LITERACY IMPACT!
Literacy Across the Curriculum:
Maintaining the Momentum
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Geoff Barton
October 3, 2015
All resources can be downloaded at www.geoffbarton.co.uk
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LITERACY IMPACT!
1 Where are we with “literacy” & the Strategy?
2 Evaluating your literacy strategy: what impact have
you made so far, and how do you know?
3 What are the essentials for colleagues …
•In reading?
•In writing?
… and how will you
achieve it?
•In spelling?
•In grammatical knowledge?
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LITERACY IMPACT!
2 strands …
LITERACY
YOUR ROLE
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LITERACY IMPACT!
L.O.
By 3pm you should …
•Be clearer about your own role
•Know the priorities for your school
•Have learnt some useful literacy knowledge
•Be happier, wiser, and re-invigorated
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LITERACY IMPACT!
SECTION 1:
Where the heck are we?
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LITERACY IMPACT!
The story so far …
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A
I
M
S
LITERACY IMPACT!
•An inclusive education
system within a culture of
high expectations
•The centrality of literacy
and numeracy across the
curriculum
•The infusion of learning
skills across the curriculum
•The promotion of
assessment for learning
•Expanding the teacher’s
range of teaching
strategies and techniques
•No child left behind
•Reinforcing the basics
•Enriching the learning
experience
•Making every child
special
•Making learning an
enjoyable experience
English Review 2000-05
October 2005: Key findings
English is one of the best taught subjects in
both primary and secondary schools.
October 2005: Key findings
 Standards of writing have improved as a
result of guidance from the national
strategies. However, although pupils’
understanding of the features of different
text types has improved, some teachers give
too little thought to ensuring that pupils fully
consider the audience, purpose and content
for their writing.
 Schools also need to consider how to
develop continuity in teaching and assessing
writing.
October 2005: Key findings
• Schools do not always seem to understand
the importance of pupils’ talk in developing
both reading and writing.
• Myhill and Fisher quote research which
argues that ‘spoken language forms a
constraint, a ceiling not only on the ability to
comprehend but also on the ability to write,
beyond which literacy cannot progress’. Too
many teachers appear to have forgotten that
speech ‘supports and propels writing
forward’.
• Pupils do not improve writing solely by
doing more of it; good quality writing
benefits from focused discussion that gives
pupils a chance to talk through ideas before
writing and to respond to friends’
suggestions.
October 2005: Key findings
• The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study
(PIRLS), published in 2003, found that, although the
reading skills of 10 year old pupils in England compared
well with those of pupils in other countries, they read less
frequently for pleasure and were less interested in
reading than those elsewhere.
• An NFER reading survey (2003), conducted by Marian
Sainsbury, concluded that children’s enjoyment of
reading had declined significantly in recent years.
• A Nestlé/MORI report highlighted the existence of a small
core of children who do not read at all, described as an
‘underclass’ of non-readers, together with cycles of
non-reading ‘where teenagers from families where parents
are not readers will almost always be less likely to be
enthusiastic readers themselves
October 2005: Key findings
The role of teaching assistants was described
in the report as ‘increasingly effective’. Many
of them are responsible for teaching the
intervention programmes and this work has
improved in quality as a result of
improvements in their specialist knowledge.
October 2005: Key findings
The Strategy has improved some teachers’
understanding of the importance of pupils’ literacy
in developing their subject knowledge and to some
effective teaching, especially in writing and the
use of subject-specific vocabulary. Despite this,
weaknesses remain, including:
• the stalling of developments as senior
management teams focus on other initiatives
• lack of robust measures to evaluate the
impact of developments across a range of
subjects
• a focus on writing at the expense of
reading, speaking and listening.
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LITERACY IMPACT!
From
Departmental strategies
Departmental development
National launch
Directed training
To
Whole-school strategy
School improvement
Local consolidation /
embedding
Selected training and support
Key principles of Literacy Across the
Curriculum
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•
•
•
•
Good literacy skills are a key factor in raising
standards across all subjects
Language is the main medium we use for teaching,
learning and developing thinking, so it is at the heart
of teaching and learning
Literacy is best taught as part of the subject, not as an
add-on
All teachers need to give explicit attention to the
literacy needed in their subject.
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•
•
•
•
•
Consistency in teaching literacy is achieved
when …
Literacy skills are taught consistently and systematically
across the curriculum
Expectation of standards of accuracy and presentation
are similar in all classrooms
Teachers are equipped to deal with literacy issues in their
subject both generically and specifically
The same strategies are used across the school: the
teaching sequence for writing; active reading strategies;
planning speaking and listening for learning
Teachers use the same terminology to describe language.
