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‫ن ي أرلنغتو س ف ة تكسا ي جامع م ف ال بك و سه ال أه‬
Arlinqtondakı Texas Universitetinə xoş gəlmisiniz!
Selamat datang di Universitas Texas di Arlington!
Добре дошли в Университета на Тексас в Арлингтън!
Welkom bij de Universiteit van Texas in Arlington!
Welcome to The University of Texas at Arlington!
Bienvenue à l’Université du Texas à Arlington!
Willkommen zur Universität von Texas in Arlington!
Benvenuti all'Università di Texas a Arlington!
テキサス大学アーリントン校へようこそ!
Talɩ ɖéu Árlɩŋ
́ tɔnɩ tɛ́ Unɩvɛɖɩsitée taá gɛ́ Tɛksásɩ taá!
텍사스 주립대학교 알링톤 캠퍼스에 오신 것을 환영합니다!
Добредојдовте во Универзитетот на Тексас од Арлингтон!
欢迎光临德州大学阿灵顿分校!
歡迎蒞臨德州大學阿靈頓分校!
Abrtzlvz-ngrgr nzvz-krmamu mz Yunzvrszti ngr Tekszs mrkc Arlingtzn!
Bem-vindos à Universidade do Texas em Arlington!
Добро пожаловать в Университет Техаса в Арлингтоне!
¡Bienvenidos a la Universidad de Texas en Arlington!
Välkomna till Texas Universitetet i Arlington!
ขอตอนรั
บส่มหาวิทยาลัยเท็กซัสแหงเมื
้
่ องอารํลงิ ตัน
Ласкаво просимо до Університету Техаса в Арлінгтоні!
Chào mừng quí khách đến thăm Đại Học Texas ở Arlington!
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Communities Divided,
Communities Connected
How Emigration Creates New
Ways of Speaking
David J. Silva
Vice Provost for Academic Affairs
Professor of Linguistics / Distinguished Teaching Professor
2008-09 Conversations Brown Bag – Friday, October 10, 2008
Overview
Language defines and connects people.
When speakers of different languages come
into contact, there are several strategies
than might be adopted to allow for
communication.
Changes in language use often correlate
with changes in identity, and vice-versa.
The focus: emigration / immigration.
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Language Defines People
What makes a person…
– an American?
an American vs. a Canadian?
– a Texan?
a Texan vs. an Okie?
– educated?
– female vs. male?
– gay vs. straight?
– white, black,
NativeisAmerican,
Language
like a flag East
– it isAsian,
South Asian …emblematic
?
5
Language Connects People
Imagine your life without language …
Language links minds.
Language links lives.
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New Identity  New Language
Pygmalion
Borat
You
“To have another
language is to
possess a second
soul.”
– Attributed to King
Charlemagne
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Travel Propagates Language
“England and America are two countries
separated by a common language.”
– George Bernard Shaw
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Languages in Contact
The desire to
communicate is
axiomatic to being
human.
Language
differences impede
communication.
When impeded,
what do we do?
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1. Lingua Franca
“Vehicular” language
An already-existing third language
used to connect different parties
Historical Lingue Franche
– Greek (Koine)
– French
– Chinese
– English
10
English as Modern Lingua Franca
In a Norwegian cocktail lounge:
“Ladies are requested not to have children
in the bar.”
In the Petting Zoo of the Beijing Zoo:
“Small Careful Animals Club.”
From a brochure of a Tokyo car rental firm:
“When passenger of foot heave in sight,
tootle the horn. Trumpet him melodiously at
first, but if he still obstacles your passage
then tootle him with vigor.”
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2. Mutual [In]Attention
Mutual Respect
– Speakers of each community learn the
language of the other community
Mutual Indifference
– Separate spaces
– No communication
– “We are not
the same”
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Respect? Indifference?
Neither scenario is likely in practice.
They presume equal
(or at last similar) levels of POWER
political
social,
economic,
cultural…
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3. Capitulation
The subordinate group learns the
language of the superordinate group
while either…
– maintaining their home language –or–
– abandoning their home language
What is happening in the USA?
