Warm Up Sentences
Quarter 1
Bell-Ringers: Sentence Fix Ups
• Read the sentence---write the uncorrected
version of the sentence first.
• Be prepared to explain your revision
suggestions.
• After our discussion, write the revised
version. NUMBER your warm up and date
it for extra credit.
Warm Up Sentence #1:
Fix this!
before them girls may play said coach
steele they hafta meet the
requirements in the manual
WU#1--Corrected
“Before those girls may
play,” said Coach Steele,
“they have to meet the
requirements in the
manual.”
Optical Illusion Challenge
• How many legs does this elephant have?
WU#2--Revise for Grammar/Usage
donna did mr edwards
require your class to read
the short story flight to
freedom bridget asked
WU#2--Corrected
"Donna, did Mr. Edwards
require your class to read the
short story 'Flight to
Freedom’?" Bridget asked.
Titles and Punctuation
• Short Stories— “quotation marks”
• Poems-- “quotation marks”
• Plays —underline or italicize
• Movies —underline or italicize
• Television Programs —underline or italicize
• Episodes on television “quotation marks”
• Songs “quotation marks”
• CDs/Albums —underline or italicize
Fix This! WU #3
a plaque at riverside park bears
this quotation form thoreaus
book walden that man is the
richest whose pleasures are
cheapest
WU#3--Corrected:
A plaque at Riverside Park bears
this quotation from Thoreau's
book Walden: "That man is the
richest whose pleasures are the
cheapest."
Use a Colon :
• After an independent clause that precedes a list.
• The use of these punctuation marks often confuses students: comma, semicolon,
colon, hyphen, and dash.
• The Stearns County Theatrical Company announces the opening of the following
plays: Lear, May 10th; Death of a Salesman, June 15th; and Camelot, August 20th.
• There are three historical sources of belief: reason or intellect, custom or habit,and
inspiration.
• To separate an explanation, rule, or example from a preceding independent clause.
• After a sleepless night, the senator made her decision: she would not seek reelection.
• Music is more than a mechanical arrangement of sounds: it is an expression of
deep feeling and ethical values.
• A way to remember which direction to move the hands of the clock when changing
to or from Daylight Savings Time: spring forward, fall back.
• After the salutation of a business letter.
• Dear Mr. Peterson:
Dear Faculty Member:
• In the heading of a business memo.
• TO:
• SUBJECT:
• RE:
More Uses for Colon:
• Between the hour and the minutes.
• 5:30 p.m.
• 3:00 a.m.
• Between the chapter and the verse in the Bible, in
citations for some literary works, and between the
volume and the number of some publications.
• Genesis 1:18-20
• Part 3:121
• Vol. 2:34
• As part of a title.
• Grey Power: A Practical Survival Handbook for Senior
Citizens.
• In a bibliography between the place of publication and
Which woman do YOU see?
if you have either a
yardstick or a measuring
tape said mr dixon bring
them tomorrow
Warm Up Sentence #4
WU #4--Corrected:
“If you have either a
yardstick or a measuring
tape," said Mr. Dixon,
"bring it tomorrow."
Other options… “ …” / “ ‘ …’”
• Can you believe that Mr. Dixon said,
“If you have a yardstick bring it
tomorrow”?
(punctuating the entire sentence--quotation is inside)
• Sally complained to me, “I can’t
believe that Mr. Dixon said, ‘bring it
tomorrow.’”
(Sally is quoting Mr. Dixon—single
Warm Up Sentence #5
put small dry twigs at the
bottom of a fire that
makes it easier to start
the fire said juan ortiz
our counselor
Corrected (WU#5):
"Put small, dry twigs
at the bottom of a fire to
make it easier to start,"
said Juan Ortiz, our
counselor. (appositive)
The Appositive
• An appositive is a noun or noun
phrase that renames another
noun right beside it. The
appositive can be a short or long
combination of words. Look at
these examples:
The Appositive
• The insect, a cockroach, is crawling
across the kitchen table.
• The insect, a large cockroach, is
crawling across the kitchen table.
• The insect, a large cockroach with
hairy legs, is crawling across the
kitchen table.
• The insect, a large, hairy-legged
cockroach that has spied my bowl of
oatmeal, is crawling across the kitchen
table.
Punctuate the appositive
correctly.
The important point to remember is that a nonessential
appositive is always separated from the rest of the sentence
with comma(s).
• When the appositive begins the sentence, it looks like this:
A hot-tempered tennis player, Robbie charged the umpire and tried
to crack the poor man's skull with a racket.
• When the appositive interrupts the sentence, it looks like this:
Robbie, a hot-tempered tennis player, charged the umpire and tried
to crack the poor man's skull with a racket.
• And when the appositive ends the sentence, it looks like this:
Upset by the bad call, the crowd cheered Robbie, a hot-tempered
tennis player who charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor
man's skull with a racket.
Here are more examples:
• During the dinner conversation, Clifford, the
messiest eater at the table, spewed mashed
potatoes like an erupting volcano.
• Joan’s bedroom desk, the biggest disaster area in
the house, is a collection of overdue library
books, dirty plates, computer components, old
mail, cat hair, and empty potato chip bags.
