac
e.asp?src=tip111a.swf&skill=Author's%20Use%20of%20Persuasion
Video Clip: Author’s Purpose
Prefixes and Suffixes
(SOL 4.3)
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Prefixes are word parts that come before a word that change the meaning of the word.
in- not
re- again
over- too much
un- not
dis- opposite
non- not
mis- wrong
pre- before
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Suffixes are word parts at the end of a word that change the meaning of the word.
-ful full of
-ment state of
-able able to
–ly in a way that is
-ous full of
-ness the act of
-less without
-er one who does
Video Clip: Prefixes & Suffixes
Internet Activities:
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http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/book_buddy/arthur/skill.html
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http://www.funbrain.com/roots/index.html
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http://www.northcanton.sparcc.org/~elem/interactivities/prefixcatch/prefixcat
ch_sr_content.html
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http://www.oswego.org/ocsd-web/match/dragflip.asp?filename=jwildesuffix
Research Skills
(SOL 4.6)
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Knowing which source is best to consult when researching a topic is
very important. You should be able to recognize the following sources
of information:
Dictionary: a book arranged alphabetically that gives definitions,
pronunciations, and parts of speech
Thesaurus: a book arranged alphabetically that gives synonyms and
sometimes antonyms for words.
Atlas/Globe: a book of maps or a round representation of the Earth.
Almanac: A book of facts, charts, weather information, famous people,
etc…
Encyclopedia: A set of books in volumes arranged alphabetically that
provide information on a wide range of topics.
Internet/Online Sources: Websites on every topic imaginable are
available on the internet. Internet safety is extremely important. Search
your research. Always check several sources to make sure you get the
right information.
Video Clip: Reference Guides
(8) Context Clues
(SOL 4.3)
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You can often figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words by looking
for context clues in a sentence or a group of sentences.
One day when Louis was only three, he grabbed his father’s awl. The
boy tried to use the awl to punch a hole in some leather.
You can use context clues to figure out the meaning of awl. The word
grabbed is a context clue. It tells you that an awl can be held. Now
look at the phrase punch a hole. It suggests that an awl is a tool that
someone uses to punch holes in leather.
Look for:
Words related to the word
Words that mean the same
Words that mean the opposite
The location or the setting
What the word is used for
What the word is like or not like
Context Clues Tips:
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Look for words that mean the same
Look for the location or setting
Look for what the word is used for
Look for what the word is not like
Look for what the word is like
Look for words that mean the opposite
Look for words related to the word
Look for how something is done
Look for what kind of thing the word is
Video Clip: Context Clues
Internet Activities
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http://www.manatee.k12.fl.us/sites/elementary/samoset/ccdirect.htm
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http://www.dowlingcentral.com/MrsD/quizzes/vocab/contextclues.htm
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http://www.quia.com/pop/35971.html?AP_rand=968919901
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http://www.quia.com/rr/151544.html
GENRES (Types of Stories)
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Realistic Fiction: fictional story that is made up with characters and plot that could be real, but
aren’t.
Historical Fiction: fictional story that has some tie to a historical period. It may have some real
characters, but there are some elements of the story that are made-up.
Fairy Tale: usually involves good vs. evil, a princess who gets rescued, a knight in shining
armor, and other imaginary plots.
Fable: short, tale that often has a moral or lesson to teach.
Fantasy: imaginary stories, that deals with unrealistic events such as talking animals or
unicorns.
Tall Tale: a fictional story of characters who do larger than life things with exaggeration and
dialect.
Biography: a nonfiction book giving an account of a real person’s life written by another person.
Autobiography: a nonfiction book giving an account of a real person’s life written by that person
him/herself.
Science Fiction: an imaginary story set usually in the future that deals with space, robots,
and/or futuristic activities.
Folk Tale: a story from another country or culture. They often try to explain why things happen
in nature, and can sometimes try to teach a lesson.
Nonfiction: factual writing. Science, history, biographies, and textbooks are all types of
nonfiction.
Mystery: fictional stories that solve a crime or lead the reader in suspense to a conclusion.
Poetry: sensory writing to express feelings and thoughts, sometimes rhyming but other times in
free verse.
Review of many skills:
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http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/6gr/en/skills_review_popup.asp
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http://www.internet4classrooms.com/skills-4th-langbuilders.htm
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