ECOLOGICAL SANITATION RWANDA EXPERIENCE 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. RWANDA WELCOME TO THE COUNTRY OF A THOUSAND HILLS 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. BACKGROUND 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. BACKGROUND (cnts …) 10/3/2015 o Country of a thousand o Location: East Africa o Size: 26,338 sq km o Population: around 10 million o Density: 347 people/sq km o Capital City: Kigali (around 1 million with 1670 people/sqkm) o Languages: Kinyarwanda, English & French o Population growth: 2.7% /yr o Total fertility rate: 6.1 child/woman o Life expectancy: 44-47yrs o Annual income/capita:290 U$(2000) o GDP/capita (263U$, 01), target 400 (2010) Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. Background (cnts …) - 88,6% depend on agriculture Limited arable land (only 31% of the total area) Mean size: 0,6 ha, 34,4% of pop < 50 ares (Gisenyi, Ruhengeri, Gikongoro, Butare) 0,75 ha to provide to nutritional needs Only 23.4% of arable land have less ou or no erosion risk 37.5% need to reshape the landscape before cropping 39.1% have very high risk of erosion. Crops up to 80% No fallow Marginal lands cropped CGES et defend et restore soil fertility (20t de om/ha) 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. Background (cnts …) 10/3/2015 80% of the country have access to latrines 8% meet national hygienic standards common sanitation facility type : traditional pit latrines (Kigali city & Rural areas) poorly designed, dirty ¬ well maintained Pit latrines 60% Flush toilet connected to septic tank 30% Flush toilet connected treatment plant 1% Direct discharge 8% Open defecation 1% Mal maintenance of latrines :hygienic hazards Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. Background (ctns…) - 10/3/2015 Negative impact on health & environment due to mal maintenance of pit latrines (contamination surface & groundwater, water related diseases, etc.) Out of ten major causes of morbidity the first 5 are water borne diseases (WBD) and 69.5% of the death are caused by WBD (Kabalisa, 2007). The infant mortality rate of < 5 years was estimated to be 192/1,000 infants in rural areas (due to poor sanitation cdts & malnutrition) Recognition of the lack of adequate sanitation facilities by GOR Putting in place an institutional framework to govern water and sanitation Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. Background (cnts….) - 10/3/2015 Many national documents focusing on sanitation Vision 2020 (00), EDPRS (06), Decentralization policy (01), National Investment Strategy (02), National human settlement policy (04), Environment policy (04), etc. Local gvt mandated for mgt of sanitation facilities but hampers of finance, trained staff and knowledge of appropriate systems, etc (institutional appropriateness) Choices to be made regarding different alternatives for improved sanitation systems (Human health) according the available resources and social acceptability (affordability) ECOSAN toilet based on recycling & reuse of nutrients could be one of the options to provide sustainable sanitation (Environmental sustainability) Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda MDG & Vision 2020”,MINITERE has signed a MoU with Common Development Fund (2006) - 100 blocks of public toilets (using UDD toilets) principal roads (high ways) in the whole country - Since then, UDD toilets has been built in rural areas of South & North provinces of Rwanda (13 “ecosan toilets) - 10 UDD toilets built in Rulindo through the funding of District, Water 4 people at Karombo PS,Cyinzuzi sector Construction of ECOSAN toilets with 300 doors in hospitals, schools, police stations, etc planned in 2008 (FEA) 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …)South The FEA (Water and sanitation Fund) has provided funds to build UDD toilet in Gikongoro in Schools Kibeho secondary school Hospitals (Nyamagabe and Kigeme hospitals) Prisons Schools FEA provides training to the teachers and pupils on use of UDD before construction UDD provided to the school bcoz of lack of adequate sanitation facilities water scarcity in the region. school not connected to water supply system. dried faeces are used in the garden of the schools Nyamagabe secondary school 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …)- South UDD toilet at Kigeme hospital • bad experience is seen at Kigeme hospital - no one in charge of maintenance and management of UDD toilets - bad smell & flies were everywhere because nobody was in charge of the management of the system. - FEA put in place a management and cleaning personnel later - explanations given to every patient on how to use that toilet. - not simple job • technology not appropriate to the Hospital: UDD toilet is not self evident - -- explanation before using a UDD toilet - Need for urinal for men for avoiding the mixture of urine and faeces. 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …)- south - - - from the 2 experiences, it has been recognized UDD toilets are appropriate in former Gikongoro where soils are low productive & there is a demand for cheap fertilizer. Currently, FEA is introducing the reuse of human excreta after drying in other schools project receives other requests for UDD toilet from other schools. 