• Max, Diane's eleven-year-old beagle, chews
holes in the living room carpeting as if he were
still a puppy.
Appositive? Or Appositive Phrase?
1. The boys repaired our television set, an eighteen-year-old
portable.
2. The poem, one of Robert Frost's best, is called "The Death of the
Hired Man."
3. I can't find my notebook, the one I use for history class.
4. Dick's new suit, a gray flannel one, makes him look much older.
5. We enjoy walking, an exercise which requires no great skill.
6. The theater, an old and drafty one, is nevertheless always
crowded.
7. My math teacher, Miss Holmes, has taught for twenty years.
8. The garage, a two-car one, is attached to the house.
9. James Hilton's book, Lost Horizon, has been filmed twice
Warm Up Sentence # 6
ms ruffalo shouldnt of left
mr logan buy that
computer she is president
of design international
Corrected:
•
Ms. Ruffalo, president of
Design International,
shouldn't have let Mr.
Logan buy that computer.
• What is the term between parentheses?
Fix This---WU #7
the macaroni and cheese was made
by saras mom for the party, the dish
was liked by every one at the party
Corrected
• Sara’s mom made the macaroni
and cheese for the party;
everyone liked the dish.
or
• Everyone at the party liked the
macaroni and cheese dish that
Sara’s mom made.
run-ons or fused and comma splice
ppt.pps
• Comma splice— two independent clauses
separated by a comma when a semi-colon,
period, or additional coordinating
conjunction is needed.
• Fused sentence (also known as a “Run
on”) two or more independent clauses in a
sentence that are not separated by any
punctuation, but that should be.
Warm Up Sentence #8
•our neighbors left us see
pictures of there photo
safari in africa they plan to
return back there soon
Options for CS and Fusion Errors
• He has completed his research, he will not report his findings
to class today. (CS—incorrect)
• He has completed his research he will not report his findings
to class today. (FS—incorrect)
• He has completed his research, so he will report his findings to
class today.
• He has completed his research, but he will not report his findings
to class today.
• He has completed his research; he will report his findings to class
today.
(All of these are grammatically correct, but context and purpose
dictate which works best.)
Corrected #8
(wordiness/fused error)
•Our neighbors let us see
pictures of their photo
safari in Africa; they
plan to return soon.
The tricky thing to remember is that comma splices and fused sentences can appear in a longer
string of sentences with other punctuation. me more examples below.
•
Comma splice:
To get ready for the party, Sharon baked cookies and brownies until she
thought her oven would explode, finally, she cleaned the kitchen, satisfied
that the goodies would be a hit.
Fused sentence:
To get ready for the party, Sharon baked cookies and brownies until she
thought her oven would explode finally, she cleaned the kitchen, satisfied
that the goodies would be a hit.
Correct grammar:
"To get ready for the party, Sharon baked cookies and brownies until she
thought her oven would explode. Finally, she cleaned the kitchen, satisfied
that the goodies would be a hit."
WU #9 Revise for Grammar/Usage
somebody must of lent
my brother in laws
ladder it weren't in
the garage
fragment, fused, comma splice, complete sentence?
WU #9--Corrected:
Somebody must have
borrowed my brother-in-law's
ladder; it wasn't in the garage.
Was the sentence before an example of
comma splice or fused?
run-ons or fused and comma splice
ppt.pps
• Comma splice— two independent clauses separated by a
comma when a semi-colon, period, or additional coordinating
conjunction is needed.
• Fused sentence (also known as a “Run on”) two or more
independent clauses in a sentence that are not separated by
any punctuation, but that should be.
http://www.chompchomp.com/ru
les/csfsrules.htm
• Anne enjoyed her high school reunion she hadn't seen her old
friends in over ten years.
• Comma splice? Fragment? Fused? Complete?
Anne enjoyed her high school reunion, she hadn't seen her old
friends in over ten years.
Comma splice? Fragment? Fused? Complete?
Warm Up Sentence #10
swimming desperate to
reach the shore a light
was seen in the distance
Corrected:
Swimming desperately to
reach the shore, Bob saw a
light in the distance.
(active vs. passive voice)
Word Challenge for the Day
• What do the following words have in common?
Assess
Banana
Dresser
Grammar
Potato
Revive
Uneven
Voodoo
•
Hint
• It is more than having letters repeated in each one...
Hide
• Show Hint
•
Answer
• If you take the first letter and move it to the rear of the word, you get the same word when
read backwards.
Hide
• Show Answer
•
Check for understanding…
• Is the following sentence in active or passive voice?:
Notes were taken from powerpoint or teacher to be stored in
personal folders.
What is the appositive in the following sentence:
A hot-tempered tennis player Robbie charged the umpire and
tried to crack the poor man's skull with a racket.
What do we call written conversation in a text?