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•
•
•
•
•
Ofsted suggests literacy across the curriculum is
good when …
Senior managers are actively involved in the planning
and monitoring
Audits and action planning are rigorous
Monitoring focuses on a range of approaches, e.g.
classroom observation, work scrutiny as well as formal
tests
Time is given to training, its dissemination and
embedding
Schools work to identified priorities.
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Literacy strategy: The next phase
Self-evaluation:
So where are you up to in your school?
NO
PROGRESS
0
3
5
GOOD
PROGRESS
Literacy strategy: The next phase
Headteacher
Your role
Senco
Teachers
Teaching assistants
Governors
NO
PROGRESS
0
3
5
GOOD
PROGRESS
Literacy strategy: The next phase
Key player
Head
You
SENCO
Teachers
Teaching
assistants
Governors
Progress rating
Priority
Literacy strategy: The next phase
H ead te ach er s
In th e most su cce ss ful schools, hea dt eac her s and deputy hea dt eac her s h ave:
_ had di rec t per son al involv em ent in th e impl em ent ation o f th e L it erac y and
N um erac y St ra tegi es;
_ w orked in par tn er ship w ith lo ca l s chools to sh are good p rac ti ce
_ giv en st rong suppo rt fo r th e lit erac y a nd m ath em atics c oo rdin ato rs in cluding ,
w here possibl e, p roviding non -c ont ac t tim e;
_ w orked w ith c oo rdin ato rs to e st ablish curr iculum tar g ets;
_ monito re d di rec tly (w ith coll ea gu es in s enio r m an ag em ent t ea ms in l ar ger
schools ) th e teac hing o f lit erac y and m ath em ati cs to g ain an ov erv iew o f st re ngths
and wea kn ess es, to id enti fy and a dd re ss th e c ontinuing p rofe ssion al developm ent
nee ds o f c oll ea gu es and to re vi ew th e s chool Õs su cce ss in
ac hi eving curr iculum tar g ets s et.
NO
PROGRESS
0
3
5
GOOD
PROGRESS
Literacy strategy: The next phase
Li ter acy and M ath em atics C oo rdina tors:
_ suppo rting te ac her s in s etting a nd focusing on a rea listi c numb er of curr iculum
tar gets;
_ lea ding s chool -based tra ining on
ho w to judg e and suppo rt p rog re ss th rough th e
effec tiv e us e of pl enar ies in th e lit erac y hou r a nd d aily math em atics lesson;
_ w orking w ith c oll ea gu es on a sh are d und er st anding o f prog re ssion in
wr iting, in
th e appli ca tion of rea ding skills, in m ent al a nd wr itt en ca lcul ation st ra tegi es and in
probl em solving;
_ m aking clearer to p are nts school poli cies on wr iting a nd ca lcul ation .
NO
PROGRESS
0
3
5
GOOD
PROGRESS
Literacy strategy: The next phase
SE NC Os :
_ suppo rting te ac her s build clear c urr iculum t ar gets into any a ddition al suppo rt
provid ed to individu als and groups;
_ ensu ring t ar gets in individu
al a nd g roup pl ans link c los ely to th e obj ec tiv es in th e
lit erac y and m ath em atics F ra me wor ks for teaching ;
_ trac king th e prog re ss o f c hild re n w ith S EN in rea ding, wr iting, m ent al and
wr itt en ca lcul ation a nd p robl em solving;
_ sho w ing pa re nts key asp ec ts of w hat th eir child re n are b eing taught and
asso ciated re sou rce s th at suppo rt c hild re n in th eir l ear ning , su ch a s wr iting on a
comput er s cree n a nd th e us e o f e mpty numb er lin es.
NO
PROGRESS
0
3
5
GOOD
PROGRESS
Literacy strategy: The next phase
T each er s:
_ talking w ith c hild re n about both th e teac herÕs and c hild Õ
s ass essm ent o f ho w we ll
curr iculum t ar gets are b eing m et;
_ in cluding in
th eir pl anning key qu estions th at w ill be in clud ed in l essons;
_ expl aining to
c hild re n th e obj ec tiv es for individu al l essons a nd th e e xp ec tations
of th eir prog re ss ov er eac h h alf- ter m;
_ ensu ring th at hom ew ork p rovid ed is s elf-e xpl anato ry to p are nts .
NO
PROGRESS
0
3
5
GOOD
PROGRESS
Literacy strategy: The next phase
T eaching assis tan ts:
_ attending t ra ining on suppo
rting c hild re n w ith par ticul ar pot enti al barr ier s to
ac hi evem ent and providing this
suppo rt in school, in cluding running Ôcatch-up Õ
prog ra mm es;
_ providing
fee db ac k to t eac her s on sp ec ific misund er st andings o r st re ngths
child re n d emonst ra te;
_ joining
discu ssions w ith teacher s a bout exp ec tations of child re n in di ffere nt a ge
groups;
_ tar geting for a ddition al suppo rt c hild re n w ho have di ff iculti es c ompl eting
hom ew ork.
