8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Comparisons of inequality

Comparisons of inequality are formed by
placing más (more) or menos (less) before
adjectives, adverbs, and nouns and que (than)
after them.
adjective
más/menos
+
adverb
noun
+ que
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Comparisons of inequality
ADJECTIVES
Los bistecs son más caros que el pollo.
Steaks are more expensive than chicken.
Estas uvas son menos sabrosas que esa pera.
These grapes are less tasty than that pear.
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Comparisons of inequality
ADVERBS
Me acuesto más tarde que tú.
I go to bed later than you (do).
Mi hermano se despierta menos temprano que
yo.
My brother wakes up less early than I (do).
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Comparisons of inequality
NOUNS
Juan prepara más platos que José.
Juan prepares more dishes than José (does).
Susana come menos carne que Enrique.
Susan eats less meat than Enrique (does).
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Comparisons of inequality

With verbs, the following construction is used to
make comparisons of inequality:
[ verb ] + más/menos que
Mis hermanos comen más que yo.
My brothers eat more than I (do).
Arturo duerme menos que su padre.
Arturo sleeps less than his father (does).
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Comparisons of equality

The following constructions are used to make
comparisons of equality.
tan +
tanto/a (s) +
+ como
plural noun
adjective
adverb
singular noun
+ como
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Comparisons of equality
Este plato es tan delicioso como aquél.
This dish is as delicious as that one (is).
Ustedes probaron tantos platos como ellos.
You tried as many dishes as they did.
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Superlatives

The following construction is used to form superlatives.
Note that the noun is always preceded by a definite article
and that de is equivalent to the English in or of.
el / la / los / las + [ noun ] + más / menos + [ adjective ] + de
Es el café más rico del país.
It’s the most delicious coffee in the country.
Es el menú menos caro de todos éstos.
It is the least expensive menu of all of these.
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Superlatives

The noun in a superlative construction can be omitted if
the person, place, or thing referred to is clear.
¿El restaurante El Cráter?
The El Cráter restaurant?
city.
Recomiendo el pollo asado.
I recommend the roast chicken.
the
Es el más elegante de la ciudad.
It’s the most elegant (one) in the
Es el más sabroso del menú.
It’s the most delicious (thing) on
menu.
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Superlatives
¡ATENCIÓN!

While más alone means more, after a noun or a
definite article, it means most.
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Irregular comparisons and superlatives
Adjective
bueno/a good
Comparative Form
mejor better
Superlative Form
el/la mejor (the) best
malo/a bad
peor worse
grande/a big
mayor bigger
el/la mayor (the) biggest
pequeño/a small
menor smaller
el/la menor (the) smallest
menor younger
el/la menor (the) youngest
mayor older
el/la mayor (the) eldest
joven young
viejo/a old
el/la peor (the) worst
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Absolute superlatives


In Spanish the absolute superlative is equivalent to
extremely, exceptionally, super, or very before an
adjective or adverb.
You encountered an absolute superlative when you
learned how to say: Me gusta(n) muchísimo…
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Absolute superlatives

To form the absolute superlative of most adjectives and
adverbs, drop the final vowel, if there is one, and add ísimo/a(s).
malo  mal-  malísimo
muchísimo
¡El bistec está malísimo!
The steak is very bad!
much).
mucho  much- 
Comes muchísimo.
You eat a lot (very, very
difícil + -ísimo  dificilísimo
fácil + -ísimo  facilísimo
Esta prueba es dificilísima.
facilísimos.
Los exámenes son
This quiz is exceptionally difficult.
easy.
The tests are extremely
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Absolute superlatives

Adjectives and adverbs whose stem ends in c, g, or z
change spelling to qu, gu, and c in the absolute
superlative.
rico
largo
feliz



riquísimo
larguísimo
felicísimo
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
¡INTÉNTALO! Escribe el equivalente de las palabras en inglés.
Comparativos
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
(than) Ernesto mira más televisión ____ Alberto.
(less) Tú eres ____ simpático que Federico.
(as much) La camarera sirve ____ carne como pescado.
(more) Conozco ____ restaurantes que tú.
(as much as) No estudio ____ tú.
(as) ¿Sabes jugar al tenis tan bien ____ tu hermana?
(as many) ¿Puedes beber ____ refrescos como yo?
(as) Mis amigos parecen ____ simpáticos como ustedes.
1 of 2
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Absolute superlatives