________________.
Change the passive voice to active:
Passive
My life has been changed by many different things. I remember when I learned that
there was no Santa Claus. I was told by my friend Clive to wait up for Santa, and I did, but
Santa never came. Instead, I saw my parents, tired and frazzled, slink down the stairs and
lazily pile presents under the tree. My faith was shaken. There was no Santa. I also
remember when my younger brother unmade the bed after I had made it up. I got so mad at
him that he was picked up by the collar of his Spider-Man pajamas and thrown across the
room by me. The nightstand was hit by his head, and his red and blue Spidey p.j.s were
stained a darker red by his blood. I was so sorry. I was taught to control my anger by this
event, and I was also reminded how much I loved my little brother.
Active
Many different things have changed my life. I remember when I learned that there was no
Santa Claus. My friend Clive told me to wait up for Santa, and I did, but Santa never
came. Instead, I saw my parents, tired and frazzled, slink down the stairs and lazily pile
presents under the tree. That event shook my faith. There was no Santa. I also
remember when my younger brother unmade the bed after I had made it up. I got so
mad at him that I picked him up by the collar of his Spider-Man pajamas and threw him
across the room. His head hit the nightstand, and his blood stained his red and blue
Spidey p.j.s a darker red. I was so sorry. This event taught me to control my anger and
also reminded me how much I loved my little brother.
Passive-awkward-sounding, forced, pretentious
• There are many more events that changed my
life, but my life was most changed by my little
stuffed bunny, Flopsy. Flopsy was given to me
on Easter by my parents. He was pink and had
funny, floppy ears and a cute white cottontail.
Of all his parts, his fluffy tail was loved most by
me. He was carried wherever I went. He was
taken to breakfast, on the bus, to school, to the
playground, to dinner, and to bed. He was taken
everywhere. He was a well-loved little bunny,
and he was loved most by me.
Active voice= direct, more lively
• There are many more events that changed my life,
but my little stuffed bunny, Flopsy, changed it
the most. My parents gave Flopsy to me on
Easter. He was pink and had funny, floppy ears
and a cute white cottontail. Of all his parts, I
loved his fluffy tail the most. I carried him
wherever I went. I took him to breakfast, on the
bus, to school, to the playground, to dinner, and
to bed. I took him everywhere. He was a wellloved little bunny, and I loved him the most.
StroopEffect
Try to say the color of the words, instead of actually reading them. You will find it surprisingly difficult. The right half of
your brain is trying to say the colors, the left half is trying to say the word itself. This picture brain teaser is used by
mountaineers to test if their concentration is ok. (by J. R. Stroop).
More Trivia
•
Question
What is so fragile that when you say its name you break it?
Question
Forward I am heavy, backwards I am not. What am I?
Question
What object has keys that open no locks, space but no room, and you can enter but not
go in?
Question
I have five letters.
If you take the first and last ones I will still be the same.
Even if you take the middle letter I will be the same as before.
What am I?
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/word-brain-teasers.html
WU #11
camping near lake george we
went fishing in the lake have
taken many hikes and we like
to explore in the area
Verb Tense and Consistency
1.
2.
3.
Went fishing past tense
Have taken many hikes past perfect tense
Like to explore present tense
• Went fishing
• Went hiking
• Went exploring—too many “wents”
Fishing, hiking, exploring
Fished, hiked, explored
Fish, hike, and explore
Corrected:
Camping near Lake George,
we fished, hiked, and
explored the area.
Smiley-face technique? ____________
WU # 12 – Fix this!
he hasnt never showed
much self reliance or had
growed much from his
experiences
Corrected:
He has never shown
much self-reliance or
grown much from his
experiences.
The dreaded double negative--• Incorrect
• He can't convince no one to go with him.
• Correct
• He can convince no one to go with him.
• He can't convince anyone to go with him.
• Incorrect
• I haven't never gone to the circus.
• Correct
• I have never gone to the circus.
• I haven't ever gone to the circus.
Correct These Please
• Once he gets going, there isn't nothing that can stop him.
• Once he gets going, there isn’t anything that can stop him.
• I've tried to go with him, but I can't hardly keep up.
Warm Up #13
justin was reflecting back on
his career in music
entertainment and then
justin thanks every one who
he had been associated with
Avoid ending with a preposition
• Where are you at?
• Where are you?
• What suitcase should I use to put
my clothes into?
• Into what suitcase should I put
my clothes?
Corrected
Reflecting on his
entertainment career,
Justin thanked everyone
with whom he had been
associated.
How to identify?
• links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.
The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the
object of the preposition.
• The book is on the table. The book is beneath
the table. The book is leaning against the table.
The book is beside the table. She held the book
over the table. She read the book during class.
is the noun—ON is the preposition ---and
TABLE is the object of the preposition
• BOOK
Prepositions show “position”
or relationship
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
aboard
about
above
across
after
against
along
amid
among
anti
around
as
at
before
behind
below
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
beneath
beside
besides
between
beyond
but
by
concerning
considering
despite
down
during
except
excepting
excluding
following
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
for
from
in
inside
into
like
minus
near
of
off
on
onto
opposite
outside
over
past
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
per
plus
regarding
round
save
since
than
through
to
toward
towards
under
underneath
unlike
until
up
•
•
•
•
•
•
upon
versus
via
with
within
without
Prepositions: words that
indicate “position” or
relationship
• common prepositions are
• about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at,
before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, but,
by, despite, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like,
near, of, off, on, onto, out, outside, over, past, since, through,
throughout, till, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon,
with, within, and without.