NO
PROGRESS
0
3
5
GOOD
PROGRESS
Literacy strategy: The next phase
Gov er no rs:
_ w orking w ith th e hea dt eac her to set challenging perf orm ance t ar gets;
_ sampling th
e prog re ss o f a few par ticul ar pupils a nd comp ar ing it w ith th e
prog re ss exp ec ted nation ally;
_ monito ring and re vi ew ing th e imp ac t o f poli cies to e nsu re p rog re ssion in wr iting ,
th e appli ca tion of rea ding skills, m ent al and wr itt en ca lcul ation st ra tegie s and
probl em solving;
_ suppo rting sta ff by t aking oppo rtuniti es to talk w ith pare nts about th e impo rtance
of hom ew ork a nd ho w th ey ca n help th eir ow n child re n.
NO
PROGRESS
0
3
5
GOOD
PROGRESS
KS3 IMPACT!
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 Talking Point 
•What have been the successes
in your own school?
•What do you need to do next?
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LITERACY IMPACT!
SECTION 2:
(re)Motivating the key players?
Focus relentlessly
on T&L
“Schools are places where the pupils go to watch the
‘Standards
areworking”
raised(John
ONLY
by changes
teachers
West-Burnham)
which
are
put
into
direct
effect
by
“For many years, attendance at school has been required
teachers
and
pupils while
in classrooms’
(for
children and
for teachers)
learning at school
has been optional.” (Stoll, Fink & East)
Black and Wiliam,
‘Inside the Black Box’
Key players
Librarian
Strategy manager
Working party
Headteacher
Governors
Teaching assistants
Subject leaders
Students!
Key players
Strategy manager
Focus, tailor, customise
See as professional development rather than delivery
Differentiate training
Emphasise monitoring more than initiatives
Use pupil surveys for learning & teaching
Essential
literacy rooted
in professional
development
An example …
Readi n g
Writ in g
Spea k in g & list en in g
Use lay ou t and l a n gu age
to m ake texts accessible Ğ
eg white space,
typo graphical features,
su mm aries, bullets, short
para graphs
Be clear and explicit
about the con ve n tion s
of the writin g you expect
fro m students Ğ e g
audience, purpose,
layout, key words and
phrases, le vel of
for m ality
Pro vidin g assess m en t
criteria and m odels of
appropriate text types
Usin g a variety of
gr oup in gs for structured
tal k Ğ pairs, sa m e-sex ,
friendship, triads, ability
groups
Usin g a ran ge of strategies
to support studentsÕ
readin g Ğ e g readin g aloud,
key words and glossaries,
word ban ks, display, paired
readin g, tal kin g about texts
before answerin g
S p ellin g Ğ m ar kin g no
m ore than 3-5 key
spel lin gs per wor k, writin g
the correct spellin g in the
m ar gin with the error
identified; students puttin
g
these into spellin g pa ges in
the m iddle of exercise
boo ks; usin g starters /
word gam es / m ne m onics /
display / rules / words
within words to support
stud entsÕ spellin g
Usin g sh are d
co m po siti on to show
students how to write
S ettin g objecti ves for tal k
and pro v idin g lan gua g e
m od els Ğ e g le vel of
for m ality, key words and
phrases
Pro vidin g alternati ves to
traditional Q&A
approaches Ğ e g open
questions, thin kin g ti m e,
bi g questions, no -hands,
paired consultation ti
m e,
dealin g with answers,
pro m pts, answer starters
Headteacher
Must be actively involved as head TEACHER
Eg monitoring books, breakfast with students,
feedback to staff
Must be seen in lessons
Must be reined in to prioritise
Librarian
Key part in improving literacy
Include in training
Part of curriculum meetings
Library should embody good practice - eg key
words, guidance on retrieving information, visual
excitement
Active training for students, breaking down subject
barriers
Get a library commitment from every team
Then sample to monitor it
Governors
Visit library, get in classrooms, talk to students
Clearly signal the “literacy” focus
Emphasise s/he’s discussing consistency
Sample of students and feedback
Part of faculty reviews on (say) how we teach writing
Working party
Maintain or disband?
Less doing and more evaluating - questionnaires,
looking at handouts, working around rooms, talking
to students
Asking questions: “What do teachers here do that
helps you to understand long texts better?”