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …) - North (Bulera) 80% of the population used to defecate in the bush in the past, 20% use pit latrines Pit latrines are not suitable bcoz the volcanic soil (pit with 2m). big project of local gvt & UNICEF funded by of the Netherlands gvt to reach 800 000 rural residents Provision of improved sanitation facilities and safe hygiene practices Pit latrine in Gahunga village 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …) - North (Bulera) 10/3/2015 promotion of the use of UDD toilet at household level communities are aware of the sanitized excreta used on Irish potatoes garden UDD more appropriate to this region, materials locally available UNICEF and local gvt provide trained people community provide construction material (rocks, soil, wood, sand, cement) Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …) - North (Bulera) 10/3/2015 public UDD toilet constructed by UNICEF & Bulera district in the Rugarama business centre Used by business men&bars in the village not clean even with someone to maintain it people seemed not aware on how to use UDD toilet Lack of urinals: main cause of public UDD toilet bad condition these are demonstration model, found in strategic points such as markets, governmental building (offices) No subsidy to individual household for UDD toilets by UNICEF or gvt Households are encouraged to build their own latrines. Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …) - East (Kirehe) Urines harvesting jerican bathroom Ushes basket toilet faecal 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. urines ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …) - East (Kirehe) Night soil recuperation window 10/3/2015 NightPresentation soil harvesting with dry grass by Maganya Patient,basket Eng. ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …) - East (Kirehe) Night soil for 6 months Decomposition &d rying shed Grey water harvesting 10/3/2015 Bathroom (inside) Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. Urine mixture pit (1:4) ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …) - East (Kirehe) Conclusion •many people are not willing to eat vegetables produced under such fertilizer (a woman influencing her children in a household) •High cost of UDD toilets ( 173.500 Frw bricks made or 310U$ & 67.200 Frw for sheeting made or 120 U$) •gray water used for kitchen garden irrigation • after harvest, night soil is store in a hangar for decomposition for 6 months • It is then used as organic fertilizer (compost/manure) • It proved to be effective for tuber crops (potatoes & carrots), less response to beans • small quantity harvested compared to compost or manure • to be used on kitchen garden • urine mixed used on vegetable crops in replacement of nitrogen •soil is still fertile, people can still crop compound mineral fertilizersPresentation by Maganyawithout fertilizer and have good yield 10/3/2015 Patient, Eng. Challenges of ECOSAN mixing of urine with faeces, this result in odour and contaminates the urine with pathogensmaking it unsuitable for direct application in agriculture. With UDD toilet men are required to sit to urinate, therefore some of men would resist to this requirement, hence the failure of the UDD toilet. This could be addressed by installation of dry urinal. 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. Opportunities 1. 10/3/2015 Gaps in the sanitation service provision unsuitability of current methods design of pit latrines demand for adequate sanitation facilities condition of sanitation facilities (maintenance, odor) Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. Opportunities (cnts …) Toilets ECOSAN PADBEL Biogas PADBEL 10/3/2015 2. Political will - institutional framework for water & sanitation: different documents - master plans and slums upgrading : improvement of existing infrastructures including sanitation. - water and sanitation policy: attention should not only be made on the importance of improved sanitation but also on ECOSAN - planners and implementers would use the institutional framework to consider alternative sanitation solutions including ECOSAN. - IMVUGO NIYO NGIRO - Local gvt looking for partners in ECOSAN Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. Opportunities (cnts …) 3. Local experience Campaign for appropriate technologies (biogas toilet, UDD toilet) & pilot projects are conducted. dvt project including ECOSAN activities (FAE, PADBEL, etc) Many other dvpt project should include ECOSAN people are becoming aware of ECOSAN Lessons learned Sanitation issue in the curricula is an opportunity to promote ECOSAN in schools Good information & education promote successfully ECOSAN ECOSAN addresses the demand of fertilizer in low productive areas ECOSAN is better solution for rocky & volcanic areas of Rwanda than pit latrines further biogas & ECOSAN project could easily be implemented 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. Constraints 10/3/2015 social-cultural beliefs handling human excreta (insult) Psychological problem consuming food produced with human excreta (30-50% in Butare) shift away from the conventional pit latrine or flush toilet to ecosan the physical appearance of faeces and urine in latrines is repulsive to people Lack of experience and limited awareness intensive education & consultation on mgt before implementation Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. Constraints (cnts …) 10/3/2015 maintenance & use: misuse results into bad odor when mixed urines (upper ground level Insufficient financial resources at local gvt to enhance the new project Small quantities at household level Unit cost is high for individual peasant with no subsidy ECOSAN is still new in Rwanda, we are looking forward to learning from other countries' experiences Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng. MURAKOZE ASANTE THANK YOU MERCI MAGANYA PATIENT Eng. LOCAL EXPERT APEPARWA FOCAL POINT PAPSTA-KWAMP Email: [email protected] Telephone: +250 750 337 280 P.O Box 1531 Kigali/ Rwanda 10/3/2015 Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.