Warm Up # 14
my mother she is the
person who you must ask
for a copy of the book
careers in computers
Corrected
•
My mother is the person
whom you must ask for a copy
of the book Careers in
Computers.
Is it Who? Or Whom?
•RULE. Use the he/him
method to decide which
word is correct.
he = who
him = whom
How to Decide?
WHO
WHOM
he
she
they
him
her
them
“he owns it” “it belongs to
him”
Tom is the one I _____ I will meet.
Switch it around and ask yourself: I
am meeting ….?
• I will meet he at the game. (sounds
incorrect)
• I will meet him at the game. (much
better!)
Him sounds better, so choose
WHOM
For who/whom should I vote for
president?
Should I vote for he? (nah….doesn’t
sound right)
Should I vote for him? (yes, sounds
like a plan!)
For whom should I vote for
president?
(Who or Whom) ____________
wrote the letter?
•Did him write the letter?
• (sounds weird)
•Did he write the letter?
• (sounds ok)
Who wrote the letter?
(Correct!)
Test Yourself. Who or whom?
Whomever? Whoever?
• A prank was pulled on a student {____ I
know quite well}.
• When the going gets tough,{ _______
are you going to call}?*
• To _______ am I speaking? (switch to
sent)
• {________ we elect for president} will be
in office for the next four years.
*Ghost-busters!!
Who or Whom?
Whoever? Whomever?
• One trick: [Isolate the phrase that includes the who/whom]
Ask yourself if the phrase (JUST the phrase) would sound better with
the subjective form (he, she, we, they, I) or the objective case
(him, her, us, them, me)?
We will be kind to [_ whoever____ knocks on our door.] she knocks; he
knocks; we knock
• Another: If the sentence itself sounds good without any pronoun,
it is generally WHOM
Tom is the student ( whom ) the teachers picked as outstanding.
Warm Up# 15
the guidence counseler made
a suggestion that seniors
who are graduating should
submit early applications to
the colleges of there choices
(21 wds)
Corrected
•The guidance counselor
suggested that graduating
seniors should apply early to
the colleges of their choice.*
*…their top colleges. (14)
*. . . their chosen colleges.
(16 wds) *. . .their preferred colleges.
What is a Nominalization?
• Nominalization – a noun derived from a verb or adjective,
such as determination from determine
• In general, try to avoid these and choose the stronger verb
form to be concise
• Made a suggestion= suggested
• Should submit early applications= apply early
Active, strong verbs and
adjectives
• Analysis
Analyze
• Suggestion
Suggest
• Conclusion
Conclude
• Carelessness
Careless
• Difficulty
Difficult
Try it…
• It was the intention of the steering committee to interview all
candidates face to face.
• The steering committee intended to interview all candidates
personally.
Warm Up # 16
•
wandering around in a daze,
and blabbering incoherantly
the paramedic made the
decision that the motorcycle
accident victim is in shock
Revised
•The paramedic decided the
motorcycle accident victim,
wandering around in a daze
and blabbering incoherently,
was in shock.
Participle (the –ing word modifying
the noun---acts as a modifier--thus,
D.M.
• Building blocks:
A participle is an '-ing' word that modifies a noun. Quite often,
words that end in '-ing' are the present participles of verbs,
such as swimming, talking, laughing, and so on.
• A participle can be part of a larger phrase, called a participial
phrase, that modifies a noun.
Quick rules:
• The participial phrase should be
followed by a comma and then by
the noun that's being modified.
• When singing a tune, I often close
my eyes
• That noun must be the subject of the main clause. When the
participial phrase does not modify the subject, we say that it is
dangling.
• When singing a tune, the music is sweetly flowing.
Misplaced (or dangling) Modifiers
A.K.A. Dangling/misplaced participial phrases -ing
• After following the vision program for two weeks, my doctor
told me that my eyesight had improved.
THINK:
Who’s? following the vision program?
Are you or is the Doc?
Make sure your modifying participial phrase is close to its
antecedent
Let's break down Ted's sentence.
• After getting kicked off the basketball team, the mall became
Jake's new favorite hangout.
• As the sentence is written now, the subject of the main clause
seems to be 'the mall.' Ted's teacher asked if malls could dribble and
shoot (heh heh) because this sentence implies that the mall got
kicked off the basketball team.
Correction: Sentences with dangling participles usually require some
reworking. Here are two alternatives:
After getting kicked off the basketball team, Jake started hanging
out at the mall.
• The mall became Jake's new favorite hangout after he got kicked
off the basketball team.
• http://www.methodist.edu/english/dd_index.htm
Warm Up Sentence #17
looking for my assignment it
was found that someone
sat it under a pile of house
beautiful magazines
Corrected
Looking for my
assignment, I found that
someone had set it
under a pile of House
Beautiful magazines.
WU # 18
the corruption of the church
during the middle ages is
illustrated by chaucer in the
pardoners tale who uses
allegorical references
Corrected
Chaucer uses allegorical
references to illustrate the
corruption of the church
during the Middle Ages in
the “Pardoner’s Tale.”
