Use of Instructional Time?
BOTTOM LINE?
Teachers are Left with about
24 School Days
OR
18 Eight Hour Days
Per Subject
Per Year
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#3: Make Sure Your
Instructional System is Fully
and Carefully Aligned…and
That Nothing About Teaching
and Learning is Left to
Chance
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Historically, most of the really
important decisions about
what students should learn
and what kind of work was
“good enough” left to individual
teachers.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Result? A System That:
• Doesn’t expect very much from MOST
students; and,
• Expects much less from some types of
students than others.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
‘A’ Work in Poor Schools Would
Earn ‘Cs’ in Affluent Schools
100
87
Percentile - CTBS4
Seventh Grade Math
56
41
34
35
22
21
11
0
A
B
Grades
Low-poverty schools
C
D
High-poverty schools
Source: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in “Prospects: Final Report on
Student Outcomes”, PES, DOE, 1997.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Students can do
no better than
the assignments
they are given...
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Grade 7 Writing Assignment
Essay on Anne Frank
Your essay will consist of an opening paragraph which
introduced the title, author and general background of the
novel.
Your thesis will state specifically what Anne's overall
personality is, and what general psychological and
intellectual changes she exhibits over the course of the
book
You might organize your essay by grouping psychological
and intellectual changes OR you might choose 3 or 4
characteristics (like friendliness, patience, optimism, self
doubt) and show how she changes in this area.
Source: Unnamed school district in California, 2002-03 school year.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Grade 7 Writing Assignment
•My Best Friend:
•A chore I hate:
•A car I want:
•My heartthrob:
Source: Unnamed school district in California, 2002-03 school year.
2004
2005
by by
TheThe
Education
Education
Trust-West
Trust-West
Even in college-prep classes,
differences in rigor…
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Using the SAME TEXT BOOK
College-prep assignments from:
School A, District A,
California
1467 students enrolled
in 2005
• 82% White
• 6% Asian
• 4% Latino
• 2% Black
• 2% Low-Income
School B, District B,
California
2001 students enrolled
in 2005
• 45% White
• 4% Asian
• 48% Latino
• 1% Black
• 27% Low-Income
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Same Text Book:
High-Level college-prep assignment.
• Describe the fundamental problems in the
economy that helped cause the Great
Depression. Consider agriculture,
consumer spending and debt, distribution
of wealth, the stock market
• Describe how people struggled to survive
during the Depression
• How did Hoover’s belief in “rugged
individualism” shape his policies during the
depression?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Same Text Book:
Low Level college-prep assignment.
• Role play (Meet the Press) & interview key
people of the era
• Draw a political cartoon highlighting a
major event of the time
• Share excerpts from noted literary
authors-Lewis, Fitzgerald, Hemingway,
Hughes
• Listen to jazz artists of the 20’s
• Construct a collage depicting new
inventions
2005 by The Education Trust-West
High Performing Schools and
Districts
• Have clear and specific goals for what
students should learn in every grade,
including the order in which they should learn
it;
• Provide teachers with common curriculum,
assignments;
• Assess students every 4-8 weeks to measure
progress;
• ACT immediately on the results of those
assessments.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#4. Insist on Rigor and High
Standards for All Students.
Make the College Prep
Curriculum the Default
Curriculum.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Not all students have access to
college-prep classes.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Percent of Students Attending High Schools that
Offer High-Level Math Courses
Latino and Black are less likely to attend
High Schools that offer
High-Level Math Courses
100
77
80
67
60
60
59
51
45
40
Black
Latino
White
20
0
Trigonometry
Calculus
Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Percent of Students Attending High Schools that
Offer High-Level Math Courses
Low-SES Students are less likely to
attend High Schools that offer
High-Level Math Courses
100
83
80
72
64
60
44
40
Low SES
High SES
20
0
Trigonometry
Calculus
SES quintiles are composites of family income, parental education, prestige of parental occupation(s),
and the presence of reading materials and computers in the household.
Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Percentage of 12th Grade Students Taking
Biology, Chemistry, and Physics
Latino and Black students are less likely
to take the full complement of
Science Courses
50%
45%
40%
31%
30%
20%
22%
25%
Black
Latino
White
Asian
10%
0%
Source: U.S. Department of Education
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Even though most students want to go to college, the
truth is, many low income students and students of
color aren’t getting the classes in the first place.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
San Diego City Schools:
Two High Schools
Gompers HS:
La Jolla HS:
• 1543 Students
• 1688 students
• 87.1% Latino & AfricanAmerican
• 25% Latino & AfricanAmerican
• 81.1% low-income
• 17.8% low-income
• 17% of graduates
successfully completed AG in 2004
• 56.7% of graduates
successfully completed AG in 2004
Source: CA Dept of Education, 2005
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Number of classes offered in 2004-05
Opportunities to take higher level math classes are much
more limited at the high-poverty, high-minority high school:
Gompers HS vs. La Jolla HS, San Diego City Schools
60
48
50
40
30
30
19
20
12
6
10
10
6
3
5
4
3
1
0
Pre-Alg
Beg Alg
Int Alg
Adv Alg
Gompers HS
Source: Ed Trust-West Analysis of CA Dept of Education
Data, 2005
Geometry
Pre-calc
Calc
La Jolla HS
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Regressive Math – A Path to Nowhere
Sample Sequence
In one California district, a high school student has:
• passed both sections of the California Exit Exam
by the beginning of the senior year.
• has started her senior year with 175 of the 230
credits needed to graduate.
• has not fulfilled the 10 credits for Algebra, and
still needs 10 more credits in other math
courses.
She is only enrolled in one math course in
her senior year – Business Math.
Source: Unidentified Student Transcript, California
High School
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Regressive Math – A Path to Nowhere
In that same district 20% of
students are enrolled in
Regressive Math.
More than half of those are
Latino.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
But are most of our kids getting
anything that even remotely
resembles
INTENSE?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Jake’s Fall Schedule, Freshman
Year
English
Health Ed/Academic Foundations (Required
Course for all freshmen)
Conceptual Physics
Volleyball
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Spring Schedule, Freshman Year
Algebra
Auto Shop
Auto Shop
Volleyball
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Fall Schedule, Sophomore Year
English
Spanish
Chemistry
Open Period (required)
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Spring Schedule, Sophomore
Year
Geometry
W. History
Volleyball
Open Period (required)
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Fall Schedule, Junior Year
Mythology
Algebra
Auto Shop
Career Choices
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Spring Schedule, Junior Year
Algebra 2
American History
Arts Tech
English
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Senior Year?
Too embarrassing to even show
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Consequences?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
The Highest Level of Math Reached in High
School is a Strong Predictor of BA Attainment
Percent Attaining a Bachelor's
100
83
75
80
60
60
39
40
17
20
7
0
Calculus
Precalculus Trigonometry
Algebra 2
Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.
Geometry
Algebra 1
2005 by The Education Trust-West
High School Curriculum Intensity is a Strong
Predictor of Bachelor’s Degree Completion
Percent of Students Completing a
Bachelor's Degree
100
82
80
60
40
20
9
0
Most Intense Curriculum
Least Intense Curriculum
Curriculum quartiles are composites of English, math, science, foreign language, social studies, computer science,
Advanced Placement, the highest level of math, remedial math and remedial English classes taken during high school.
Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Most 21st Century Jobs Require
Postsecondary Education
2005 by The Education Trust-West
College isn’t for everyone. But a
college prep curriculum is.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
High School Course-Taking Indicates
Opportunity for Success in the Workplace
The percentage of workers in the highest-paying jobs that
took high-level math courses in high school
100%
80%
75%
85%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Algebra II or higher
Source: Carnevale and Desrochers, ETS, Connecting Education Standards &
Employment: Course Taking Patterns of Young Workers, ADP: Workplace Study, 2002:
Geometry or higher
2005 by The Education Trust-West
American Diploma Project Interviews
with Employers:
• They mostly want the same things that
higher education wants!
– Strong Reading Ability – read/comprehend informational
and technical texts
– Emphatic about literature – understanding other cultures
is necessary with diverse customers and co-workers
– Writing ability key
– Mathematics Imperative – data, probability, statistics and
competent problem solvers. Algebra I, Geometry and
Algebra II.
Source: Workplace Study by the National Alliance
for Business for the American Diploma Project,
unpublished report, 2002.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
But Even in Jobs We Don’t Expect…
Requirements for Tool
and Die Makers
• Four or five years of
apprenticeship
and/or
postsecondary
training;
• Algebra, geometry,
trigonometry and
statistics;
• Average earnings:
$40,000 per year.
