Professional Development to Practice
Complete Handout Packet
for
Student Practice
(Spaced vs. Massed Practice)
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Professional Development to Practice
Advance Organizer
Where does student practice occur in the
context of learning?
What elements need to be in place for
students to be successful at practice?
1
Professional Development to Practice
Necessary Components for
Practice to be Successful







Classroom environment
Personal connection
Adequate knowledge/skill base
Adequate conceptual understanding
Spacing of practice sessions
Varied contexts/decontextualization
Novelty and challenge of practice sessions
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Professional Development to Practice
Four Kinds of Practice
Deliberate
Spaced
Dynamic Interleaving
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Professional Development to Practice
Deliberate Practice
Learning Goal: To learn to compare and contrast information
and ideas.
Criteria for Success:
1) Name two objects for comparison.
2) Determine points or traits to use for comparison.
3) Determine similarities
4) Determine differences
5) Summarize information
You already know:
1, 2, and 3
You need to practice:
4 and 5
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Professional Development to Practice
Example of Deliberate Practice
Goal: Hit the tennis ball over the net 80% of the time.
Based on your past performance, please practice the skills checked on this chart.
Success Criteria
Grip
Swing
Body Position
Footwork
Practice
Session 1
Practice
Session 2
Practice
Session 3
Practice
Session 4
5
Professional Development to Practice
Example of Deliberate Practice
Goal: To throw the ball in the strike zone.
Criteria marked with a check mark needs to be practiced
until a minimal level of competency is reached.
Success Criteria
Consistency ( The
mechanics to put it all
together)
Effective footwork and
arm motion
Withstanding pressure
under game
conditions
Focus/concentration
(eyes, brain and body
work together)
First practice
on…
Next
practice
on…
Then practice
on…
Last practice
on…
6
7
Professional Development to Practice
Example of Deliberate Practice
Goal: 85% proficient on 2-place addition with regrouping.
Criteria marked with a check mark needs to be practiced
until a minimal level of competency is reached.
Success Criteria
First
practice
on…
Next
practice
on…
Then
practice
on…
Last
practice
on…
Determining which column is the
ones column and which column is
the tens column.
Add like place-value columns. Show
and explain your strategy for
regrouping.
Show final answer and justify.
Slide 31
Professional Development to Practice
Example of Deliberate Practice
Goal: 85% proficient on determining main idea of fictional text.
To help you reach the goal, you need to practice the skills check-marked
below.
To be successful you must be able
to…
Know the meaning of main idea.
Recognize main idea statements.
Recognize the main idea in a short
piece of literal text.
Recognize the main idea in a
lengthy piece of literal text.
Recognize the main idea in a short
piece of abstract text.
Recognize the main idea in a
lengthy piece of abstract text.
Practice 1
Practice 2
Practice 3
Practice 4
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Professional Development to Practice
Video Clip Focus Questions
How does spaced practice impact learning?
How does massed practice impact learning?
Which type of practice works best to learn
times tables? Why?
Which type of practice works best to perform
well on a history test? Why?
Did the video clip describe how to practice a
process? Explain.
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Professional Development to Practice
Summarize each type of practice in as few words as possible.
Deliberate Practice:
Dynamic Practice:
Spaced Practice:
Interleaving Practice:
10
11
Prerequisites to Practice
Classroom
Environment
(Safety and Sense
of Belonging)
Personal
Connection or
Relevance
Knowledge or
Skill Base
Practice
Jana L. Scott, University of MO-Columbia, 2014.
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Professional Development to Practice
What are your thoughts?
What does a classroom
environment that is
conducive to learning look
like?
What does a classroom
environment that is
conducive to learning
sound like?
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Professional Development to Practice
For a classroom climate to be considered conducive to learning,
the student must…….
 perceive the classroom as being a safe place in which to take intellectual risks,
 feel comfortable in asking for help when needed,
 have positive interpersonal relations and social support from students and
teachers,
 be able to regard errors as a source for new learning,
 be able to admit difficulties or problems without fearing that these actions will
diminish him/her in the eyes of peers or teachers,
 view relationships in the classroom as being supportive and collaborative,
 perceive there is mutual trust among teachers and students,
 have clear understanding of what expected (academically and behaviorally) and
have a clear sense of how to reach learning targets,
 have a clean, comfortable and orderly physical environment,
 have smooth transitions from task to task,
 have an organized teacher.
Sources: Haertel and Walberg (1980) and (Hattie, 2009, 103).