Work sampling
Creating a critical mass
Students
Tell us how we’re doing
Build into school council
Small groups work with faculty teams to guide and
evaluate
Audit rooms for key words, etc
Teaching Assistants
Make them literacy experts
Let them lead training
Make their monitoring role explicit
Publish their feedback
Subject leaders
Help them to identify the 3 bits of literacy that will
have the biggest impact
Prioritise one per term or year
Join their meetings at start and end of process
Help them to keep it simple
Provide models and sample texts
Evaluate
Build literacy into their team’s performance
management
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LITERACY IMPACT!
1. Don’t call it literacy - call it good learning &
teaching, or writing, or reading
2. Build it into lesson observation sheets
3. Build it into performance management
4. Keep it in the public eye
5. Emphasise increased student motivation
6. Talk to your Head about core skills for all teachers
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LITERACY IMPACT!
7 Show before & after models
8 Don’t focus on grammar knowledge needed by staff
9 Show it’s part of a whole-school strategy
10 Celebrate every small-scale success
11 Quote students’ feedback
12 Make it fun!
….
13 Make it non-negotiable
KS3 IMPACT!
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 Talking Point 
•What have been the successes
in your own school?
•What do you need to do next?
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LITERACY IMPACT!
SECTION 3:
Evaluating and planning
(“We should measure what we value, not value what
we measure” John MacBeath)
Staff …
Sinc e S eptem b er …
1 (low/poor)
2
3
4
(high/good)
1 Ho w would yo u rate t h e
performan c e o f ou r co mputer
system ?
2
2
18
32
56
46
24
20
2 Ho w h elpful has th e IC T Support
Te a m b een?
2
3
6
12
37
38
55
47
3 Ho w well h a ve w e m a naged
cover ?
0
2
30
13
45
50
25
35
4 Ho w would yo u rate student
behaviour ?
2
3
11
9
78
78
9
10
5 Ho w visible has th e leadership
team b e en?
7
12
29
23
46
43
18
22
6 Ho w would yo u rate G eof f
Barton’s leadership ?
0
5
15
66
46
29
39
Yes
7 H as a m e mber o f th e lead e rship
tea m visited you r tutor group?
8 H as a m e mber o f th e lead e rship
tea m visited on e o f your lessons?
9 A re expectations
clear?
on unif or m
10 A re o u r ex p ectations
behavio u r cl e ar ?
about
11 D o you find Monday
briefing s useful ?
s taff
12 D o you find th e B a rto n B ulleti n
useful?
13 D o you find th e w e ekly bulleti n
useful?
14 D o you feel w ell info rm ed about
things that are happening i
n school?
15 D o you ag ree about doing m o ck
exam s in classroom s next y e ar?
No
86
79
59
64
91
87
93
92
97
94
96
14
21
41
36
9
13
7
8
3
6
4
98
2
98
79
76
2
21
24
TUTOR GROUP:
Do all students have
coats off?
Are students wearing
proper school
sweatshirt/polo
shir t?
Are all students
wearing shoes (ie no
trainers except with
doctors’ notes)?
Is jewellery
acceptable (ie no
facial piercings, n
o
bracelets, o nly thi n
metal necklaces)?
Is the tuto r …
Talking t o students?
Signing planners?
Taking the register?
Doing admin?
Other?




Yes
No
Yes
No




Yes
No
Yes
No




Yes
No
Yes
No




Yes
No
Yes
No




Yes
No
Yes
No
 Yes
 No
 Yes
 No
 Yes
 No
 Yes
 No
 Yes
 No
 Yes
 No
 Yes
 No
 Yes
 No
 Yes
 No
 Yes
 No
Student …
1 Do y ou enjo y bein g a t schoo l?
Ne v er
13
Ra rely
25
Mostly
53
A lways
9
Ne v er
10
Ra rely
18
Mostly
67
A lways
5
3 Do yo u thi nk behavi ou r he re is go od ?
Yes
69
No
31
4 A re ou r e xpecta tions abo ut behavi ou r c lea r?
Yes
86
No
14
5 A re ou r e xpecta tions abo ut u niform clea r?
Yes
78
No
22
Yes
65
No
35
Yes
49
No
51
Yes
74
No
26
2 Do y ou f eel p rou d o f being at this
schoo l?
6 Do yo u fee l yo u a re treate d wit h respect ?
7 Do we giv
e enough p raise and encou rage m ent ?
ame
Book sampling…
Ye a r /
S et
Te ach e r
C ov er
clean
YN
H o mew o rk
evid ent
YN
H o mew o rk
mar k ed
YN
Pr esen tatio n
G FP
T y p es of w ri tin g
Els o m
O RY
9
WD
Y
Y
Y
G



Robot h am
O RY
9
WD
Y
Y
Y
G



Thinking
Notes
Extende d
ey W ard?
