ECOLOGICAL
SANITATION
RWANDA EXPERIENCE
10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
RWANDA
WELCOME TO THE COUNTRY
OF A THOUSAND HILLS
10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
BACKGROUND
10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
BACKGROUND (cnts …)
10/3/2015
o Country of a thousand
o Location: East Africa
o Size: 26,338 sq km
o Population: around 10 million
o Density: 347 people/sq km
o Capital City: Kigali (around 1
million with 1670 people/sqkm)
o Languages: Kinyarwanda, English
& French
o Population growth: 2.7% /yr
o Total fertility rate: 6.1 child/woman
o Life expectancy: 44-47yrs
o Annual income/capita:290 U$(2000)
o GDP/capita (263U$, 01), target 400
(2010)
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
Background (cnts …)
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88,6% depend on agriculture
Limited arable land (only 31% of the total area)
Mean size: 0,6 ha, 34,4% of pop < 50 ares (Gisenyi, Ruhengeri,
Gikongoro, Butare)
0,75 ha to provide to nutritional needs
Only 23.4% of arable land have less ou or no erosion risk
37.5% need to reshape the landscape before cropping
39.1% have very high risk of erosion.
Crops up to 80%
No fallow
Marginal lands cropped
CGES et defend et restore soil fertility (20t de om/ha)
10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
Background (cnts …)
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80% of the country have access to
latrines
8% meet national hygienic standards
common sanitation facility type :
traditional pit latrines (Kigali city &
Rural areas) poorly designed, dirty
&not well maintained
Pit latrines 60%
Flush toilet connected to septic tank
30%
Flush toilet connected treatment plant
1%
Direct discharge 8%
Open defecation 1%
Mal maintenance of latrines :hygienic
hazards
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
Background (ctns…)
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10/3/2015
Negative impact on health & environment
due to mal maintenance of pit latrines
(contamination surface & groundwater,
water related diseases, etc.)
Out of ten major causes of morbidity the
first 5 are water borne diseases (WBD)
and 69.5% of the death are caused by
WBD (Kabalisa, 2007).
The infant mortality rate of < 5 years was
estimated to be 192/1,000 infants in rural
areas (due to poor sanitation cdts &
malnutrition)
Recognition of the lack of adequate
sanitation facilities by GOR
Putting in place an institutional
framework to govern water and sanitation
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
Background (cnts….)
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Many national documents focusing on sanitation Vision
2020 (00), EDPRS (06), Decentralization policy (01),
National Investment Strategy (02), National human
settlement policy (04), Environment policy (04), etc.
Local gvt mandated for mgt of sanitation facilities but
hampers of finance, trained staff and knowledge of
appropriate systems, etc (institutional
appropriateness)
Choices to be made regarding different alternatives for
improved sanitation systems (Human health) according
the available resources and social acceptability
(affordability)
ECOSAN toilet based on recycling & reuse of nutrients
could be one of the options to provide sustainable
sanitation (Environmental sustainability)
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda
MDG & Vision 2020”,MINITERE has signed a MoU with
Common Development Fund (2006)
- 100 blocks of public toilets (using UDD toilets) principal
roads (high ways) in the whole country
- Since then, UDD toilets has been built in rural areas of
South & North provinces of Rwanda (13 “ecosan toilets)
- 10 UDD toilets built in Rulindo through the funding of
District, Water 4 people at Karombo PS,Cyinzuzi sector
 Construction of ECOSAN toilets with 300 doors in
hospitals, schools, police stations, etc planned in 2008
(FEA)
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10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …)South
The FEA (Water and sanitation
Fund) has provided funds to build
UDD toilet in Gikongoro in
Schools Kibeho secondary school
Hospitals (Nyamagabe and Kigeme
hospitals)
Prisons
Schools
FEA provides training to the
teachers and pupils on use of UDD
before construction
UDD provided to the school bcoz of
lack of adequate sanitation facilities
 water scarcity in the region.
 school not connected to water
supply system.
 dried faeces are used in the garden
of the schools
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Nyamagabe secondary school
10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
ECOSAN Experience in
Rwanda (cnts …)- South
UDD toilet at Kigeme hospital
• bad experience is seen at Kigeme hospital
- no one in charge of maintenance and management of UDD
toilets
- bad smell & flies were everywhere because nobody was in
charge of the management of the system.
- FEA put in place a management and cleaning personnel later
- explanations given to every patient on how to use that toilet.
- not simple job
• technology not appropriate to the
Hospital: UDD toilet is not self evident - -- explanation before
using a UDD toilet
- Need for urinal for
men
for avoiding the mixture
of urine and faeces.
10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
ECOSAN Experience in
Rwanda (cnts …)- south
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from the 2 experiences, it has been
recognized
UDD toilets are appropriate in former
Gikongoro where soils are low productive &
there is a demand for cheap fertilizer.
Currently, FEA is introducing the reuse of
human excreta after drying in other schools
project receives other requests for UDD toilet
from other schools.