Adjectives that end in –n or –r normally form the
absolute superlative by adding -císimo.
joven + -císimo  jovencísimo
trabajador + -císimo  trabajadorcísimo
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives




Raro – rarísimo –
Malo – malísimo –
Alto – altísimo –
Amable – amabilísimo
Antiguo – antiquísimo
listo → listísimo
lento → lentísimo
grande → grandísimo
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
superlativo absoluto
largo
larguísimo
rico
riquísimo
fuerte
fuertísimo
amable
amabilísimo
antiguo
antiquísimo
pobre
pobrísimo
joven
jovencísimo
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
¡INTÉNTALO! Escribe el equivalente de las palabras en inglés.
Superlativos
1. (the most intelligent) Marisa es _____ de todas.
2. (the least boring) Ricardo y Tomás son _____ de la fiesta.
3. (the worst) Miguel y Antonio son _____ estudiantes de la
clase.
4. (the eldest) Mi profesor de biología es _____ de la
universidad.
5. (extremely delicious) El pollo de este supermercado es
_____ .
6. (the youngest) Carlos es _____ de mis hermanos.
7. (the best) Este plato es _____ del restaurante.
8. (extremely tall) Sara es _____ .
2 of 2
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives




Ejemplo:
Clara es más rápida que María.
→ comparativo de superioridad
María es tan rápida como Carolina
→ comparativo de igualdad
María es menos rápida que Clara.
→ comparativo de inferioridad
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
¡ATENCIÓN!


Note that while English has a comparative form for
short adjectives and adverbs (taller, later), such
forms do not exist in Spanish (más alto, más
tarde).
When the comparison involves a numerical
expression, de is used before the number instead
of que.
Hay más de cincuenta naranjas.
Llego en menos de diez minutos.
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
ANTE TODO


Spanish and English use comparisons to indicate
which of two people or things has a lesser, equal, or
greater degree of a quality.
Both languages also use superlatives to express the
highest or lowest degree of a quality.
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
¡ATENCIÓN!


Note that tanto acts as an adjective and therefore agrees in
number and gender with the noun it modifies: tantas cosas.
Tan and tanto can also be used for emphasis, rather than to
compare, with these meanings: tan so, tanto so much,
tantos/as so many.
¡Tu almuerzo es tan grande!
Your lunch is so big!
¡Comes tanto!
You eat so much!
¡Comes tantas manzanas!
You eat so many apples!
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Comparisons of equality


Comparisons of equality with verbs are formed by
placing tanto como after the verb.
Note that in this construction tanto does not
change in number or gender.
[ verb ] + tanto como
No duermo tanto como mi tía.
I don’t sleep as much as my aunt (does).
Estudiamos tanto como ustedes.
We study as much as you (do).
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
COMPARISONS
menos interesante
como
less interesting
as
más grande
tan sabroso
bigger
as delicious
SUPERLATIVES
la / el mejor
alta
the best
la / el peor
the worst
la más
the tallest
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Irregular comparatives and superlatives


When grande and pequeño/a refer to age, the irregular
comparative and superlative forms, mayor and menor, are
used.
However, when these adjectives refer to size, the regular
forms, más grande and más pequeño/a, are used.
Isabel es la mayor de su familia.
Isabel is the eldest in her family.
Tu ensalada es más grande que ésa.
Your salad is bigger than that one.
Yo soy menor que tú.
I’m younger than you.
Pedí el plato más pequeño del menú.
I ordered the smallest dish on the menu.
8.4 Comparisons and superlatives
Irregular comparatives and superlatives

The adverbs bien and mal have the same irregular
comparative forms as the adjectives bueno/a and
malo/a.
Julio nada mejor que los otros chicos.
Julio swims better than the other boys.
Ellas cantan peor que las otras chicas.
They sing worse than the other girls.
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8.4 Comparisons and superlatives