Search Workshop
Payam Kabiri, MD. PhD.
Epidemiologist
Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics
School of Public Health
Tehran & Isfahan Universities of Medical Sciences
Literature Review
 What is Literature?
 What is Literature Review?
 What kind of Literature do we have?
 When the Literature review should be down?
 When to use Literature in proposals?
 How to refer to the used Literature?
‫مرور متون‬
‫‪ ‬جستجو و تحليل نظاممند منابع (اعم از مقاله‪،‬‬
‫کتاب‪ ،‬پاياننامه و ‪ )...‬که دريک زمينه موضوعی‬
‫خاص منتشر شده است‪.‬‬
‫اهميت مرور متون‬
‫مرور متون براساس موضوع پژوهش صورت میگيرد و در موارد‬
‫زير بهکار میرود‪:‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫در تهيه پروپوزال طرح تحقيقاتی‬
‫مقدمه و بيان مساله‬
‫‪‬‬
‫در تنظيم گزارش نهايی و مقاله‬
‫مقدمه و بحث‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ساير موارد مانند ‪...‬‬
Steps of Literature
Review
 Problem formulation
which topic or field is being examined and what are its
component issues?
 Literature search
finding materials relevant to the subject being explored
 Data evaluation
determining which literature makes a significant
contribution to the understanding of the topic
 Analysis and interpretation
discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent
literature
Information Resources
(Basic Knowledge) ‫ اطالعات پايه‬
(Text book) ‫کتابهای مرجع‬
(Updated Knowledge) ‫ اطالعات روزآمد‬
(Periodicals) ‫مجالت و نشريات ادواری‬
Information Resources
 Print Materials
 Electronic Materials
Information Resources
• Local Data
www.iranmedex.com
www.magiran.com
www.irandoc.ac.ir
www.srlst.com
www.sid.ir
•International Data
www.pubmed.com
Print Materials
 Journals & Papers
 Indexes
 Dissertations & Thesis
 Abstracts of Seminars
 Books & Booklets
Bibliographic database
A bibliographic or library database is a
collection of bibliographic information.
May contain information about papers,
books and other materials held in a library.
Databases
 General Databases
(Comprehensive OR Core Databases)
 Specialized Databases
(Subjects Specified Databases)
General Databases
(Comprehensive OR Core Databases)
 Medical Sciences



Medline
Embase
Scopus
 All Sciences

Web of Sciences
Specialized Databases
(Subjects Specified Databases)
 Biological Abstracts
 International Pharmaceutical Abstract
 PsychInfo
 CINAHL
 Chemical Abstracts
 Agricola
 Econlite
Citation Databases
 Web of Science
 Scopus
 Google Scholar
Electronic Journals & Collection
 Elsevier Science
 Ovid
 Blackwell Science
 Oxford university Press
 Springer
 Proquest
 Ebsco
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬
Index Medicus
National Library of Medicine
(NLM)
Dr. John Shaw Billings
 John Shaw Billings
(US Army general Surgeon)
 Director of the NLM
established Index Medicus.
Index Medicus
 Making:


Author Index
Subject Index
 They call it:

Index Medicus
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬
Medical Literature
Analysis And Retrieval
System
MEDLARS
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬
‫‪MEDLARS ONLINE‬‬
‫‪MEDLINE‬‬
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬
‫بان ك ك ككم اطالع ك ك ككات م ك ك ككد ي در وا ك ك ككع ه ك ك ككان ن ك ك ك ه‬
‫الکترونيككک اينككدكو مككدياوس ككا اسككت کككه بككه‬
‫ص ك ك ك ك ك ككورت ن ك ك ك ك ك ك ك ه ك ك ك ك ك ك ك د و ي ك ك ك ك ك ككا وب منتش ك ك ك ك ك ككر‬
‫م شود‪.‬‬
Medline
 3200 Journal First & Now +4900
Journal
 More 250,000 Paper per Year
 75% of the Whole Printed English
Papers throughout the world
 Over 17,000,000 Records Till Now
Medline
 1966 up to now
 A National Library of Medicine
(NLM) Product
 The most used database by Medical
Researchers throughout the world
Medline
 Publish more than 800 papers per day
 Covers Medical, Dental & Nursing
papers
 In 2006, 4,928 journals are currently
indexed for MEDLINE
 Available online through web since
1971.
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬
 Records
 Fields







Titles (Ti)
Authors (Au)
Source (So)
Journal Name (Jn)
Main Abstract (MA)
Medical Subjects Headings (MESH)
………………………………………………
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬

Search Methods
1.
2.
3.

Find (Search)
Index
Thesaurus (MeSH)
Output Options
1.
2.
3.
4.
View
Download
Print
Email
‫آشنايی با بانك اطالعاتي مدالين‬
‫‪ Operators‬‬
‫‪AND‬‬
‫‪OR‬‬
‫‪NOT‬‬
‫‪ADJ‬‬
‫‪1.‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬
‫‪3.‬‬
‫‪4.‬‬
Boolean Logics
Shaded areas
indicate retrieval
Search Statement
Types of records
retrieved
stress AND anxiety
Documents that have
either stress AND anxiety
stress OR anxiety
Documents that have
both stress OR anxiety
stress NOT anxiety
Documents that have
stress but NOT anxiety
Truncation
 For singular, plural or word-roots findings.
 Examples:
child* will retrieve children, childhood, childlike
adolescen* will retrieve adolescent, adolescence, adolescently
derm* will retrieve dermal, dermatitis, dermatology, dermoid,
dermatologist, dermatopathologist, …
 Be very careful of small word roots when looking for plurals…
cat*
rat*
catastrophe
rational
cataract
ratify
category
ratio
Rather use:
(cat OR cats)
(rat OR rats)
Some comparisons between the MEDLINE of
1971 & the MEDLINE of today
Items
1971
2006
Indexed
Journals
239
4,928
Users
25
77,000,000 unique visits &
about 800,000,000 searches
Server
an IBM 360/50
mainframe computer
on 20 Dell PowerEdge, 2
CPU 8Gb RAM, with the
Linux operating system
PubMed
PubMed is available via the NCBI
Entrez retrieval system. It was
developed by the National Center for
Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at
the National Library of Medicine
(NLM), located at the National
Institutes of Health (NIH).
MEDLINE Facts
Producer
National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC.
Subjects
medicine, dentistry, nursing, preclinical sciences, health care
systems, veterinary medicine
Size
4500+ journals indexed; 14 million references
Scope
Journals from 70 countries (>50% US)
Languages
30+
Abstracts
included for >75% of references; author-written
Coverage
1966 – present
PubMed & Medline
Data
Total Records
Dates
Covered
Indexed Records
Added
PubMed
17,887,371
1949-present
Medline
16,488,995
1966-present
14,177
In Process
239,052
OldMedline
451,105
1949-1965
About 1,800
Chart last updated: April 7, 2008
How to refer to the used
Literature?
 International Committee of Medical Journal
Editors (www.icmje.org)
 Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts
Submitted to Biomedical Journals
 Sample References (Vancouver)
 www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html
http://www.pubmed.com
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
http://www.tums.ac.ir/
http://diglib.tums.ac.ir/
http://scholar.google.com
How to see where a journal is
indexed?
 To check in which database a journal is
indexed & where we can find its full text,
search your journal name in these websites:

http://jake.openly.com/

http://journalseek.net/
! ‫ بزنید‬Email ‫اگر میل داشتید‬
[email protected]
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Literature Review