Literature Review
Payam Kabiri, MD. PhD.
Epidemiologist
Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics
School of Public Health
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Literature Review
 What is Literature?
 What is Literature Review?
 What kind of Literature do we have?
 When the Literature review should be down?
 When to use Literature in proposals?
 How to refer to the used Literature?
‫مرور متون‬
‫‪ ‬جستجو و تحليل نظاممند منابع (اعم از مقاله‪،‬‬
‫کتاب‪ ،‬پاياننامه و ‪ )...‬که دريک زمينه موضوعی‬
‫خاص منتشر شده است‪.‬‬
‫اهميت مرور متون‬
‫مرور متون براساس موضوع پژوهش صورت میگيرد و در موارد‬
‫زير بهکار میرود‪:‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫در تهيه پروپوزال طرح تحقيقاتی‬
‫مقدمه و بيان مساله‬
‫‪‬‬
‫در تنظيم گزارش نهايی و مقاله‬
‫مقدمه و بحث‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ساير موارد مانند ‪...‬‬
Steps of Literature
Review
 Problem formulation
which topic or field is being examined and what are its
component issues?
 Literature search
finding materials relevant to the subject being explored
 Data evaluation
determining which literature makes a significant
contribution to the understanding of the topic
 Analysis and interpretation
discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent
literature
Information Resources
(Basic Knowledge) ‫ اطالعات پايه‬
(Text book) ‫کتابهای مرجع‬
(Updated Knowledge) ‫ اطالعات روزآمد‬
(Periodicals) ‫مجالت و نشريات ادواری‬
Information Resources
 Print Materials
 Electronic Materials
Information Resources
• Local Data
www.iranmedex.com
www.magiran.com
www.irandoc.ac.ir
www.srlst.ir
www.sid.ir
•International Data
www.pubmed.com
Print Materials
 Journals & Papers
 Indexes
 Dissertations & Thesis
 Abstracts of Seminars
 Books & Booklets
Bibliographic database
A bibliographic or library database is a
collection of bibliographic information.
May contain information about papers,
books and other materials held in a library.
Versions of electronic databases
 Index Medicus is the print version of MEDLINE
 Excerpta Medica is the print version of EMBASE
 Science Citation Index is the print version of Web of
Science
Database
Printed
Electronic
version
version
MEDLINE
EMBASE
Science Citation Index
Since 1879 Since 1966
Since 1948 Since 1974
Since 1974 Since 1974
Databases
 General Databases
(Comprehensive OR Core Databases)
 Specialized Databases
(Subjects Specified Databases)
General Databases
(Comprehensive OR Core Databases)
 Medical Sciences



Medline
Embase
Scopus
 All Sciences

Web of Sciences
Specialized Databases
(Subjects Specified Databases)
 Biological Abstracts
 International Pharmaceutical Abstract
 PsychInfo
 CINAHL
 Chemical Abstracts
 Agricola
 Econlite
Citation Databases
 Web of Science
 Scopus
 Google Scholar
Electronic Journals & Collection
 Elsevier Science
 Ovid
 Blackwell Science
 Oxford university Press
 Springer
 Proquest
 Ebsco
Also Note Biases
 Publication Bias
 Fulltext Bias
 Language Bias
 Database Bias
…
…
Publication Bias
 “Publication bias refers to the greater
likelihood that studies with positive results
will be published”

JAMA 2002;287:2825-2828
Publication Bias
 Positive trials are more likely to be submitted
for publication
 Positive trials are more likely to be published
 Positive trials are more likely to be published
quickly

Stern and Simes BMJ 1997;315:640-645
Publication Bias
 Sterling study: 97% of papers published in 4
psychology journals showed statistically significant
results at alpha level 5% !
 Dickersin study: compared published RCTs with
unpublished ones .results:55%pub,15% unpub,
favoring new therapy!
 Mahoney stuD:75 reviewers asked to review
different versions of a fictitious manuscript.
”introduction” & ”methods” : identical, ”results” &
“discussion” : different (+/ambiguous /-). results of
reviewers evaluation : manuscripts with “positive”
results received higher average scores!
Publication Bias
 1)…if they had reached sig.
 2) positive result
 3) interesting results for both reviewers &
authors!
 4) language bias (ENG) in being included in
a meta-analysis.
How to Bypass Publication Bias
 Searching Libraries for Thesis & Research
Reports
 Searching Registries
 Searching Grey Literature
 Searching especial Journals like:
“Journal of Negative results in Biomedicine”
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬
Index Medicus
National Library of Medicine
(NLM)
Dr. John Shaw Billings
 John Shaw Billings
(US Army general Surgeon)
 Director of the NLM
established Index Medicus.
Index Medicus
 Making:


Author Index
Subject Index
 They call it:

Index Medicus
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬
Medical Literature
Analysis And Retrieval
System
MEDLARS
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬
‫‪MEDLARS ONLINE‬‬
‫‪MEDLINE‬‬
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬
‫بان ك ك ككم اطالع ك ك ككات م ك ك ككد ي در وا ك ك ككع ه ك ك ككان ن ك ك ك ه‬
‫الکترونيككک اينككدكو مككدياوس ككا اسككت کككه بككه‬
‫ص ك ك ك ك ك ككورت ن ك ك ك ك ك ك ك ه ك ك ك ك ك ك ك د و ي ك ك ك ك ك ككا وب منتش ك ك ك ك ك ككر‬
‫م شود‪.‬‬
Medline
 3200 Journal First & Now +4900
Journal
 More 250,000 Paper per Year
 75% of the Whole Printed English
Papers throughout the world
 Over 17,000,000 Records Till Now
Medline
 1966 up to now
 National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Product
 More than 14,000,000 Record till
now
 The most used database by Medical
Researchers throughout the world
Medline
 Publish more than 800 papers per day
 Covers Medical, Dental & Nursing
papers
 In 2006, 4,928 journals are currently
indexed for MEDLINE
 Available online through web since
1971.
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬
 Records
 Fields







Titles (Ti)
Authors (Au)
Source (So)
Journal Name (Jn)
Main Abstract (MA)
Medical Subjects Headings (MESH)
………………………………………………
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬

Search Methods
1.
2.
3.

Find (Search)
Index
Thesaurus (MeSH)
Output Options
1.
2.
3.
4.
View
Download
Print
Email
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬
‫‪ Operators‬‬
‫‪AND‬‬
‫‪OR‬‬
‫‪NOT‬‬
‫‪ADJ‬‬
‫‪1.‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬
‫‪3.‬‬
‫‪4.‬‬
Boolean Logics
Shaded areas
indicate retrieval
Search Statement
Types of records
retrieved
stress AND anxiety
Documents that have
either stress AND anxiety
stress OR anxiety
Documents that have
both stress OR anxiety
stress NOT anxiety
Documents that have
stress but NOT anxiety
Truncation
 For singular, plural or word-roots findings.
 Examples:
child* will retrieve children, childhood, childlike
adolescen* will retrieve adolescent, adolescence, adolescently
derm* will retrieve dermal, dermatitis, dermatology, dermoid,
dermatologist, dermatopathologist, …
 Be very careful of small word roots when looking for plurals…
cat*
rat*
catastrophe
rational
cataract
ratify
category
ratio
Rather use:
(cat OR cats)
(rat OR rats)
Some comparisons between the MEDLINE of
1971 & the MEDLINE of today
Items
1971
2006
Indexed
Journals
239
4,928
Users
25
77,000,000 unique visits &
about 800,000,000 searches
Server
an IBM 360/50
mainframe computer
on 20 Dell PowerEdge, 2
CPU 8Gb RAM, with the
Linux operating system
PubMed
PubMed is available via the NCBI
Entrez retrieval system. It was
developed by the National Center for
Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at
the National Library of Medicine
(NLM), located at the National
Institutes of Health (NIH).
MEDLINE Facts
Producer
National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC.
Subjects
medicine, dentistry, nursing, preclinical sciences, health care
systems, veterinary medicine
Size
4500+ journals indexed; 14 million references
Scope
Journals from 70 countries (>50% US)
Languages
30+
Abstracts
included for >75% of references; author-written
Coverage
1966 – present
How to refer to the used
Literature?
 International Committee of Medical Journal
Editors (www.icmje.org)
 Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts
Submitted to Biomedical Journals
 Sample References (Vancouver)
 www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html
http://www.pubmed.com
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
http://www.tums.ac.ir/
http://diglib.tums.ac.ir/
http://scholar.google.com
How to see where a journal is
indexed?
 To check in which database a journal is
indexed & where we can find its full text,
search your journal name in these websites:

http://jake.openly.com/

http://journalseek.net/
! ‫ بزنید‬Email ‫اگر میل داشتید‬
[email protected]
The Oxford Dictionary's latest
definition of the following words
 Boss: Someone who is early when you are late and
late when you are early.
 Cigarette: A pinch of tobacco rolled in paper with
fire at one end and a fool on the other.
 Classic: A book which people praise, but do not
read.
 Committee: Individuals who can do nothing
individually and sit to decide that nothing can be
done together.
The Oxford Dictionary's latest
definition of the following words
 Compromise: The art of dividing a cake in
such a way that everybody believes he got
the biggest piece.
 Conference Room: A place where
everybody talks, nobody listens and
everybody disagrees later on.
 Criminal: A guy no different from the
rest....except that he got caught.
 Dictionary: A place where success comes
before work.
The Oxford Dictionary's latest
definition of the following words
 Doctor: A person who kills your ills by pills,
and kills you with his bills.
 Etc .: A sign to make others believe that you
know more than you actually do.
 Experience: The name men give to their
mistakes.
 Father: A banker provided by nature.
The Oxford Dictionary's latest
definition of the following words
 Office: A place where you can relax after
your strenuous home life.
 Opportunist: A person who starts taking
bath if he accidentally falls into a river.
 Optimist: A person who while falling from
Eiffel tower says in midway "See I am not
injured yet."
The Oxford Dictionary's latest
definition of the following words
 Lecture: An art of transferring information
from the notes of the lecturer to the notes of
the students without passing through the
minds of either.
 Smile: A curve that can set a lot of things
straight.
 Philosopher: A fool who torments himself
during life, to be spoken of when dead.
! ‫ بزنید‬Email ‫اگر میل داشتید‬
[email protected]
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Literature Review