– Let’s check some census data…
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Census Data -1980, 1990, 2000
1980
% of
1990
(millions) total (millions)
% of US Total Population
US100
Population
–
89 86
90
82
All speakers,
age 5+
80
70 only
English
60
50
Language
other
than40English
30
20
Speaks
English
10
very
0 well
English Only
Speaks English
w/some difficulty
% of
total
2000 1980
% of
(millions) total
1990
210.4
100
230.4
100
262.4
2000
100
187.1
89
198.6
86
215.4
82
23.0
11
31.8
14
46.9
18
8
25.6
9.8
18
14
11
12.9
6.1
6
8 10
17.8
7.8 5
6
Other than
"Very Well"
"W/Difficulty"
English
10.1
4.8
14.0
6.1
21.3
Self-Reported Classification
8.1
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4. Language Mixing
4A - Lexical Borrowing
– A community borrows words from another
– The least complex type of mixing
– Examples from The History of Love
kishkes (10); pischer (15); knedelach (16)
– English borrowings include…
skunk

marmalade 
robot

(Abenaki or Cree)
(Portuguese)
(Russian)
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4. Language Mixing
4B - Code Switching
– Speakers move back and forth between
two languages during a single episode
– More complex than borrowing
– The two languages maintain some degree
of internal integrity
“An example, please”
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Nelly Furtado – “Força”
Com uma força que ninguém pode parar
“With a force that nobody can stop”
Com uma fome que ninguém pode matar
“With a hunger that nobody can kill”
Mais perto do céu …
“Closer to the sky …”
What’s the meaning?
– “I belong to both communities – and to
a third.”
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4. Language Mixing
4C - Pidginization
(vs. “pigeon”)
– Speakers create a new system with elements
of both languages
– Most complex form of mixing
– At first, a pidgin is…
nobody’s first language
limited contexts (usually trade / business)
– Later, the pidgin might become a creole
acquired by children
expands into a full range of contexts
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Tok Pisin – Papua New Guinea
Tok Pisin
English
– bikpela man
– tupela i bam
– nogut
– bikpela su
– adult
– accident
– bad
– boot
– Hamas bilong baim
tiket i go long Briten?
– How much is a
ticket to Britain?
FYI: ~100,000 native speakers,
4+ million second language speakers
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A Special Case
The Lost Boys of Sudan
Diaspora
– Ethiopia
– Kenya
– USA
Nebraska
California
Texas
~27,000 men
They Poured Fire on
Us From the Sky,
edited by Judy A.
Bernstein (2005)
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Dental Extraction
Male (& Female)
6 lower teeth removed
At or near permanent
eruption
Pattern documented in
19th-20th century
travelogues,
ethnographies
Associated with
– Identity – “Jackals”
– Diet
– Speech
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University of Nebraska Project
PI: Dr. Mary Willis, Dept of Anthropology
The Jacob & Valeria Langeloth Foundation
Design from refugees
All remarked upon
how missing teeth
influenced
speech
eating
self-image
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The Dinka Study
13 “Lost Boys”
Each missing 6
lower teeth
Age Range: 21-30
Primary settlement
to Lincoln 2000-01
Image Credit: Wall Street Journal 2002
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More on the Dinka Study
The Question. Does replacing these teeth
change speech production?
The Methodology. Record speech three times:
• prior to having the teeth replaced
• ~ one month after the teeth have been replaced
• ~ one year after the teeth have been replaced
Controls. Compare these patterns against :
• those who never had teeth extracted
• those who were not selected for dental replacement
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Results of the Dinka Study
Focus on the Palatal Stops
– similar to English ‘j’ and ‘ch’
Without the lower front teeth
– ‘j’ is pronounced more like ‘zh’
– ‘ch’ is pronounced more like ‘sh’ (fricatives)
After teeth are replaced
– ‘j’ and ‘ch’ tend toward a “repaired” state
– speech patterns match those of younger Dinka
boys who never underwent dental extraction
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Why is that Last Point Important?
Hypotheses 1 and 2 appear to have been refuted.
Observation #1
Although
the “hardware”
producing ‘j’ and ‘ch’ may be
If the lower
teeth arefor
missing,
damaged
/ missing,
then
‘j’  ‘zh’the
and“software”
‘ch’  ‘sh’ that encodes ‘j’ and ‘ch’
– i.e., the grammar of the language – remains intact.
Observation #2
If everybody
has their
teeth
extracted,
If we replace
thelower
dental
hardware,
then
‘j’ recover
and ‘ch’the
areoriginal
never speech
produced
by adults
we can
patterns.
Hypothesis #1
With no exposure to ‘j’ or ‘ch’,
children will not acquire these sounds
Hypothesis #2
After one or two generations, ‘j’ / ‘ch’ disappear 27
Beyond the Mechanics…
Diet
Self-Image
Challenges
– maintaining good dental health
– continuing emotional recovery
Emigration to the United States literally
results in a new way of speaking
Changes in Sudan –
the demise of extraction
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Points to Take Away
You are – in part – what you speak.
– When you change, your language changes.
– When your language changes, you change.
When people connect, they often find
creative ways to communicate.
– Adaptability is a hallmark of human existence,
language included.
– We need to distinguish between the physical
realities of speech and consider both social
and cognitive aspects, too.
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When it Comes to Language…
Physiology
Cognition
Identity
Affiliation
Physics
It’s all connected.
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Subliminal
Message:
Communities Divided,
Communities Connected
TAKE LING 2301
How Emigration Creates New
Ways of Speaking
this spring!
David J. Silva
[email protected]
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Communities Divided, Communities Connected