Information Systems: Creating Business Value John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Mark Huber, Craig Piercy, and Patrick McKeown Chapter 6: Creating IS Solutions Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. What We Will Cover: • The Big IS Development Questions • The Stages and Activities of System Development • The People Who Develop IS • IS Methodology • Managing the IS Project • IS Tools for IS Development Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Student ROI (Return on Investment) Your investment of time and effort in this course will result in your being able to answer these questions: 1. What major decisions do organizations make in obtaining an IS? 2. What important activities must an organization consider within each of the seven stages of an IS life cycle? 3. What considerations are important when creating an IS project team? 4. What methods do organizations use to ensure that they obtain the best IS to help meet their goals? 5. How do organizations provide effective and efficient management of IS projects? 6. What IT tools do many organizations rely on to obtain an IS that best meets its objectives? Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Big IS Development Questions • In order to support a complex organization, businesses need complex information systems that must be obtained in some way. • Questions that must be asked: – – – – ? ? ? ? Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Big Questions Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. IS Project Feasible? • If it is decided that an IS is needed, then the next step is a __________ _______ which is a detailed investigation and analysis of a proposed project. • Is the project __________ _______ , that is, the technology is available to solve the IS problem and the company is technically capable of acquiring and using the technology. • IS the project __________ _______ , that is, is the company is able to pay for the project, and the project represents a good use of financial resources. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Feasibility Financial/Economic Feasibility Can we afford it, and do benefits outweigh costs? Technical Feasibility Does the capability exist in our company to build it? Organizational Feasibility Is it a good fit with the organization? Legal/Ethical Feasibility Should we do this? Is it Legal? Determining Financial Feasibility • Organizations use financial measures to determine financial feasibility. Examples of these include – return on investment (ROI) – net present value (NPV) – internal rate of return (IRR) – payback period • Some costs and benefits are ________ and some are ________. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Using Spreadsheets to Determine Financial Feasibility Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Measuring Benefits & Costs • Infrastructure versus specific applications – IT infrastructure provides the foundations for IT applications • • • • data center Networks data warehouse knowledge base – Long-term, shared investments, spread across – IT applications are specific systems and programs for specific tasks • Payroll • inventory control • order taking • Costs and benefits accrue to some departments but not others • How do you decide the costs and benefits, particularly of options not taken? Evaluating the value of information • Difference between the net benefits (benefits adjusted for costs) of decisions made using information and the net benefits of decisions made without information • Assumption: Systems that provide relevant information to support decision making will result in better decisions, and therefore they will contribute toward ROI. However, this may not always be the case. Costing IT Investments - evaluating • Placing a dollar value on the cost of IT investments is not simple – consider fixed costs. • Life Cycle Cost; costs for keeping it running, dealing with bugs, and for improving and changing the system • There are multiple kinds of values (tangible and intangible) – Improved efficiency – Improved customer relations – The return of a capital investment measured in dollars or percentage – etc. • Probability of obtaining a return depends on the probability of implementation success Make or Buy/Lease • Organizations usually choose one of three primary options for obtaining an IS: 1. 2. 3. Acquisition Lease Build • Building an IS from scratch often ensures the best match of IS with an organization’s requirements and is the best option for obtaining competitive advantage. • Building an IS can also be a long and costly process. • When time and cost are most important criteria, organizations then pursue acquisition or leasing. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Acquisition, Leasing, or Building Development Advantages Choice Disadvantages Acquisition Leasing Building Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. In-House or Outsource If an organization chooses to build a new system, the next question is to whether to use its own staff (in-house development) or hire another company to do it (outsourcing). IS Development Advantages source Disadvantages In-house Development Outsourcing Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Seven Phases of IS Development 1. Pre-Inception: 2. Inception: 3. Elaboration: 4. Construction: Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Seven Phases of IS Development (cont.) 5. Transition: 6. Production: 7. Retirement: Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. IS Development Disciplines • Development disciplines - the group of activities that are focused on ____________________________. – Examples include business modeling, requirements gathering, analysis and design, implementation, testing and deployment. • Support disciplines - support the system over the __________________________________________. – Examples include configuration and change management, project management, environmental scanning, and operations and support. • Enterprise disciplines - most active prior to the ______________________________. – Examples include readiness to use IS to improve their processes, create a promising environment for an IS project. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Systems Analysis and Design (SAD) • • The process of completing an IS project is known as systems analysis and design (SAD). Any SAD project involves four essential ingredients: 1. 2. 3. 4. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Pillars of IS Development Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. People Who Develop IS • The size of an IS development team varies with specific characteristics of the project. • Most IS development teams possess the following skills: – – – – – – – Project strategy Project management Account management Architecture and design Programming Specialists Client interface Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Project Team Skill Requirements • Project strategy: • Project management: • Account management: • Architecture and design: • Programming: • Specialists: • Client interface: Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. IS Project Team Technical Roles Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Stakeholder Analysis • Stakeholder attitudes toward the project can dramatically impact the project’s eventual success or failure. • A stakeholder analysis should begin as part of the feasibility study and should be continued during the course of the project. • A stakeholder analysis begins with a list of stakeholders, including what each has at stake, as well as the degree of impact each stakeholder can have on the project. • The analysis should also to identify each stakeholder’s attitude toward the project and any risks. • A project manager should assign team members to different stakeholders with an anticipated strategy for dealing with each one. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Example Stakeholder Analysis Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. IS Methodology • A methodology provides a framework for both the management and technical processes of an IS project • A methodology, sometimes known as a development life cycle, provides a project team with structure to ensure that everyone is working towards the same project goals. • The methodology will define most of the development activities that are part of the plan developed by the project manager. • Initially, systems developers used an ad hoc approach called the build-and-fix model in which the system was built based on customer interview and then tested. It often did not meet customer needs. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Importance of Methodology to IS Development Advantages Disadvantages •Development fundamentals—methodologies help •Bureaucratic—Some team use best practices. methodologies can be overly •Avoiding rework—process should avoid repeating rigid and bureaucratic tasks in the event of changing requirements. •Risk management—process helps to identify and manage risks. •Assures quality—helps detects errors earlier, when they are easier to correct. •Customer orientation—focuses on customers’ needs and desires •Improved planning—makes it easy to identify and organize the project activities •Targeting resources—helps target resources toward activities that need them. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Traditional IS Methodology: the Waterfall Model • The first life cycle model to gain acceptance was the Waterfall Model. • Phases – • Problems – • Development activities - Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Traditional Waterfall Methodology Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Evolutionary Development Life Cycle Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Prototyping • One approach to the evolutionary life cycle is to use prototyping. • What is prototyping? • The prototyping process helps team members and users better understand requirements. • What problems can be associated with an evolutionary life cycle approach? Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Two General Analysis Strategies • Asking Strategies – Questionnaires – Interviews – Focus groups • Deriving Strategies – Form analysis – Observation Logical Analysis & Design • Data Analysis & Design – Entities & Relationships – Tables – E-R diagramming (we’ve already done this) • Process Analysis & Design – Procedures – Programs – Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) • Interface Design – – – – Input Forms Output Reports Screens We’ll be doing this in Access ERDs and Logical Data Models Two types of models are commonly used to designing the organization of relational database: • The Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD) … • The Relational Data Model… Data Flow Diagrams • A Data Flow Diagram is traditional IS model that depicts how data move or flow through a system. • It includes – – – – Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Data Flow Diagram Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Process Design - Context DFD KITCHEN CUSTOMER 0 Customer Order Receipt Food Ordering System Food Order Management Reports RESTAURANT MANAGER Decomposition Diagram 0 Food Ordering System 1.0 Receive Customer Food Order 2.0 3.0 4.0 Update Goods Sold File Update Inventory File Produce Management Reports Level 0 Data Flow Diagram KITCHEN CUSTOMER Customer Order Receipt 2.0 Update Goods Sold File 1.0 Receive Customer Food Order Food Order 3.0 Update Inventory Goods Inventory File Sold Data Data Formatted Formatted Goods Inventory Data Sold Data D2 INVENTORY GOODS SOLD FILE D1 FILE Daily Inventory Daily Goods 4.0 Depletion Amounts Sold Amounts Produce RESTAURANT Management Management MANAGER Reports Reports Managing the IS Project • • Project Management - “the application of knowledge skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.”1 For IS development, a project manager oversees three main project elements: 1. 2. 3. 1A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) 2000 Edition, Chapter 1, p. 4, (2000) Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Elements of Project Management Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Project Management Tasks Four core functions lead to specific project objectives: 1. Project scope management: 2. Time management: 3. Cost management: 4. Quality management: Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. A Project Management Framework Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Project Integration Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Project Time Management Controlling the project schedule is second only to budgeting in importance. The main activities of project time management include: – Activity definition: – Activity sequencing: – Activity duration estimating: – Schedule development: – Schedule control: Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Gantt Chart Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Risk Management The job of risk management is to recognize, address, and eliminate sources of risk before they become a threat to the successful completion of the project. Common Areas of Project Risk •Feature Creep •Shortchanged quality •Requirements gold-plating •Overly optimistic schedule •Inadequate design •Silver-bullet syndrome •Research-oriented development •Weak personnel •Friction with customers Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Risk Management Matrix Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Responses to Risk • Risk Transfer: • Risk Deferral: • Risk Reduction: • Risk Acceptance: • Risk Avoidance: Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Project Management Software Project management (PM) software is designed to support and automate the tasks of project management and to help project managers make decisions. •Low level packages: for entry-level users, include tools for basic scheduling, project control, reporting, filtering and sorting. Examples – •Mid level packages: adds resource leveling, resource allocation, cost control and flexible charting. For large projects with up to about 2,000 tasks. Examples – •High level packages: adds advanced functions including scheduling by user-defined rules, programming languages, resource management for multiple projects, and risk management. Examples – Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PERT Chart Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) Combines several important programming tasks into the same package Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Modeling Tools and Code Generators Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Authoring Software Categories Category Description Representative Software Database (DBMS) Oracle Database; InterSystems Caché, MySql, MS Access Web Development Macromedia Dreamweaver; IBM Websphere Animation/video Macromedia Flash and Shockwave Graphics Adobe Photoshop Audio Content Adobe Audition Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CASE Tools • What is Computer aided software engineering (CASE)? • CASE tools are integrated into a complete package known as a CASE environment. • A CASE environment can provide a shared database, messaging system, and support for consistent development style. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CaseWise CASE Tool with Repository Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.