R APHY
9
YE
Y
Y
Y
G


Notes
Exer c is e s



Notes
Exer c is e s
Some ex tended
work
S impson
R APHY
9
HS
Y
Y
Not
consi s te n tly
G
Thinking
Notes
Extende d
G en e ral co mme n ts
C lea rly sequen c ed,
cha llen g ing, h igh -le v el;
exem p lary feedb a ck Ğ
posi tive , pre c is e, person a l
V diffe rent ab ility of
studen t Ğ bu t s a m e strong
expe c ta tion s; tan g ibl e
progress in stude n tÕs
work; supportiv e , po s itiv e
marking
Good posi tive feedb a ck ;
evide n ce o f regu lar
marking ; good range o f
wri ting
C lea r and w ell-use d
overa ll; good to no te som e
extend worrk; m arking
appear s to end in late Sept
1 Wh at grade d id y o u ge t in E n g li sh?

E ng li sh L itera tu re ?

2 T h in k o f all th e su b jec ts y o u stud ied las t y ear. C irc le o n e o f th e n u m b er s b elow to sh o w
w h ere y o u w o u ld place E n g li sh in a ra n k o rde r of th e su b jec ts yo u stud ied
1 ( h ig h ) 2
3 4
5
6
7 8
9
10 (lo w)
3 W ith o u t n ami n g t eac h ers, p lease n am e ON E th ing y o u li ke d m o st a bo u t E n g li sh less on s
4 W ith o u t n ami n g t eac h ers, p lease n am e ON E th ing y o u li ke d leas t a b o u t th em
5 L oo k in g b ack, h ow d id y ou fee l a b o u t y ou r usua l gr o up for E n g li sh fo r É
(a) ge tt in g o n w ith ot h er pe o p le?
(li ked it a l o t) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ( liked it a litt le)
(b ) lear n in g eff ec tiv ely ?
(li ked it a l o t) 1 2
3 4
5
6
7 8
9
1 0 (liked it a litt le)
Of all th e ways th e tea c h e r g e ts yo u to le a rn a bo u t things w hic h do y o u e njo y th e most?







Activities
Ğ not writin g, not hing intimidating.
More d iscussion, needs to be variety (maths now =
all fro m books)
Biology = copy fro m board Ğ donÕt eve n re ad it
VA Ki in F rench to analyse o w n learning
If te a cher s drone o n = so m e o f us donÕt ha v e th e attention span
Un fairness abo ut time given to complete cours
e work i e some = meet d e adlines. Oth e rs = 3 month s
late so hav e extr a 3 months to work o n it
Too man y tests in short spac e o f time
Would help if dif ferent subject te a chers could talk to each other so
w e do not get all cours e w o rk
assignments at the
s am e ti m e.
Of all th e ways th e tea c h e r g e ts yo u to le a rn a bo u t things, w hi c h d o yo u e n joy least?



Vag u e questions that you donÕt kn o w w h at it means
I think we should b e setted f o r English be c ause it cou ld be mor e challenging too lon
g on on e pie ce
of work would b e helpful , disruptive people w er e in di fficult group
H u manities Ğ go round and round in circles because
donÕt have specialist teachers.
S p end tim e
trying to mana g e behaviour
Studen t pe rceptio n inte rview s
Yea r 9
4 g irls
4 boys
Se ts: 1 4 2 3 1 3 2
Ra nk o rder: 8 7 3 3 9 3 10 3
What d o you lik e ab out M F L lessons? What ac tivities do yo u enjoy ? Why?
 F un, li ke IC T interac tive w hiteboar d, playi ng ga m es, prac tica l a nd gr oup w ork
What activ ities do you n ot enjo y? Why ? Wha t do you fin d dif ficu lt? Wha t wou ld he lp?
 Tes ts Ğ s om e are use ful a nd som e are not
 Prac tica l less ons are goo d
 D onÕt li ke teac hers constantly talking in F re nch. I ge t behind and de -m otivated
 D onÕt li ke having to speak in front of the class Ğ feel u nder pressure and w orr ied
 Pa nic w hen asked to speak and donÕt know h ow
How do yo u lea rn best? Wha t he lps yo u lea rn in othe r lessons?
 O bjec tives are som etim es se t Ğ but d oes nÕt m ak e a ny diff ere nce
 I li ke to have som e gr oup w ork a nd som e form al w riting
 Re inforc ing t he t alking w ith w riting ra ther than just talking and t hen m oving o n and t alking
som e m ore
 Gr oup w ork
 Ga m es
 Wh en behaviour is goo d. Be haviour is good in languages
How do yo u fee l du rin g M F L lessons? What m ak es you f ee l this way?