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Professional Development to Practice
Predict
What are the benefits to learning when students see the
connection between what is being learned and their personal
lives?
1.
2.
3.
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Professional Development to Practice
Relevance
 When we offer information to students, their brains try to make
connections to patterns already stored. If there are no
connections, the information is easily dropped.
 “Making content relevant to our students’ lives allows them to
start making connections to prior knowledge immediately.”
 Relevancy involves making some associations that affect our
lives.
 A sense of relevancy increases with inquiry learning and realworld, problem-based learning.
 These focus on information processing skills that lead to
understanding.
 Reaching our students through relevant issues increases the
chances that information will go into memory.
 How might you make learning relevant to students?
(Sprenger, 2005, pgs. 32 – 35)
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Professional Development to Practice
Your Task
Write two ideas you might use to help students
see the connection between what they are
learning and their real-life experiences.
Topic to Be Learned
Idea for Connection
Be ready to share ideas.
Use four-corner strategy to share.
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Professional Development to Practice
Facts:
 Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963.
 Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the
United States.
Concepts:
 Revolution
 Social unrest
 Wealth
 Democracy
Generalizations:
 “As a result of social unrest, revolutions occur.”
 “A lack of natural resources leads to an economy
primarily based on services.”
 “For every action there is a reaction.”
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Professional Development to Practice
Algorithms:
 23 +24 = ____;
 ½ X 3= ____ ;
 Edit a sentence for spelling errors.
Tactics:
 When adding three single digit numbers, try some of these tactical
moves……Try to find two numbers whose sum equals ten, then add the
third number to ten. OR Add the two smaller numbers first, then add the
largest number. OR Make groups of tens and then add ones.
 To determine structure of text, I will try some of these tactical moves….. I
will make an outline of the content. OR I will make a graphic organizer to
show how information is organized. OR I will use highlighters to color
various topics different colors.
Strategies:
 To solve this problem or address this issue, I can use any of these
strategies…… I can work backwards, make a chart, make a drawing, make a
list, etc.
 To design a research study to determine effectiveness of pesticides on crop
rust, I will have to….
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Professional Development to Practice
19
Three Phases of Teaching Declarative Knowledge
Phase 1: “The first phase of learning and remembering declarative knowledge is constructing meaning and
involves helping learners access what they already know about information. A number of strategies can
facilitate this process. The most popular strategies is a KWL. Concept formation is another powerful strategy.
Others include brainstorming, reciprocal teaching, analogizing and semantic webbing. “ (Marzano R.J. , A
Different Kind of Classroom, Teaching with the Dimensions of Learning 1992, 37-40)
Phase 2: “The second phase of learning and placing declarative information into memory is organizing
information or creating our own internal representation of information. At a very basic level, organizing means
representing information in a very subjective, concise way. It involves identifying what is important and what is
not important and then generating a semantic or symbolic representation of that information. Information
should be recorded in large general chunks rather than small specific pieces of information. “ ((Marzano R.J. , A
Different Kind of Classroom, Teaching with the Dimensions of Learning 1992, 40-47)
Phase 3: “The third phase of learning declarative knowledge is storing information into memory. This part
would be unnecessary if learners did not have to remember information over an extended period of time. The
most powerful elaboration strategies are to associate mental pictures, physical sensations, and emotions with
the information to be memorized. Many formal memory systems use imagery as an elaboration tool for
remembering. The learner creates a mental image for each piece of information he wants to recall, making sure
to create vivid patterns by imagining sounds, tastes, smells, and so on. Then link the images in story fashion.”
(Marzano R.J. , A Different Kind of Classroom, Teaching with the Dimensions of Learning 1992, 47-49.)
Professional Development to Practice
20
Three Phases of Teaching Procedural Knowledge
Phase 1: “The first phase of learning procedural knowledge is model building. The model looks differently for three
basic types of procedures (skills, tactics, and strategies). The model for an algorithm would be a series of ordered
steps. The model for a tactic would be a set of general rules or tactical movers for accomplishing a specific task. Such
as a list of general rules for reading a bar graph. The model for a strategy would be a listing of general rules that may
be applied to any problem or across content areas.” (Marzano R.J. , A Different Kind of Classroom, Teaching with the
Dimensions of Learning 1992, 56-58)
Phase 2: “The second phase of learning procedural knowledge is shaping. This is the most important part and the
part that develops the expertise in performing the skill. In this phase the learner tries to use the initial model
provided to them by the teacher or constructed by himself. If needed, the student alters the model to work better.