Requirements for
Sheet Metal
Workers
• Four or five years
of apprenticeship;
• Algebra, geometry,
trigonometry and
technical reading;
Requirements for
Auto Technicians
• A solid grounding
in physics is
necessary to
understand force,
hydraulics, friction
and electrical
circuits.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Even in Jobs We Don’t Expect…
Plumbing-Heating-Air
Conditioning
• Four or five years of
apprenticeship
and/or postsecondary training;
• Algebra, plane
geometry,
trigonometry and
statistics;
• Physics, chemistry,
biology, engineering
economics.
Construction
and Engineering
• Four or five years of
apprenticeship
and/or postsecondary training;
• Algebra, plane
geometry
• Critical thinking,
problem solving,
reading and writing
Sources: Plumbing : Shapiro, D., and Nichols, J. Constructing Your Future: Consider a Career in Plumbing,
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) PHCC Auxiliary 2005 downloaded March 13, 3006
http://www.phccweb.org/PDFs/PHCC20pg.pdf, Construction: California Apprenticeship Council Division of
Apprenticeship Standards 2001 Annual Legislative Report Downloaded March 15, 2006
http://www.dir.ca.gov/das/DASAnnualReport2001/LegRep2001.pdf#search='architecture%2C%20construction%
2C%20engineering%20%28ace%20pathway%29%20course%20outline'
ALL of these jobs
require a strong
foundation of
reading, writing and
speaking the
English language in
order to
comprehend
instructions and
technical manuals
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Employers Are Less Willing to
Help
“Remedial programs were victims of
mid-90s cost cutting initiatives: from a
high point of 24% of [businesses] in
1993, the share of companies
sponsoring such programs dropped to
15% in 1999 and 12.3% in 2001.”
--2001 American Management
Association Survey on Workplace
Testing
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Employers are looking for better
educated workers elsewhere
Example: Toyota Motor
Corporation
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Why Ontario, Canada is a better
location for a new Toyota plant…
“The level of the workforce in general is so
high the training program you need for
people, even for people who have never
worked in a Toyota plant before, is minimal
compared to what you have to go through in
the southeastern United States,”
--Gerry Fedchun, president of Automotive
Parts Manufacturers’ Association, 7/8/2005
Source: www.cbc.ca/cp/business/050630/b0630102.html
2005 by The Education Trust-West
“In Alabama, trainers had to use
‘pictorials’ to teach some
illiterate workers how to use
high-tech plant equipment.”
--Gerry Fedchun, president of Automotive
Parts Manufacturers’ Association, 7/8/2005
Source: www.cbc.ca/cp/business/050630/b0630102.html
2005 by The Education Trust-West
With college-prep curricula,
students of all sorts will learn
more...
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Low Quartile Students Gain
More From College Prep
Courses*
28
NELS Score Gain
30
20
19
16
0
Math
Reading
Vocational
College Prep
*Grade 8-grade 12 test score gains based on 8th grade achievement.
Source: USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the United States:
Toward the Year 2000, in Issue Brief: Students Who Prepare for College
and Vocation
2005 by The Education Trust-West
San Jose Unified – College Prep
Curriculum For All
AP Scores with a score of AP >=3
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
57.4
43.5
1999
748 Test Taken
Source: EdTrust West analysis of California Department of Education data
2004
1197 Tests Taken
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Students taking rigorous courses
will fail less often...
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Challenging Curriculum Results in Lower Failure Rates,
Even for Lowest Achievers
Percent Earning "D" or "F"
50
Ninth-grade English performance, by high/low level
course, and eighth-grade reading achievement quartiles
47
31
23
16
0
Quartile I (Lowest)
College Prep
Source: SREB, “Middle Grades to High School: Mending a
Weak Link”. Unpublished Draft, 2002.
Quartile 2
Low Level
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Gaps will close.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
SJUSD SAT9 & CAT6
Median National Percentile
Matched Reading Scores at
Grades 4-9 for Students who Have Been Tested with
STAR Every Year Since 1998
Source: San Jose Unified School District
Gap
reduced by 48%
*CAT6 scores adjusted to SAT9 scale
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Median National Percentile
SJUSD SAT9 & CAT6
Matched Mathematics Scores at
Grades 3-9 for Students who Have Been Tested
with STAR Every Year Since 1998
Source: San Jose Unified School District
Gap reduced
by 43%
*CAT6 scores adjusted to SAT9 scale
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Students will work harder.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Recent poll shows that 66% of dropouts
would have worked harder if expectations
were higher.