•(also a good thesis sentence!)
WU# 18A
•my dress for homecoming a
vera wang designer special
only cost 25 dollars at target
my friends dress from
nordstroms cost her $450
Corrected
My homecoming dress, a
Vera Wang design, only
cost $25 at Target; by
contrast, my friend’s dress
from Nordstrom’s cost
$450.
Transition words and semi-colons
or Comma-Conjunctions
; however, my . . .
; by contrast, my . . .
; consequently, . . .
; furthermore,
, but my . . .
, so
, for
, yet
Consistency with Numbers
• Numbers under 10---spell out
one, two, three. . . 10, 11
• Numbers under two syllables---spell out
Twenty, thirty, twelve, forty
• Be consistent within sentence
25 dollars and $450 = $25 and $450
• NEVER EVER begin sentence with a numeral
4 score and seven years… Four-score and seven…
Second Quarter Warm Ups
•Quarter 2
Warm Up # 19
After visiting Agra the site of
the taj mahal with the Morris’s,
the photos were fun to look at.
Corrected
•After visiting Agra, the site
of the Taj Mahal, with the
Morrises, we had fun
looking at the photos.
• Correcting for appositive, misplaced participial phrase, and preposition
placement
SAT Practice
The fields have soil (A) so rich that corn (B) growing here
commonly (C) had stood more than six feet
(D) tall. (E) No error
•
•
•
•
•
A. so rich that
B. growing here
C. had stood
D. tall
E. No error
Warm Up Sentence #20
there is many events that have
changed my life but my life
was changed more by my little
stuffed bunny flopsy
Corrected
•
There are many events
that have changed my life,
but Flopsy, my little stuffed
bunny, changed my life the
most.
http://kids.niehs.nih.gov/games/illusions/index.htm
Warm Up # 21
Find SIX Problems:
Toms and Jerrys Mother made a
conclusion that the two boys
didn’t go to school neither toms
nor jerry's lunch had been
taken by them.
SIX problems… (one sentence
–whew!!)
• Capitalization--- his mother and my mother vs.
“Mother!” Mother Jones
• Nominalization— came to the conclusion = concluded
• FUSED sentence--- comma and coordinating conjunction
and --- FANBOYS
• Passive changed to Active----lunch was taken by= had
taken his lunch
• Agreement--- neither one (of them) took his or their
• Possessive for compound subjects--- ‘s for BOTH subjects
if each takes a different object; ‘s for second subject if
BOTH have the same object
Key= Cap Nom Poss’s CS/F
Act/Pas Agreement
Tom and Jerry’s mother
concluded that the two boys
didn’t go to school, for
neither one had taken his
lunch.
Possessives
• 1. Most English nouns form their possessives
with an apostrophe s (’s) if they are singular,
and an s apostrophe (s’) if they are plural.
• Singular possessive: The car’s hood.
• Plural possessive: The cars’ hoods.
• Remember, just because a possessive adds an s to a
word, it does not make that word plural. On the
other hand, both singular and plural nouns can be
made possessive.
Possessive plurals
• 2. For nouns that form their plural in
ways other than the addition of an s,
form the possessive plural by adding ’s.
For example:
• Woman’s/women’s, man’s/men’s,
child’s/children’s, ox’s/oxen’s,
deer’s/deer’s, mouse’s/mice’s
singular nouns that end in “s”
• 3. You have a couple of options in forming the possessive
of singular nouns that end in s. You can either:
• Add an apostrophe to the end of the word:
• Jesus’ miracles
• Keats’ odes
• Dickens’ novels
• …or add an apostrophe s to the end of the word:
•
•
•
•
Jesus’s miracles
Keats’s odes
Dickens’s novels
Choose the form that seems easier to pronounce
or more natural. Nouns that end in s and have
their possessives formed by an apostrophe s can
Plural or Possessive Noun?
• The cars / car’s breaks failed to operate on the snowy
mountain road.
• Albert Einsteins / Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity changed
our understanding of time.
• On weekends, students / student’s love to sleep in.
• Civil liberties / Civil liberties’ were bought with blood.
• Fast food has its / it’s downsides.
What do YOU see?
More Possessives
• 4. The possessive of pairs:
• a. To show joint possession, add ’s only to the second member
of the pair:
• John and Mary’s mother (John and Mary have the same
mother.)
• b. To show individual possession, add ’s to each member of
the pair:
• John’s and Mary’s tennis rackets (John and Mary each have their
own tennis rackets.)
• 5. Form the possessive of group and compound nouns by adding
’s to the end of the unit:
• commander in chief’s, someone else’s, son-in-law’s
• 6. We usually reserve the ’s or s’ for the possessive of nouns
naming living creatures (human beings and animals). For
inanimate objects we usually show possession with the of
phrase:
• The roof of the house instead of The house’s roof
• Some common exceptions to this rule:
• A day’s wages, a week’s work, the year’s (storm’s, weekend’s)
Warm Up Sentence # 22
pocahontas lived in
england for several
years she dies and was
buried in england
Corrected
•For several years
Pocahontas lived in
England, where she died
and was buried
• \\Brhtdc\thome\DFossum\VerbTense.pptx good one.pptx
Happy Thanksgiving! Warm Up
Sentence # 23
41 pilgrims signed the mayflower
compact which has established a
government in plymouth colony
Corrected
Forty-one pilgrims
signed the Mayflower
Compact, which
established a
government in Plymouth
Colony.