- B ored Ğ 1 s tude nt
- Interes ted Ğ 1 s tude nt
- E njoy Ğ 1 s tude nt
- T ired Ğ 1 s tude nt
- D onÕt know Ğ 4 s tude nts
C onse nsu s from inter views - languag e s is Òok Ó b ut not a su bjec t w hich stude nts w ould w ish to
choo se to t ake fur ther. G roup conse nsus t hat a bout 30% of the less ons are enjoyable. M ost s tude nts
pre ferred languages in the M idd le Sc hoo l Ğ m ore prac tica l, ga m es, etc
KS3 IMPACT!
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 Talking Point 
•What evaluation have you
done?
•What could you do next?
Literacy strategy: The next phase
IMPACT!
Literacy strategy: The next phase
Your Head of History wants to focus on whole-school
literacy in a Year 9 project on medicine. How might you
help …
… in identifying key areas of literacy?
… in planning?
… in training?
… in evaluating impact?
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Literacy Across the Curriculum:
Maintaining the Momentum
Geoff Barton
October 3, 2015
All resources can be downloaded at www.geoffbarton.co.uk
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LITERACY IMPACT!
The 13 most important
bits of literacy knowledge
needed by effective
teachers
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Teaching sequence
Key conventions
WRITING
Connectives
Sentence variety
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Subject-specific
vocabulary
Approaches to reading
READING
Active research
process, not FOFO
Using DARTs
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Having 4 approaches
Mnemonics
SPELLING
Starters
Word webs
Rules
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Teaching sequence
Key conventions
WRITING
Connectives
Sentence variety
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Know the writing sequence:
1.
Establish clear aims
2.
Provide examples
3.
Explore conventions of the text
4.
Define the conventions
5.
Demonstrate how it is written
6.
Compose together
7.
Scaffold first attempts
8.
Independent writing
9.
Draw out key learning
1
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Know the dominant text-types for your subject:
Purpose: What is its purpose? Who is it for? How will it be
used?
Text level: Layout? Structure? Sequence?
Sentence level: Viewpoint? Prevailing tense? Active/passive?
Sentence types and length? Cohesion devices?
Word level: Stock words and phrases? Specialist vocabulary?
Elaborate or plain vocabulary choices?
2
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LITERACY IMPACT!
3
Know your connectives
Adding: and, also, as well as, moreover, too
Cause & effect: because, so, therefore, thus, consequently
Sequencing: next, then, first, finally, meanwhile, before, after
Qualifying: however, although, unless, except, if, as long as, apart from,
yet
Emphasising: above all, in particular, especially, significantly, indeed,
notably
Illustrating: for example, such as, for instance, as revealed by, in the
case of
Comparing: equally, in the same way, similarly, likewise, as with, like
Contrasting: whereas, instead of, alternatively, otherwise, unlike, on the
other hand
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LITERACY IMPACT!
4
Encourage sentence variety
1. Start with an -ing verb (Reaching 60 these days is ..)
2. Start with an -ed verb (Frustrated by ….)
3. Start with an adverb (Well-done chicken leads to …)
4. Start with a preposition (Within the city limits you will …)
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Students must see you writing
5
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LITERACY IMPACT!
So …
What have you done?
What are you going to do?
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Subject-specific
vocabulary
Approaches to reading
READING
Active research
process, not FOFO
Using DARTs
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Subject-specific vocabulary:
•Identifying
•Playing with context
•Actively exploring
•Linking to spelling
6
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Approaches to reading:
• Scanning
• Skimming
• Continuous reading
• Close reading
• Research skills, not FOFO
7
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Using DARTs:
•Cloze
•Diagram completion
•Disordered text
•Prediction
8
LITERACY FOR LEARNING
CHRONOLOGICAL
Versus
NONCHRONOLOGICAL
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LITERACY FOR LEARNING
Fiction is more personal. Non-fiction has fewer
agents:
• Holidays were taken at resorts
• During the 17th century roads became
straighter
LITERACY FOR LEARNING
Children’s fiction tends to be
chronological.
Fiction becomes easier to read; nonfiction presents difficulties all the
way through
LITERACY FOR LEARNING
Non-fiction texts rely on linguistic
signposts - moreover, despite therefore,
on the other hand, however.
Learners who are unfamiliar with
these will not read with the same
predictive power as they can with
fiction
LITERACY FOR LEARNING
Non-fiction tends to have more interrupting
constructions:
The agouti, a nervous 20-inch rodent from
South America, can leap twenty feet from a
sitting position
Asteroids are lumps of rock and metal whose paths
round the sun lie mainly between Jupiter and Mars
LITERACY FOR LEARNING
Fiction uses more active verbs.