88%
Had passing grades
Recognized that graduating from high school
was vital to their success
81%
Were confident they could have graduated
from high school
70%
Would have worked harder if expectations
were higher
66%
0%
Source: The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School
Dropouts, Civic Enterprises, March 2006
20%
40%
60%
80% 100%
2005 by The Education Trust-West
And they’ll succeed more.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
SJUSD Graduation Rates
Estimated
completion rate
using Cumulative
Promotion Index
methodology
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
100%
90%
80%
Estimated
70%
completion rate 60%
using Manhattan 50%
Institute
40%
methodology 30%
20%
10%
0%
70%
73%
72%
1998
1999
2000
72%
71%
69%
1998
1999
2000
Source: Ed Trust West analysis of CA Dept of Ed data, 2005
87%
84%
2001
77%
2001
79%
80%
2002
2003
2004
73%
73%
73%
2002
2003
2004
2005 by The Education Trust-West
LAUSD High Schools That Have High
Percentages of Their Graduates Completing
College Prep Curriculum (A-G) Have Fewer
Suspensions and Lower Failure Rates
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
64%
Low
Percentage
A-G Grads
46%
37%
16%
21%
11%
HS
Suspension
Completion
Rate
Rate
% of F's in
Math
Source: Ed Trust West Analysis of School-Level Data, School
Accountability Report Cards, 2005.
23%
12%
High
Percentage
A-G Grads
% of F's in
English
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#5. Monitor the Distribution
of Teacher Talent…and
Make Sure Low-Income and
Minority Students Have the
High Quality Teachers They
Need
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Teachers Matter Big Time.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Students Who Start 2nd Grade at About
the Same Level of Math Achievement…
Average Percentile Rank
100
80
60
55
57
Group 1
Group 2
40
20
0
Beginning of 2nd Grade
Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of
Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Average Percentile Rank
…Finish 5th Grade Math at Dramatically Different
Levels Depending on the Quality of Their
Teachers
100
77
80
60
57
55
40
27
20
0
Group 1 Assigned to Three
EFFECTIVE Teachers
Group 2 Assigned to Three
INEFFECTIVE Teachers
Beginning of 2nd Grade
Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of
Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.
End of 5th Grade
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Students Who Start 3rd Grade at About
the Same Level of Reading
Achievement…
Average Percentile Rank
100
80
60
59
60
Group 1
Group 2
40
20
0
Beginning of 3rd Grade
Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of
Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Average Percentile Rank
…Finish 6th Grade at Dramatically Different
Levels Depending on the Quality of Their
Teachers
100
76
80
60
60
59
42
40
20
0
Group 1 Assigned to Three
EFFECTIVE Teachers
Group 2 Assigned to Three
INEFFECTIVE Teachers
Beginning of 3rd Grade
End of 6th Grade
Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of
Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
But poor and minority students
don’t get their fair share of our
strongest teachers.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Poor and Minority Students Get
More Inexperienced* Teachers
Percent of Teachers Who Are
Inexperienced
25%
21%
20%
11%
10%
0%
High poverty Low poverty
High minority Low minority
*Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience.
Note: High poverty refers to the top quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low povertybottom quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High minority-top quartile; those schools with
the highest concentrations of minority students. Low minority-bottom quartile of schools with the lowest concentrations of
minority students
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Percent of Classes Taught by Out
of Field Teachers
More Classes in High-Poverty, HighMinority Schools Taught By Out-of-Field
50%
Teachers
34%
29%
21%
19%
0%
High poverty Low poverty
High minority Low minority
Note: High Poverty school-50% or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low-poverty school -15% or
fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch.
High-minority school - 50% or more of the students are nonwhite. Low-minority school- 15% or fewer of the students are
nonwhite.
*Teachers lacking a college major or minor in the field. Data for
secondary-level core academic classes.
Source: Craig D. Jerald, All Talk, No Action: Putting an End to Out-of-Field Teaching,
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Middle Grades – Classes Taught by
Teachers Without at Least a
College Minor in the Subject
60%
53%
Percent of
middle
school
classes
taught by a
teacher
without at
least a
minor in the
subject
0%
49%
40%
38%
High-Poverty Low-Poverty
Schools
Schools
(>50%)
High-Minority Low-Minority
Schools
Schools
(<15%)
(>50%)
(<15%)
*Data is for core academic classes.