SAT Practice
• Either of the solutions you (A) have proposed (B) are
acceptable to the union, (C) whose members are (D) willing to
compromise. (E) No error.
•
•
•
•
•
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Warm Up # 24
•Tammy is the person
who you should call if
you need to get your hair
cut in my opinion she is
the better stylist in
Ashburn
Revised
Tammy is the person whom
you should call if you need
to get your hair cut; she is
the best stylist in Ashburn.
whom ; (cs) superlative
(in my opinion)---just SAY it!!
Warm Up # 25
• carl waisted his 1st year at
college by not studying
enough and spending to much
time at parties
REVISED
• Carl wasted his first year at
college by studying too little
and partying too much.
SAT Practice
• A number of trainees (A) who take this course every year (B)
find that (C) their knowledge of mathematics (D) is
inadequate. (E) No error.
•
•
•
•
•
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Warm Up #26
of all my relatives uncle frank
is more noted for his
generosity he gives
everyone the expensivest
gifts at christmastime
http://englishzone.com/teach/pdffiles/comparatives.pdf
• Comparative (comparing)---more (than the other)
• Superlative (assessing as to the best)---most (of all)
• Big
bigger biggest
• Jolly jollier
jolliest
• Sweet
sweetersweetest
• Expensive more expensive most expensive
• Delicious
more delicious most delicious
(notice anything about the longer words …???)
Of all my relatives, Uncle Frank
is most noted for his
generosity; he gives everyone
the most expensive gifts at
Christmas time.
SAT Practice
• For a successful career (A) as a beautician, (B) one must be
prepared to (C) dissemble: you must not tell your client the
unvarnished truth about his or (D) her appearance. (E) No
error.
•
•
•
•
•
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Warm Up #27
•
yes before grandmother
arrives for the Holidays
we finished painting the
West Bedroom
Corrected
•Yes, before Grandmother
arrives for the holidays, we
will finish painting the west
bedroom.
Warm Up # 28- SAT question
Because of less availability and greater
demand for scientific research, platinum
remains consistently expensive, like gold.
• (A) Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific
research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold.
• (B) Because of less availability and increased demand for scientific
research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like that of gold.
• (C) Because of decreased availability and increased demand in
scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold.
• (D) Because of decreased availability and increased demand for
scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold.
• (E) Because of decreased availability and greater demand in
scientific research, platinum remains at a consistently high price, like
that of gold.
SAT Practice
According to surveys by the National Institute on Drug Abuse,
about 20 percent of young adults used cocaine in 1979, doubling
those reported in the 1977 survey.
• a) doubling those reported in the 1977 survey
• b) to double the number the 1977 survey reported
• c) twice those the 1977 survey reported
• d) twice as much as those reported in the 1977 survey
• e) twice the number reported in the 1977 survey
SAT Practice
• Cynthia argued vehemently (A) with her mother (B) over (C)
her refusal to (D) attend the school concert. (E) No error.
•
•
•
•
•
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Warm Up # 28
each year americans chop down
more then 30,000,000 christmas
trees, most of them are just
throwed away after the
hollidays
Revised
•Every year Americans chop
down more than 30 million
Christmas trees; most of
them are just thrown away
after the holidays.
WU # 29 Correct This!
•last saturday night we
began hanakah the 8 day
merriment other wise known
as the festival of lights jewish
holiday
29--Corrected
•Last Saturday night we
began Hanukkah, the eightday merriment otherwise
known as the Festival of
Lights, a Jewish holiday.
(appositive phrase and use of
numbers in writing)
WU # 30
If you believe the conspiracy
theorists a planet called nibiru
will collide with the earth in
December, 2012, which will
cause the end of the world to
happen
30--Corrected
•According to conspiracy
theorists, a planet called
‘Nibiru’ will collide with the
earth in December 2012,
causing the world to end.
• Avoid use of you—eliminate superfluous
wording
• Single quotation marks for ‘special’ terms
Happy 2013
Quote for Today: Respond…
“For last year’s words belong to
last year’s language and this
year’s words await another
voice.”
• T.S. Eliot
• Poet, author (1888-1965) -- “Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock;” The
Wasteland
WU # 31
this year I have began to really
think of my options in depth and
take in account what I would be
gaining or losing if I did or didnt do
something
Eliminate wordiness and weak,
filler words
• this year I have began (un) to
really think of my options in depth
and take in account what I would
be gaining or losing if I did or
didn’t do something.
Revised
This year I have begun to think of
my options.
Or:
This year I have begun to think of
my college options.