Non-fiction relies more on the copula (“Oxygen is a
gas”) and use of the passive:
Some plastics are made by …
rather than
We make plastics by …
PREDICTION FUN
Brian Moore, Cold Heaven
1
The wooden seats of the little pedal boat were angled so that
Marie looked up at the sky. There were no clouds. In the
vastness above her a gull calligraphed its flight. Marie and
Alex pedalled in unison, the revolving paddles making a
slapping sound against the waves as the pedal boat
treadmilled away from the beach, passing through ranks of
bathers to move into the deeper, more solitary waters of the
Baie des Anges. Marie slackened her efforts but Alex
continued determinedly, steering the pedalo straight out into
the Mediterranean.
2
‘Let’s not go too far,’ she said.
‘I want to get away from the crowd. I’m going to swim.’
It was like him to have some plan of his own, to translate idleness into
activity even in these few days of vacation. She now noted his every
fault. It was as though, having decided to leave him, she had
withdrawn his credit. She looked back at the sweep of hotels along the
Promenade des Anglais. Today was the day she had hoped to tell him.
She had planned to announce it at breakfast and leave, first for New
York, then on to Los Angeles to join Daniel. But at breakfast she lacked
all courage. Now, with half the day gone, she decided to postpone it
until tomorrow.
3
Far out from shore, the paddles stopped. The pedalo rocked on its twin
pontoons as Alex eased himself up from his seat. He handed her his
sunglasses. ‘This should do,’ he said and, rocking the boat even more,
dived into the ultramarine waters. She watched him surface. He called out:
‘Just follow along, okay?’ He was not a good swimmer, but thrashed about
in an energetic, erratic freestyle. Marie began to pedal again, her hand on
the tiller, steering the little boat so that she followed close. Watching him,
she knew he could not keep up this pace for long. She saw his flailing arms
and for a moment thought of those arms hitting her. He had never hit her.
He was not the sort of man who would hit you. He would be hurt, and cold,
and possibly vindictive. But he was not violent.
4
She heard a motorboat, the sound
becoming louder. She looked back
but did not see a boat behind her.
Then she looked to the right
where Alex was swimming and
saw a big boat with an outboard
motor coming right at them,
coming very fast.
5
Of course they see us, she thought, alarmed, and then as though
she were watching a film, as though this were happening to
someone else, she saw there was a man in the motorboat, a young
man wearing a green shirt; he was not at the tiller, he was standing
in the middle of the boat with his back to her and as she watched he
bent down and picked up a child who had fallen on the floorboards.
‘Hey?’ she called. ‘Hey?’ for he must turn around, the motorboat
was coming right at Alex, right at her. But the man in the boat did not
hear. He carried the child across to the far side of the boat; the boat
was only yards away now.
6
‘Alex,’ she called. ‘Alex, look out.’ But Alex flailed on and then the
prow of the motorboat, slicing up water like a knife, hit Alex with a
sickening thump, went over him and smashed into the pontoons of
the little pedal boat, upending it, and she found herself in the
water, going under, coming up. She looked and saw the motorboat
churning off, the pedal boat hanging from its prow like a tangle of
branches. She heard the motorboat engine cut to silence, then
start up again as the boat veered around in a semicircle and came
back to her. Alex?
7
She looked: saw his body near her just under the water. She swam
toward him, breastroke, it was all she knew. He was floating face down,
spread-eagle. She caught hold of his wrist and pulled him towards her.
The motorboat came alongside, the man in the green shirt reaching down
for her, but, ‘No, no,’ she called and tried to push Alex toward him. The
man caught Alex by the hair of his head and pulled him up, she pushing,
Alex falling back twice into the water, before the man, with a great effort,
lifted him like a sack across the side of the boat, tugging and heaving
until Alex disappeared into the boat. The man shouted, ‘Un instant,
madame, un instant’ and reappeared, putting a little steel ladder over the
side. She climbed up onto the motorboat as the man went out onto the
prow to disentangle the wreckage of the pedalo.
8
A small child was sitting at the back of the boat, staring at Alex’s body, which lay
face-down on the floorboards. She went to Alex and saw blood from a wound, a
gash in the side of his head, blood matting his hair. He was breathing but
unconscious. She lifted him and cradled him in her arms, his blood trickling onto
her breasts. She saw the boat owner’s bare legs go past her as he went to the
rear of the boat to restart the engine. The child began to bawl but the man
leaned over, silenced it with an angry slap, the man turned to her, his face sick
with fear. ‘Nous y serons dans un instant,’ he shouted, opening the motor to full
throttle. She hugged Alex to her, a rivulet of blood dripping off her forearm onto
the floorboards as the boat raced to the beach.
