“Kojanglish”: Korean and Japanese English vocabulary Judy Yoneoka 2012 “Janglish” and “Konglish” Janglish The language of Nippon is being subtly transformed through a reckless frenzy of linguistic borrowing, and … this katakana revolution will ultimately only dilute and pollute it. (Denbushi blog, Aug. 3, 2003) Konglish How bad can bad English get? Very bad indeed, … "Konglish“ (is) the hybrid of jazzy Korean and messy English that, "like heavy traffic is an unpleasant but tolerable side of life" in the East Asian capital. (Cohen 2001) 1. Historically similar “Kojanglish” Prewar “Kojanglish” --More than 1,400 words from foreign languages (especially English) in Japanese before 1945 – – – – – – – – – mishin (sewing machine) 1861 ou rai (all right) 1864 stove (heater) 1868 match (matches) 1870 stand (lamp) 1872 gown (robe) 1884 trump (cards) 1884 hairpin (hair clip) 1885 hotchkiss (stapler) 1906 Postwar KojanglishKonglish After World War II, there were efforts to delete Japanese and Japanese style English loan words from the Korean lexicon, and/or to “correct” the pronunciation of Japanese English. e.g. ppada ‘butter’ pӧthӧ takusi ‘taxi’ thaeksi hoteru ‘hotel’ hotel (Shim 1994:228) But “Kojanglish” still exists 50-60% of “Konglish”=“Janglish” Another 20% or so is “understandably similar” – – – – – – – ball pen (ball-point pen) talent (entertainer) vinyl (plastic) rimocon (remote control) sign pen (felt pen) symbol mark (logo) golden time (prime time) …And “Konglish” from Japan hand(i)phone (cell phone) motel skinship Japanese Konglish: “jake” “pas” “bansoko” “kisu” White day -- originated in Japan 1980, and spread to Korea. “Black Day” – April 14 is for people who did not give or receive gifts, and it is celebrated by eating black Jajang noodles. 2. Formally similar Korean and Japanese English “Kojanglish Creation” process 1: Truncation Prewar: apart(ment building), note(book), ero(tic), cray(on)-pas(tel) centi(meter), demo(nstration) Postwar: remo(te) con(trol), cream sand(wich), (news)caster, air con(ditioning), (loud)speaker JE only: anime(shon), barten(der), fami(ly) res(taurant), mail ad(dress), appli(cation), pro wres(tling), mother com(plex) KE only: night (club), white(-out), le(isure)(s)ports, depre(ssion), gang(ster) movie, (com)ment、(mee)ting Sharp pencil -- sharp in KE, shapen in JE Kentucky Fried Chicken -- kenchiki in JE and Kentucky chiken in KE =the process of truncation was in place in both languages before the war, and has continued independently since. “Kojanglish Creation” process 2: “Plurality“ “Extra” plurals donuts, peanuts, shirts, fruits “Missing” plurals sunglass, slipper, corn flake, manner, suspender, match Very regular!! =No plurality in either variety “Kojanglish Creation” 3: Acronyms Largely postwar except SOS (1912)). Common to KE and JE: SF, OL, OA KE alone: D/B = Database, D/C = discount, O/D = Owner-driver, O/T = Orientation, MT = membership training, OST = sound track, PD = producer director JE alone: OB old boy, OG old girl, QC quality control, (L)DK=living, dining, kitchen, LL=language lab, BF= boyfriend, GF= girlfriend, SL=steam locomotive, TT =team teaching commercial CF in KE CM in JE After sales service A/S in KE after-service in JE =The process of creating acronyms developed independently, possibly commonly based on US military English? (GHQ, GI, etc.) “Kojanglish 4” : Hybrids Common to both: 電子 range, 検索 engine JE only PET bottle mailing list image change 発砲 styrol vinyl 袋 hairpin KE only PET 瓶 mail 目録 image 変身 styropon vinyl bag 머리pin = Hybridization is an independent but similar process in both languages ３. Functionally similar Korean and Japanese English English = Westernization = modernization “decorative English” English in business, advertising, music, TV, etc. promotes a “cool” image. Examples: LOTTE Examples More Examples of Bridging the Gap with English “Kojanglish” can play a role as a bridge between Korea and Japan For three reasons: 1. In terms of common script, Korea and Japan have no other choice (kanji have different readings). 2. Like Cinderella, it is familiar and appealing, and has a positive image for both. 3. Because of historical and formal similarity, there is no need for either country to worry about being “wrong” -- JE and KE are already “wrong” in so many of the same ways. Selected Bibliography Przybyla III, L. H. Konglish2 (2004) available online at Leon’s EFL Planet http://efl.htmlplanet.com/konglish.htm Shim, Rosa Jinyoung (1999). "Codified Korean English: Process, Characteristics and Consequence." World Englishes 18: 247-258. Song, Jae Jung (1998). “English in South Korea”, Australian Linguistic Society, available online at http://www.cltr.uq.edu.au/als98/jsong426.html Tranter, Nicolas (1997). “Hybrid Anglo-Japanese loans in Korean”, Linguistics 35 133-166. Tranter, Nicolas (2000). “The phonology of English loan-words in Korean”, Word. 51-3, p. 337-404. Umegaki, Minoru, ed. (1977). A Dictionary of Loan-words (Gairaigo Jiten, in Japanese). Tokyo: Tokyodo shuppan.