10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …)
- North (Bulera)
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80% of the population
used to defecate in the
bush in the past, 20% use
pit latrines
Pit latrines are not suitable
bcoz the volcanic soil (pit
with 2m).
big project of local gvt &
UNICEF funded by of the
Netherlands gvt to reach
800 000 rural residents
Provision of improved
sanitation facilities and
safe hygiene practices
Pit latrine in Gahunga village
10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …)
- North (Bulera)
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10/3/2015
promotion of the use of
UDD toilet at household
level
communities are aware of
the sanitized excreta used
on Irish potatoes garden
UDD more appropriate to
this region, materials
locally available
UNICEF and local gvt
provide trained people
community provide
construction material
(rocks, soil, wood, sand,
cement)
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …)
- North (Bulera)
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public UDD toilet constructed by
UNICEF & Bulera district in the
Rugarama business centre
Used by business men&bars in the
village
not clean even with someone to
maintain it
people seemed not aware on how to
use UDD toilet
Lack of urinals: main cause of public
UDD toilet bad condition
these are demonstration model, found
in strategic points such as markets,
governmental building (offices)
No subsidy to individual household for
UDD toilets by UNICEF or gvt
Households are encouraged to build
their own latrines.
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …)
- East (Kirehe)
Urines harvesting jerican
bathroom
Ushes basket
toilet
faecal
10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
urines
ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …)
- East (Kirehe)
Night soil recuperation window
10/3/2015
NightPresentation
soil harvesting
with dry grass
by Maganya Patient,basket
Eng.
ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …)
- East (Kirehe)
Night soil for 6 months
Decomposition &d
rying
shed
Grey water harvesting
10/3/2015
Bathroom (inside)
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
Urine mixture pit (1:4)
ECOSAN Experience in Rwanda (cnts …)
- East (Kirehe)
Conclusion
•many people are not willing to eat
vegetables produced under such
fertilizer (a woman influencing her
children in a household)
•High cost of UDD toilets (
173.500 Frw bricks made or
310U$ & 67.200 Frw for sheeting
made or 120 U$)
•gray water used for kitchen
garden irrigation
• after harvest, night soil is store in a
hangar for decomposition for 6 months
• It is then used as organic fertilizer
(compost/manure)
• It proved to be effective for tuber
crops (potatoes & carrots), less
response to beans
• small quantity harvested compared
to compost or manure
• to be used on kitchen garden
• urine mixed used on vegetable
crops in replacement of nitrogen
•soil is still fertile, people can still crop
compound mineral fertilizersPresentation by Maganyawithout
fertilizer and have good yield
10/3/2015
Patient, Eng.
Challenges of ECOSAN
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mixing of urine with faeces, this result in
odour and contaminates the urine with
pathogensmaking it unsuitable for direct
application in agriculture.
With UDD toilet men are required to sit to
urinate, therefore some of men would resist
to this requirement, hence the failure of the
UDD toilet. This could be addressed by
installation of dry urinal.
10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
Opportunities
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10/3/2015
Gaps in the sanitation service
provision
unsuitability of current methods
design of pit latrines
demand for adequate sanitation
facilities
condition of sanitation facilities
(maintenance, odor)
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
Opportunities (cnts …)
Toilets ECOSAN PADBEL
Biogas PADBEL
10/3/2015
2. Political will
- institutional framework for water &
sanitation: different documents
- master plans and slums upgrading :
improvement of existing infrastructures
including sanitation.
- water and sanitation policy: attention should
not only be made on the importance of
improved sanitation but also on ECOSAN
- planners and implementers would use the
institutional framework to consider
alternative sanitation solutions including
ECOSAN.
- IMVUGO NIYO NGIRO
- Local gvt looking for partners in ECOSAN
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
Opportunities (cnts …)
3. Local experience
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Campaign for appropriate technologies (biogas
toilet, UDD toilet) & pilot projects are
conducted.
dvt project including ECOSAN activities (FAE,
PADBEL, etc)
Many other dvpt project should include
ECOSAN
people are becoming aware of ECOSAN
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Lessons learned
Sanitation issue in the curricula is an
opportunity to promote ECOSAN in schools
Good information & education promote
successfully ECOSAN
ECOSAN addresses the demand of fertilizer in
low productive areas
ECOSAN is better solution for rocky & volcanic
areas of Rwanda than pit latrines
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further biogas & ECOSAN project could easily
be implemented
10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
Constraints
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10/3/2015
social-cultural beliefs
handling human excreta (insult)
Psychological problem consuming food produced with human
excreta (30-50% in Butare)
shift away from the conventional pit latrine or flush toilet to
ecosan
the physical appearance of faeces and urine in latrines is
repulsive to people
Lack of experience and limited awareness
intensive education & consultation on mgt before
implementation
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
Constraints (cnts …)
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10/3/2015
maintenance & use: misuse results into bad odor when
mixed urines (upper ground level
Insufficient financial resources at local gvt to enhance the
new project
Small quantities at household level
Unit cost is high for individual peasant with no subsidy
ECOSAN is still new in Rwanda, we are looking forward to
learning from other countries' experiences
Presentation by Maganya Patient, Eng.
MURAKOZE
ASANTE
THANK YOU
MERCI
MAGANYA PATIENT Eng.
LOCAL EXPERT APEPARWA
FOCAL POINT PAPSTA-KWAMP
Email: [email protected]
Telephone: +250 750 337 280
P.O Box 1531 Kigali/ Rwanda
10/3/2015
Presentation by Maganya Patient,
Eng.
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09--Experience Rwanda--Patient Maganya