Source: Craig D. Jerald, All Talk, No Action: Putting an End to Out-of-Field Teaching, The
Education Trust, 2002.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
High Schools – Classes Taught by
Teachers Lacking an Undergraduate Major
60%
Percent of
high school
classes
taught by a
teacher
without a
major in the
subject
29%
28%
21%
21%
0%
High-Poverty Low-Poverty
Schools
Schools
(>50%)
(<15%)
High-Minority Low-Minority
Schools
Schools
(>50%)
(<15%)
*Data is for core academic classes.
Source: Craig D. Jerald, All Talk, No Action: Putting an End to Out-of-Field Teaching,
The Education Trust, 2002.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Teacher Quality Index
Illinois Education Research Council
•
School Level Teacher Characteristics
– % of Teachers with Emergency/Provisional
Certification
School
Teacher
Quality
Index
(TQI)
– % of Teachers from More/Most Selective Colleges
– % of Teachers with < 4 Years Experience
– % of Teachers Failing Basic Skills Test on First
Attempt
– School Average of Teachers’ ACT Composite and
English Scores
DeAngelis, K., Presley, J. and White, B. (2005). The Distribution of Teacher Quality in Illinois.
http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/Teacher_Quality_IERC_%202005-1.pdf
2005 by The Education Trust-West
IERC College Readiness
Index
• Uses ACT scores and self-reported
GPA
• Five levels
–
–
–
–
–
Not/least ready
Minimally ready
Somewhat ready
More ready
Most ready
Presley, J. and Gong, Y. (2005). The Demographics and Academics of College Readiness in Illinois.
http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/College%20Readiness%20-%202005-3.pdf
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Illinois: Distribution of School TQI by
School Percent Minority
•Very high
percent minority
schools are likely
to have very low
school TQIs.
•There is little
difference in TQI
distribution
below the highest
minority quartile
(i.e. below about
60% minority).
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Impact?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
College Readiness at High Poverty,
High Minority Schools by TQI
80
73%
70
Percent of Students
More/Most Ready
60
Not/Least Ready
50
38%
40
26%
30
20
10
3%
0
Lowest TQI
Upper Middle TQI
Presley, J. and Gong, Y. (2005). The Demographics and Academics of College Readiness in Illinois.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/College%20Readiness%20-%202005-3.pdf
Percent of Students
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Percent of Students More/Most
Ready by High School TQI and
Highest Math Level
81
Lowest 10%
76
67
52
57
48
42
25
18 20 21
6
11
Algebra II
11-25%
Lower Middle TQI
Upper Middle TQI
Highest TQI
16
6
Trigonometry
or other
advanced
math
Calculus
Presley, J. and Gong, Y. (2005). The Demographics and Academics of College Readiness in Illinois.
http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/College%20Readiness%20-%202005-3.pdf
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Let’s Get That Again!
STUDENTS WHO STUDIED ALL THE
WAY THROUGH CALCULUS IN
SCHOOLS WITH THE LOWEST
TEACHER QUALITY LEARNED LESS
MATH THAN STUDENTS WHO ONLY
WENT THROUGH ALGEBRA 2 IN
SCHOOLS WITH JUST AVERAGE
TEACHER QUALITY.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Some of the differences occur
between poor and rich school
districts.
But there are big differences within school
districts, as well. In fact, in most states these
differences are larger than between-district
differences.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
California: Study after study
shows large differences in
experience and education of
teachers in high vs. low-poverty
schools.
These differences, of course,
reflected in different salaries.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
A Tale of Two Schools
Granada Hills High School
Los Angeles Unified
• 32% Latino & African American
• 27% of students receive free or
reduced price lunch
• Academic Performance Index =
773
Source: CA Department of Education, 2003-04 data
Locke High School
Los Angeles Unified
• 99% Latino & African American
• 66% of students receive free or
reduced price lunch
• Academic Performance Index =
440
2005 by The Education Trust-West
In accordance with district and
state practice, both schools
report the same average teacher
salary.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
The average teacher at Locke High School
actually gets paid an estimated $8,034 less
every year than his counterpart at Granada Hills
High School.
If Locke spent as much as Granada Hills on
teacher salaries for its 119 teachers, the school
budget would increase by nearly a million dollars
($956,056) every year.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
A Tale of Two Schools
Washington High School
San Francisco Unified
• 13% Latino & African American
• 37% of students receive free or
reduced price lunch
• Academic Performance Index =
760
Source: CA Department of Education, 2003-04 data
Mission High School
San Francisco Unified
• 67% Latino & African American
• 75% of students receive free or
reduced price lunch
• Academic Performance Index =
518
2005 by The Education Trust-West
The average teacher at Mission High School
actually gets paid an estimated $9,901
less every year than his counterpart at
Washington High School.