Avoid Clichés and Bloated Writing
• http://www.canadianwriterspocketguide2e.nelson.com/includ
es/HED/buscomm/PDF/Module21.PDF
WU #32
islam a major world religion is
dominent in the middle east
it’s followers are called
muslims and their sacred
book is the koran
32--Corrected
•Islam, a major world
religion, is dominant in
the Middle East; its
followers are called
Muslims and its sacred
book is the Koran.
WU #33
•
yesterday when i saw
my friend from boise
idaho i should of
returned the book she
borrowed me
33-Corrected
•Yesterday, when I saw my
friend from Boise, Idaho, I
should have returned the
book she lent me.
• Quarter 3
Warm Up #34
• costa rica, one of the few
countries in the world that
doesn’t have no army,
educates it’s population good
the central american country
has a 93 percent literacy rate
Revised
• Costa Rica--one of the few
countries in the world that
doesn’t have an army-educates its population well;
the Central American country
has a ninety-three percent
literacy rate.
Warm Up # 35
2/3 of all adult Americans wears
corrective lenses. Because of
nearsightedness if they have
farsightedness or an
astigmatism.
•Two-thirds of all adult
Americans wear
corrective lenses
because of
nearsightedness,
farsightedness, or
astigmatism.
Better
Warm Up # 36
Perhaps the more finicky
eater in the world is the
beloved koala bear of
Australia, whom won’t eat
nothing accept eucalyptus
leafs.
•The beloved Australian
koala bear--who won’t eat
anything except
eucalyptus leaves--is
perhaps the most finicky
eater in the world.
Better
Warm Up #37
I believe that feburary is the
best month for sending the
ones you love gifts and to give
cards to new friends and go
out to eat at romantic
restuarants
• I believe
• I think
• It can be seen that
• One can assume that
• In my opinion
• The reader may consider that
Use Your Strong and
Authoritative Voice
Corrected
•February is the best month
for sending loved ones
gifts, giving cards, and
going out to eat at
romantic restaurants.
Warm Up # 38
Would you borrow me your
notes from that Social
Studies lecture on the bill
of rights, which I should of
listened to more careful?
Revised
• Would you lend me your
notes from that social
studies lecture on the Bill
of Rights, which I should
have listened to more
carefully.
Warm Up # 39
in the dead sea located between
israel and Jordan a human body
cannot remain submerged for
long because it is 25 % salt
Corrected for dangling modifier
•In the Dead Sea, located
between Israel and Jordan, a
human body can't remain
submerged for long because
the Sea is twenty-five percent
salt.
WU # 40
•the reason they were so
eager to sell tickets is
because their trying to
re-furbish the old
gymnasium
Revised
•They were so eager to sell
tickets because they're trying
to refurbish the old
gymnasium.
Bad vs. Badly
Badly is an adverb used to describe how
something is done. Bad is an adjective that
refers to health or feelings. Bad is also used to
complete linking verbs, such as seem, look, taste,
and smell.
Fill in the blanks with bad or badly:
1. I feel ______ that Harriet wasn’t invited.
2. Rudolph dances ____, but at least he tried hard.
3. The soup tasted ____ on the first day and even worse on the second.
4. You look really _____. When was the last time you slept?
5. Ms. Kramer spells _____, so it’s lucky she has a smart secretary.
6. Roger wanted to see Gisele so _____ that he postponed his flight.
WU # 41
by changing the oil
every three thousand
miles the car was kept
in excellent condition
Revised for dangling modifier
•Changing the oil every
3,000 miles, we kept the car
in excellent condition.
WU# 42
• there is a desire on the part
of many of us to maintain a
Spring Recess for the
purpose of getting away from
the demands of our Studies
Much Better
• We want a spring recess so
we can get away from our
studies.
OR
• We want a spring recess to
escape our studies.
Quarter 4---Final Stretch
Nine more
weeks
and
counting…
WU # 43
•he was really late to
his English class due
to the fact that he
had to finish his
Math test
Revising for “bloat”
•He was late for
English because he
had to finish his
math test.
Bloated Expressions To
Avoid
• At this point in time . . .“
• Meaning: Now.
• "It would be appreciated if . . .“
• Meaning: Please.
• "In the month of December . . ."
• Meaning: In December.
• "It has come to my attention that . . ."
• Meaning: Whatever comes after "that."
• "In the eventuality that . . ."
• Meaning: If.
• "At the present time . . .“ Now…
More…Redundancies
• "Bad mistakes"
• Use mistakes. All mistakes are bad.
• "My personal opinion is that . . ."
• Use my opinion. All opinions are personal.
• "Repeat again"
• Use repeat. Repeat means to do again.
• "Visible to the eye"
• Use visible. Can anything be visible to anything but the eye?
• "For the purpose of . . ."
• Meaning: For.
Warm Up # 44
noone on this bus
seem to know they’re
way around this part
of the city of new york
Revised (indef. pron. agmt)
•No one on this bus
seems to know his or
her way around this
part of New York City.
Indefinite Pronoun
agreement
• No one (person)----has? vs. have? the answer
• People have
• Everybody----has? Or have? their or his?
