The Synergy of Museums &
Tourism
Audience Development
Presentation by
Christian Waltl
Lord Cultural Resources
Amman, Jordan
7. April 2009
Changing roles of museums
‘Museums should change
from being about something to
being for somebody’
(Stephen E. Weil)
Changing roles of museums
Object focus
Curators pre-eminent
Static display
Scholarship valued
Visitor barriers
Authoritarian
People focus
Multi-functional teams
Changing display/programming
Learning & leisure purpose
Participation/engagement
Dialog
Why are museums important
today?
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Preservation, research & interpretation
Anchors for knowledge generation
Creativity & community development
Life long learning
Urban development
Cultural tourism
Pleasure & enjoyment
Prestige & diplomacy
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The museum as a public space
• The museum as a piazza
• The museum as an idea factory
• The museum as a learning space
What is audience development?
Audience development is about:
• developing and retaining new audiences
• building a strong relationship with existing
audiences and engage them
• improving visitor experiences and encourage
frequent use
• introducing non-attenders to the organisation
• reaching out to special community groups
who would not normally come to a museum.
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Visitor research is the key to
audience development
• Why do they come (motivation)?
• Where do they come from?
• What are their needs?
• What are their expectations?
• How satisfied were the visitors?
• Who are the non-visitors?
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Audience Pyramid
Attenders
Intenders
Open to persuasion
Resistors
Rejectors
After Morris, Hargreaves, McIntyre, 2005
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A Model of Museum Visiting
Social interaction
Doing something worthwhile
Having the challenge of new experiences
Having an opportunity to learn
Participating actively
Feeling comfortable and at ease with the sourroundings
Motivations
Museum Visiting
Predictors
Global Trends
Personal interest
Rising affluence and education
levels
Demographics
Ageing population
Values and beliefs
Cultural diversity
Prior exposure
Less leisure time and emphasis
on short breaks
Opportunities
Time
Source: Hood (1996), Kelly (2001)
Information technology
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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
1954
Motivation drivers
Self-actualization
Self-esteem
3%
creativity
contemplation
10%
experience the past
nostalgia
aesthetic
39%
Interested in
learning
48%
entertainment
social interaction
Social needs
Safety needs
Physical needs
After Morris, Hagraeves,
McIntyre, 2005
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Museums as key players for
cultural tourism
Destination enhancer
Destination motivator
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The Guggenheim Museum
Bilbao, Spain
What makes it so successful?
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The power of an iconic building (Frank Gehry)
A global brand
A committed local authority (& great idea)
An outstanding programme of special exhibitions
The Facts
• 10 years of operation
• 1 million visits per year
• 90% tourists
• 12.8% ROI
• Major urban regeneration
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The Museum of Islamic Art
Doha, Qatar
What makes it so brilliant?
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Superb architecture
Outstanding interior design
Global positioning
Location
Great collection
Dedicated leadership
Prime space for learning
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The Bahrain Fort Museum
Kingdom of Bahrain
What makes it so attractive?
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Historical location next to the old
Portuguese Fort
Simplistic modern design
Archeological jewel
Prime space for research
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The profile of cultural tourists
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Want to explore
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Meaningful personal experience
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Integrated experience
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Motivated by high impact cultural events
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Frequent short trips
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Use the internet to tailor their travel
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High level of educational attainment
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Can be of any age
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How can museums meet the
needs of cultural tourism?
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Offering a unique cultural experience with a
focus on quality and distinctiveness
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Need to offer information on local culture and
traditions
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Allow active participation
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Multilevel interpretation & multiple languages
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Necessary information on website
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Museum marketing strategy that ties into the
tourism strategy
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How can the tourism sector
meet the needs of museums?
• Offer PR and marketing opportunities
• Support and facilitate international
positioning
• Share data
• Regional card schemes
• Transport schemes
• Distribution of promotional material
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Museum versus tourism
What are the obstacles?
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For profit / non-profit approach
Lack of understanding
Few exchanges of expertise and
experiences
Exchange of data
Data on tourists not conform with museum
visitor data
Museums planning versus tourism planning
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Key challenges
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Balance act between the needs of tourists and
the needs of the local community
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Communication
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Sufficient operational funding (esp. marketing)
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Product enhancement
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Sustainability
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How can the 2 sectors work
together?
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Regular exchange of information and expertise
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Joint working groups for visitor/tourist research
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Close collaboration in marketing (destination-level
marketing)
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Create in cooperation varied and innovative
programme packages
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Cultural clusters
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Audience development
as a tool for a tourism development strategy
1. Assess current practice
2. Identify barriers to
collaboration
3. Identify visitors and
geographical distribution
4. Review visitor’s needs
5. Assess potential for
audience development
(resources & skills)
6. Set objectives
7. Market segmentation
8. Establish target
audiences
9. Set an action plan for
each target audience
10. Support staff with training
11. Internships & placements
12. Work with partners
13. Proper marketing
14. Evaluate, review and
improve tourism product
regularly
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Conclusion
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Museums audience development and tourism
development have the same goals
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Museums’ audience development initiatives
can work as a tool for tourism development
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It is about tailoring the offered services to the
needs of the traveler/visitor
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It is about offering a high quality product
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It is a shared responsibility that works best with
an integrated and collaborative approach
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The new Bilbao Effect?
in the 21st Century
King Abdulaziz
Center for Knowledge
& Culture,
Saudi Arabia
THANK YOU!
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Change Management in a Regional Museum