If Mission spent as much as Washington on
teacher salaries for its 57 teachers, the
school budget would increase by
$564,357 every year.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Again, both report the same
average teacher salary.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Average School Gaps in 10 Largest CA
Districts by School Type
Poverty
Minority
Middle
High
School
36,561
-157,937
325,113
102,762
-319,075
252,503
Fresno Unified
125,881
104,980
85,534
108,113
126,829
125,639
Long Beach Unified
362,683
251,012
574,387
381,587
218,585
289,968
Los Angeles Unified
83,363
175,960
-23,763
112,743
200,178
161,686
Sacramento City
Unified
140,144
-39,078
227,073
142,012
89,692
522,459
San Bernardino City
Unified
228,668
239,357
463,426
231,464
345,367
382,690
San Diego Unified
139,972
216,460
267,900
223,072
268,907
254,832
San Francisco Unified
43,817
44,905
195,426
86,399
146,006
263,816
San Juan Unified
81,899
202,423
103,330
53,964
150,314
139,570
Santa Ana Unified
120,456
309,381
-215,960
84,678
175,133
64,291
DISTRICT
Elk Grove Unified
Elementary
Elementary
Middle
High
School
2005 by The Education Trust-West
You don’t have to just sit by and
watch that happen.
SB 687.
RBB.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
If we had the courage and
creativity to change these
patterns?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
“The Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain
estimates of teacher performance
suggest that having five years of
good teachers in a row* could
overcome the average seventhgrade mathematics
achievement gap […].”
* “1.0 standard deviation above average, or at the 85th quality percentile”
SOURCE: Eric A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin, “How to Improve the Supply of High-Quality Teachers,”
In Brookings Papers on Education Policy: 2004,” Diane Ravitch, ed., Brrookings Institution Press, 2004.
Estimates based on research using data from Texas described in “Teachers, Schools, and Academic
Achievement,” Working Paper Number 6691, National Bureau of Economic Research, revised July 2002.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Bottom Line: If we’re serious about
all kids college and work ready we
have got to move the teacher
quality and gap conversation to the
top of civic and political agendas.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Why is it so hard?
Despite our greater
understanding of how important
teachers are, it has been very
hard to get traction on an
improvement agenda.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Problem 1: Too polite to
criticize, demand.
Not much to say here, except…
2005 by The Education Trust-West
SPEAK UP!!!
Just as we’ve needed pressure from higher
ed and business to help us ratchet up
standards for high school students, does
higher ed needs pressure from K-12 and
business to ratchet up quality of teacher
preparation? If so, what would be productive
for you?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Problem 2: Paralyzed by supply
fears . . . And so we never get to
equity.
Confront the Myths and Fears
Head – On.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
What do we really know about
supply and turnover?
That most of the myths are…just
that.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Myth #1
“Turnover in the teaching
profession is just terrible! More
than 50% are gone in 3 years.”
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Overall, the three-year teacher retention
rate for recently graduated teachers is one
of the best new-professional retention
rates in the country.
Source: Presley, Jennifer. (2003). Occupational Stability of New College Graduates. Edwardsville, IN: Illinois Education
Research Council, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. 1 & 3.
© 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
• Nationally, 76% of recently graduated K-12 teachers who worked
full time in 1994 remained teachers in 1997.
• Full-time and part-time new teachers remained on the job at higher
rates than full-time or part-time engineers, scientists, lab and
research assistants or employees in the legal profession.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Profession
Full-time Retention Rate Over a Three Year Period by
Occupation
Health Occupations
76
K-12 Teachers
76
68
Law Enforcement, Military
Engineers, Scientists, Lab and
Research Assistants
65
51
Legal Professionals and Legal
Support Occupations
47
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Percentage
© 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
Computer and Technical
Occupations
Source: Presley, Jennifer. (2003). Occupational Stability of New College Graduates. Edwardsville, IN: Illinois Education
Research Council, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. 2.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Annual turnover in teaching
profession? 7%
Annual turnover elsewhere in the
workforce? 7%
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Myth #2
“Teachers are terribly dissatisfied with
their work—much more so in recent
years, especially because of the
pressure from NCLB.”
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Fact - Teacher satisfaction has
remained fairly constant over the past
15 years.