• Every (individual) body of us has his or her answer
• All of us have
• Anyone will have their or his/her
• Any one (person) will have his/her
WU # 45
7 children were injured
in the accident only
one required
hospitalizing
Revised for comma splice
Seven children were
injured in the accident;
only one required
hospitalization.
WU # 46
•after reading the
original study the
article remains
unconvincing
Revision (dangling modifier)
•After reading the original
study, I remain
unconvinced.
(The article did not read the study;
a person — I did.)
WU # 47
do you want turkey
spinach and cheese roast
beef lettuce and cheese
or ham tomato, and
cheese asked jim
Use semi-colons between items
on a list already separated by
commas
“Do you want turkey,
spinach, and cheese;
roast beef, lettuce, and
cheese; or ham, tomato,
and cheese?” asked Jim.
Fix this: add the semi-colons…
•I cannot decide if I want my
room to be green, brown,
and purple green, black, and
brown or green, brown, and
dark red.
Semi-colons join items in lists
•I cannot decide if I want my
room to be green, brown, and
purple; green, black, and
brown; or green, brown, and
dark red.
WU # 48
atticus didn't want
scout to fight, however
she could not ignore
injustices
Correcting comma splice and
pronoun reference confusion
Atticus didn’t want
Scout to fight;
however, he knew she
could not ignore
injustices.
WU # 49
3 reasons why some students
drop out of college are
problems of to much parting
and if they run out of money
and if they can’t meet
deadlines
Revising for wordiness and
parallelism
•Three reasons why some
students drop out of college
are problems of too much
partying, and if they run out of
money and if they can’t meet
deadlines
Much more succinct and thesisworthy
Some college students drop
out because of academic,
financial, or time
management problems.
• (Magic 3, anyone?)
Warm Up #50
•of the 5 stages of tradegy
that artistotle said there
is included a stage where
a character will make a
error in judgement based
on them having a tragic
flaw
Revised
• One of Aristotle’s five stages of tragedy
includes a character whose tragic flaw
causes him to make an error in
judgment.
Or-• Aristotle’s five stages of tragedy include
a character whose tragic flaw causes
him to make an error in judgment.
WU # 51
macbeth the thane of glamis
finds out that he has been
promoted to thane of cawdor
, this makes him think about
the other witches prophecy
Remember appositives?
• Macbeth, the Thane of Glamis, becomes Macbeth, the
Thane of Cawdor.
• An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames
another noun right beside it. The appositive can be a
short or long combination of words. Look at these
examples:
• The insect, a tiny ant, is crawling across the desk.
Revised
• Macbeth, the Thane of Glamis, finds out
that he has been promoted to Thane of
Cawdor ; this makes him consider the
witches’ other prophecy.
• Not the other witch’s prophecy
• Nor the other witches prophecy
WU # 52
•In macbeth a play by
shakespeare you realize
that the witches are
being used by him to
control the fate of the
characters
the fix….
• In macbeth a play by shakespeare
you realize that the witches are
being used by him to control the
fate of the characters
• Do NOT EVER use YOU in an essay
more thesis-worthy
•Shakespeare uses the
witches in Macbeth to
control the fate of his
characters.
WU # 53
•writers should spend a
great deal of time
thinking about their
arguments to make sure
they are not superficial
Just who is superficial?
the writers? or the arguments?
Some possible revisions--- (pick one or make up your
own)
• Writers should spend time ensuring that
their arguments are not superficial.
• Writers should make sure their arguments
are authentic.
• Good writers employ authentic arguments.
WU # 54
•In 1605 king james
survives a assassination
attempt which was the
inspiration for
Shakespeare to write
Macbeth
Revised for consistency
in tense, nominalization
•In 1605 King James survived
an assassination attempt,
which inspired Shakespeare
to write Macbeth.
Even more succinct…
The 1605 assassination
attempt on King James
inspired Shakespeare to
write Macbeth.
WU #55
all of this year we have corrected
sentences for comma splices and
fragments tenses that isn’t
consistent, pronoun agreement
errors, if they are punctuated
improperly and weather or not
they are parallel
all of this year we have corrected
sentences for comma splices and
fragments tenses that isn’t consistent,
pronoun agreement errors, if they are
punctuated improperly and weather or
not they are parallel
Better
This year we have revised
sentences for errors of comma
splices and fragments, tense
inconsistency, pronoun
agreement, punctuation, and
parallelism.
WU# 56
writing good is a skill you
can use your whole entire
life, the importance of it
can not be underestimated
or overlooked
Wordy, wordy, wordy….
writing good is a skill you
can use your whole entire
life, the importance of it
can not be
underestimated or
overlooked
Revised
•Writing well is an
important life skill.
• The importance of writing well can not be underestimated.
WU #57
memorial day is a day of
remembrance for all of the men
and women who died while
serving in the united states
armed forces, it is also generally
used as a marker for the start of
the summer vacation season
Revised—comma splice
•Memorial Day is a day to
remember the men and
women who died while
serving in the United States
Armed Forces; it also marks
the start of the summer
vacation season.
SAT Practice
• The last man on earth (A) will abandon his
ruined house (B) for a cave, (C) and his woven
clothes for an (D) animal's skin. (E) No error.
•
•
•
•
•
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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