This is the phase in which systematic errors are commonly introduced so the student can become stronger at using
the skill or process. Common strategies for shaping include: guided practice and scaffold instruction.” (Marzano R.J. ,
A Different Kind of Classroom, Teaching with the Dimensions of Learning 1992, 58-60))
Phase 3: “The final phase of learning procedural knowledge is to internalize knowledge to the point a person can
perform it fluently or with relative ease. The practice sessions of the skill should be extended into several short
sessions as opposed to a few large sessions. It is most accurate to think of performing skills and processes on
continuum of skill levels from controlled processing to automaticity. Algorithms are commonly learned to the point
of automaticity and can be done without conscious thought such as driving a car or language. A controlled process
on the other hand requires conscious thought even when perfected. For example the strategies required in
advanced doing problem solving of non-routine real world problems require conscious thought. Regardless of
whether a process is learned to the level of automaticity or the level of expert control, it is extended practice that
gets the learner to where he or she needs to be.” ((Marzano R.J. , A Different Kind of Classroom, Teaching with the
Dimensions of Learning 1992, 61-62)
Professional Development to Practice
Your Task
 Use handout pages 19 and 20 and work with a partner to compare and
contrast the three phases used to teach declarative knowledge to the three
phases used to teach procedural knowledge. Be ready to share ideas.
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Professional Development to Practice
Challenges and Barriers
Easy for
May Offer a
Me to Do Slight
Challenge
Very
Challenging
or Barriers
Suggestions for
Overcoming
Barriers
22
Professional Development to Practice
Your Task
Goal: I will design an effective “practice plan” for a student or students which
contains all essential elements.
Activity: Work alone or with a partner to create a practice plan for a student
or students. Make sure your practice plan contains all the essential elements
to ensure the practice will be beneficial. Write your practice plan on handout
page 24.
Criteria for Success: Be sure your practice plan…
1. addresses changes that need to be made to the learning environment
2. describes how you will help students make personal connections
3. describes the “phases” needed to build the knowledge or skill base
4. is “spaced” over time
5. is deliberate (addresses specified criteria for improvement)
6. is dynamic (challenging, novel, in varied contexts)
7. is interleaved (if applicable)
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Professional Development to Practice
Practice Plan for Students
Topic:
Knowled ge or Skill to Practice:
My Practice Plan
1.
Describe any changes that need to be made
to the learning environment.
2.
Describe how you will help students make
personal connections.
3.
Describe the “phases” needed to build the
knowledge or skill base.
4.
Tell how practice sessions will be spaced.
5.
Make practice deliberate by specifying
criteria for success.
6.
Make practice dynamic by telling how it
offers a challenge, is novel, and uses varied
contexts.
7.
Describe if practice will be interleaving or
block or both.
24
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Professional Development to Practice
Descriptive Feedback
Goal: Design an effective “practice plan” for a student or
students which contains all essential elements.
Criteria for Success: Be sure your practice plan…
1. addresses changes that need to be made to the
learning environment
2. describes how you will help students make personal
connections
3. describes the “phases” needed to build the
knowledge or skill base
4. is “spaced” over time
5. describes which approach…block or interleaving
6. is deliberate (addresses specified criteria for
improvement)
7. is dynamic (challenging, novel, in varied contexts)
Next Steps:
You
Have
You
Need
Professional Development to Practice
Resources
• Ben Hur, Meir. Concept-Rich Mathematics: Building a Strong Foundation for
Reasoning and Problem Solving, ASCD, 2006 pages 12-19.
• Hattie, John. Visible Learning: A Synthesis of over 800 Meta-Analysis Relating
to Achievement. London: Routledge, 2009.
• Jenkins, Jake. Interleaved Practice: A Secret Enhanced Learning Technique
Posted on April 29, 2013 http://j2jenkins.com/2013/04/29/interleavedpractice-a-secret-enhanced-learning-technique/
• Marzano, Robert, J. A Different Kind of Classroom: Teaching with the
Dimensions of Learning. ASCD, 1992.
• Sprenger, Marilee. How to Teach Students to Remember. Alexandria VA,
Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2005.
• Scott, Jana L. Spaced Practice: In the Context of Learning, University of MOColumbia, 2014 (Creative Commons with Attribution)
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Professional Development to Practice
Final Reflection Sheet
Directions: Use your results from the Practice Profile: Red, Green and Yellow Activity to
complete the Final Reflection Sheet.
 What is your number one priority?
What is you number two priority?
What is one thing that you want to know more
about?
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Massed versus Spaced Practice