© 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
• The percentage of teachers who noted they are
“very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied” (as
opposed to “somewhat dissatisfied,” “very
dissatisfied,” or “not sure”) has hovered around
87% since 1988, peaking at 92% in 2001.
• In 2003, 57% of teachers reported that they were
“very satisfied” with their job, up from 52% in 2001
and 54% in 1995.
Source: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher. (2003). An Examination of
School Leadership: A Survey of Teachers, Principals, Parents and Teachers. New York: Harris Interactive, Inc. Exhibit
4.2—Teachers’ Job Satisfaction (1984-2003). 66.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Myth #3
“We’re facing shortages of up to
2.2 million new teachers over the
next decade.”
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Each year, approximately:
• 220,000+ teachers retire or otherwise
leave profession;
• Nation’s colleges produce
approximately 200,000 new teachers;
• 200,000+ vacancies filled,
approximately 40% from returning
teachers, and the remainder from new
or recent grads.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
BUT…
© 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
• Although there may be enough teachers in the
aggregate, there may not be enough teachers
qualified to teach each of the subject areas.
• Likewise, there may not be enough teachers
available who want to teach in certain
geographic locations.
• And, we know there are not enough high-quality
teachers going to high-poverty, high-minority
schools.
Source: Ingersoll, Richard M. (2003). Is There Really a Teacher Shortage? Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of
Teaching and Policy, University of Washington. 8. and Murphey, Patrick J. and Michael M. DeArmond. (2003). From
the Headlines to the Front Lines: The Teacher Shortage and Its Implications for Recruitment Policy. Seattle, WA:
Center for Reinventing Public Education, University of Washington. 21-22.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Myth #4
“Nobody wants to teach in urban
school districts.”
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Fact - The good news is that strong
recruitment techniques can attract
highly-qualified teachers to high-needs
schools.
•
The New Teacher Project reported that
aggressive recruiting yielded far more
qualified applicants per position, including in
high-needs subject areas, than the district
could hire.
Source: Levin, Jessica and Meredith Quinn. (2003). Missed Opportunities: How We Keep High-Quality Teachers
Out of Urban Classrooms. New York: The New Teacher Project. 5.
© 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
– In one urban school district, the ratio of
applicants to positions was 20 to 1, with other
districts garnering a ratio of between 5 to 1
and 7 to 1.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
• Chicago Public Schools
– CPS received 13,700 applications for about
1,500 teacher vacancies from candidates
applying for the 2006-2007 school year.
– The district estimates that by the end of the
hiring season, they will receive 18,500
applications.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
• Teach For America - which only places teachers
in high-needs schools - reports record high
numbers of applicants for teaching positions.
– In the 2005-06 recruiting season, Teach For America
received a record 19,000 applications for about 2,400
positions.
© 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
Source: Teach for America Press Release. (June 1, 2006) “In Strong Job Market, Record Number Of Graduating Seniors
Apply To Teach For America.” http://www.teachforamerica.org/documents/060106_2006.Application.Numbers.pdf
2005 by The Education Trust-West
We need to look very closely at
our data, avoid repeating myths
and aggressively counter those
who are spreading
misinformation.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Problem #3:We haven’t
learned enough from high
impact teachers.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
What do we know?
Way too little. But several
actionable conclusions.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Today, drawing primarily from
five new studies:
• Comparing the Effects of Different Routes to
Teaching in NYC (The Teacher Pathway Project-Boyd, Grossman, Lankford, Loeb, Wyckoff)
• Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on
the Job (The Hamilton Project--Gordon, Kane,
Staiger) LAUSD
• Everyone’s Doing It, But What Does Teacher Testing
Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?—Dan
Goldhaber, Univ of Washington and the Urban
Institute.
• Illinois Education Research Council.
• Louisiana Blue Ribbon Commission.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#1. No matter how good
teachers will eventually become,
they are NOT as good in their
first year or two of practice.
Teacher effectiveness grows for at
least 3-5 years. Growth biggest
from year 1 to 2.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
“…student performance increases as a
result of increased experience over the
first three or four years of experience,
with little or no difference thereafter.”
Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, P.,Wyckoff, J. (2005). How Changes in Entry Requirements Alter the
Teacher Workforce and Affect Student Achievement. www.teacherpolicyresearch.org
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Some Payoff for Experience
Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the
Job. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Goldhaber: Gains in first few
years. But “I find little evidence
of productivity gains associated
with experience beyond 5 years.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#2. ROUTE OF ENTRY…
…doesn’t matter very
much.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
LAUSD: 3 Pathways to Teaching
• Traditional;
• Alternate;
• Uncertified
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Similar Effectiveness,
Regardless of Certification
Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job.
Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
“…in many cases, a teacher’s pathway
makes little difference in the achievement
of students…”
“… the measured differences* are not large
in magnitude…”
Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, P.,Wyckoff, J. (2005). How Changes in Entry Requirements Alter the
Teacher Workforce and Affect Student Achievement. www.teacherpolicyresearch.org
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Some nuances…
• Traditional a little better with younger
children, especially in reading;
• Alternates a little better with older
children, especially in math;
• Most differences in lower grades wash
out by year 3.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#3. Differences WITHIN each
category, though, are huge.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Effectiveness More Important
than Certification
“The difference between the 75th
percentile
teacher and the 50th percentile teacher for
all three groups of teachers was roughly
five times as large as the difference
between the average certified teacher
and the average uncertified teacher.”
Three groups = traditionally certified, alternatively certified, and uncertified
Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job.
Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Huge Differences in Teachers’
Effectiveness
An average student assigned to a bottom
quartile teacher lost 5 percentile points
while
a demographically similar student with a
top
quartile teacher gained 5 percentile
points.
Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job.
Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
10 Point Average Difference
Between Top and Bottom Teachers
Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job.
Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#4. There is some disagreement
about whether those differences
can be predicted from
measurable teacher
characteristics.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Research pretty consistent
about…
• Teacher test performance, especially
verbal;
• Teacher content mastery, especially in
higher grades;
Selectivity of undergraduate college also
sometimes predictive. Race can be
relevant, too.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
In NYC, Alternate Route Teachers
much higher on all these measures.
Failed Gen.
Knowledge Exam
Traditional Teaching Teach for
Fellow
America
16%
1.8%
0%
Score on LAST
Test
246
267
275
From Highly
Selective College
11%
44%
70%
% Black and Latino 20%
31%
23%
2005 by The Education Trust-West
But at least in NYC and LAUSD,
the relationships between these
things and achievement not
clear.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Goldhaber: Clear positive effect
of higher performance on
licensure exams, especially in
mathematics. But some false
negs and false positives.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Bottom Line: Improving the
Value Added of Teacher Force
Has to be at Heart of Our
Strategy.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
“Massive Impact”
“If the effects were to accumulate, having a
top-quartile teacher rather than a bottom
quartile teacher four years in a row would be:
• enough to close the black-white test score
gap…; and,
• Have twice the impact of reducing class size
from 22 to 16.”
Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job.
Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Lastly, and what everyone will
always want to talk about. . .
#6. Would more money help?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Nation: Inequities in State and Local
Revenue Per Student
Gap
High Poverty vs. Low
Poverty Districts
-$907 per
student
High Minority vs. Low
Minority Districts
-$614 per
student
Source: The Funding Gap, 2005. The Education Trust. Data are for 2003
2005 by The Education Trust-West
But how much more money will
help depends on how wisely we
spend it.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Some districts get more for less.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Some districts that out-perform spend less
NAEP 2005 Grade 8 Math -Overall Scale Scores
$7,132
$8,311
$11.920
$7,284
Average Scale Score
290
$12,562
$6,923
$8,283
$7,799
$11,312
$10,199
280
$11,847
270
260
250
240
230
ia
Co
lum
b
n ta
nd
of
Cle
ve
la
ric
t
Lo
sA
ng
ele
s
ag
o
At
la
Dis
t
Source: National Center for Education Statistics,
http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde and Standard and Poor’s
www.schoolmatters.com
Ch
ic
rk
Cit
y
Ne
w
Yo
sto
n
Ho
u
Sa
nD
ieg
o
ton
Bo
s
te
rlo
t
Ch
a
Au
s
tin
220
2005 by The Education Trust-West
In the end, it is about choices
adults make.
At the Main, Achievement and Opportunity
Gaps Come from Choices That Educators
and Policymakers Make. Choices About:
- How Much to Spend on Whom.
- What to Expect of Different Schools and
Students.
- Choices Even About Who Teachers
Whom.
- Choices About How to Organize
Classroom and Schools.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
The Education Trust-West
510-465-6444
www.edtrustwest.org
The Education Trust
202-293-1217
www.edtrust.org
2005 by The Education Trust-West
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