PREDICTION FUN
Brian Moore, Cold Heaven
Jake began to dial the number
It was on a bright day of midwinter, in
slowly
as he had done every
New York. The little girl who eventually
evening
six
o’clock
since me
becameat
me,
but
as yet ever
was neither
anybody
else
in particular,
hisnorfather
had
passed
away. but
For
merely
softUrquhart
anonymous
morsel
of
castle
ishe
probably
the
nexta fifteen
minutes
humanity – this
onelittle
of the girl,
most who bore my
settled
back
to
listen
to what
his
name, was going
for a walk
with her
picturesquely
situated
mother
day
father.had
The done
episode
castlesthat
inis
theliterally
Scottish the
first thing I Highlands.
can remember
about
her,
Located
16 miles
and thereforesouth-west
I date the
birth of the
her
of Inverness,
humanity from
thatone
day.
castle,
of the largest in
Scotland, overlooks much of
Loch Ness. Visitors come to
stroll through the ruins of
the 13th-century castle
because Urquhart has
earned the reputation of
being one of the best spots
for sighting Loch Ness’s
most famous inhabitant
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LITERACY IMPACT!
So …
What have you done?
What are you going to do?
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LITERACY IMPACT!
Having 4 approaches
Mnemonics
SPELLING
Starters
Word webs
Rules
9
Literacy Across the Curriculum
Spelling approaches:
RULES
(eg “ w riting/ w ri tten”, “I before e”, using etymology
[auto+bio+g
raphy], families of w or d s [muscle/muscular])
PRACTIC A L S TRATEGIES
(eg mnemonics
[nec e ssary = one collar, t w o slee v es], spelling
logs)
VISUA LS
(eg break into sylla
b les [re+mem+ber],
w or d s w ithin w ords
[parl iament -I A M ], look -cover -w rite -check, break into affixes
[dis+satisfi
e d] )
SOUND
(eg break into sounds [d
-i-a -r-y], say it as
it sounds [Fe
b R uary] )
10
Literacy Across the Curriculum
Mnemonics Fun
Necessary =
never eat chips eat sausage sandwiches
and raspberry yoghurt
Words within words
enviRONment
buSINess
deFINitely
sePARAte
Got any others?
Literacy Across the Curriculum
Signature
Signatory
Resign
Resignation
Resigning
Resigned
Assign
Assignment
Assignation
Reassign
Sign
Signal
Signalling
11
Consign
Consignment
Consigned
Design
Designer
Designing
Designed
Designation
Designate
Redesign
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LITERACY IMPACT!
RULES:
I before e
Effect of final ‘e’: hop - hope
12
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LITERACY IMPACT!
13
 Don’t aim for false links with main
lesson content
 No Blue Peter
badges
 Do aim for coherence
across starters
Kick-start learning
 Avoid writing
 Avoid the
temptation to
extend the activity
 Emphasise
collaboration &
problem-solving
M r B ’s N ew Ye ar S pell in g F ro li c s
-o ur wo rds
-re en d ing s
-a b le / -ib le
-o us e nd in gs
e nd ing s
S ing le/ do u b le
c on so na nt s
c olou r
ce nt ime t re
A vai l ab le
trem en d ous
b eg inn ing
h um ou r
ce nt re
like ab le
e nor m o us
ups e tt ing
ru m ou r
thea tr e
soc iab le
p o is on ou s
forg o tt e n
ar m o ur
c on sid er ab le
m yst eri ou s
c omm i tt ee
fla vo u r
la ugha b le
c on tinu o us
se ns ib le
p rec io us
p er m i tt ed
o cc u rr ed
incre d ib le
fero ciou s
visi t e d
terri b le
pos sib le
re spons ib le
d el icio us
reg re tfu l
ca u tiou s
d e vel o p ing
h um o r ou s
a m bi tiou s
www.geoffbarton.co.uk
-ible
-able
www.geoffbarton.co.uk
Homophones
Sound of Music
Kylie
Beethoven
their
there
they’re
too
two
to
pray
prey
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Hard
Homophones
Freeze
Stand
advice
advise
practice
practise
effect
affect
It’s
its
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Activity
I’ll say some sentences containing homophones. You tell me whether
it’s list A or list B.
Make up sentences – eg “The pilot of the aircraft was really rather
plain”)
A – stand up
plain
weak
steal
main
rows
fare
break
sew
due
whether
B – under table
Plane
Week
Steel
Mane
Rows
Fair
Brake
So
Jew
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whether
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LITERACY IMPACT!
So …
What have you done?
What are you going to do?
So ..
1. If it’s a priority, do something
2. Customise and simplify ruthlessly
3. Identify the essential (simple) skills of
reading - eg by asking students
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4. Build into school systems of training,
observation, performance management
5. Don’t forget reading for pleasure: keep
it in the public domain
LITERACY IMPACT!
Literacy Across the Curriculum:
Maintaining the Momentum
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