BASIC MARKETING
Chapter 4
Focusing Marketing
Strategy with
Segmentation and
Positioning
For use only with Perreault/Cannon/ McCarthy texts, © 2011 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. McGraw-Hill/Irwin
At the end of this presentation, you should
be able to:
1. Know about defining generic markets and productmarkets.
2. Know what market segmentation is and how to
segment product-markets into submarkets.
3. Know three approaches to market-oriented strategy
planning.
4. Know dimensions that may be useful for segmenting
markets.
At the end of this presentation, you should
be able to:
5. Know a seven-step approach to market segmentation
that you can do yourself.
6. Know what positioning is and why it is useful.
7. Understand the important new terms.
Search for Opportunities can Begin by
Understanding Markets
What is a
company’s
market? a group of
potential customers with
similar needs who are
willing to exchange
something of value with
sellers offering various goods
or services
Generic markets
(broadly similar needs &
offer diverse ways to
satisfy needs) to
product markets
(very similar needs & offer
various close substitutes)
Don’t just focus
on the product
The product oriented
approach ignores
customers; Customers
make a market!
Broaden market
definitions to
find
opportunities
(generic and
product market)
Taking
Advantage of
Opportunities
Relationship Between Generic and ProductMarket Definitions
Customer user
Needs
(met by the product)
Generic
market
definition
Customer types
(who uses product)
Geographic area
(where market is located)
Product type
(good and/or service)
Product
market
definition
Interactive Exercise: Product-Market
Definition
What is Product-Market?
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Segmentation is a Two-Step Process
Naming broad
product-markets
Disaggregating--break apart all
possible needs into some
generic markets and broad
product-markets in which the
firm may be able to profitably
operate.
and
Segmenting
markets to
selecting target
markets and
develop marketing
mixes
a relatively homogeneous group
of consumers who will respond to a
marketing mix in a similar way.
Marketers Need Information about
Competitors
All customer needs
Some generic market
One broad
product-market
Homogeneous
(narrow) productmarkets
Single
target
market
Multiple
target
markets
Combined
target
markets
Narrowing
down to
specific
product-market
Segmenting
into possible
target markets
Selecting target
marketing
approach
Market Segmentation Defines Possible
Target Markets
Broad product-market (or generic market) name goes
here (The bicycle-riders product-market)
Submarket 1
(Exercisers)
Submarket 2
(Off-road
adventurers)
Submarket 3
(Transportation riders)
Submarket 4
(Socializers)
Submarket 5
(Environmentalists)
How Far Should the Aggregating Go?
Status dimension
A. Product-market showing
B.
three
six segments
segments
Dependability dimension
Three Ways to Develop Market-Oriented
Strategies
 Single Target Market Approach
 select one homogeneous segment as the target
 Multiple Target Market Approach
 select two or more target segments
 develop a different marketing mix for each
segment
 Combined Target Market Approach
 combine submarkets into a single target market
 develop one marketing mix for the combined target
Segmenters and Combiners Aim at Specific
Target Markets
A segmenter
develops a
different
marketing
mix for each
segment.
Single target
market approach
Multiple target
market approach
A combiner aims at two or
more submarkets with the
same marketing mix.
The
Strategy
Strategy two
Strategy
one
The
strategy
Strategy three
UNSEGMENTED MARKET STRATEGY WITH A
SINGLE MARKETING MIX
COMMUNITY WRITING COMPANY
MARKETING MIX
VIEW OF MARKET
•LEAD PENCIL
•79 CENTS
•TELEVISION
•EXTENSIVE
DISTRIBUTION
ALL POTENTIAL
USERS OF A WRITING
INSTRUMENT
15
SEGMENTED MARKETING STRATEGY
WITH MULTIPLE MARKETING MIXES
MARKETING MIXES
•FELT-TIP PEN
•$1.00
•CAMPUS NEWSPARER
•VENDING MACHINES
VIEW OF MARKET
SEGMENT A
(STUDENTS)
•FELT-TIP PEN
•49 CENTS
•PERSONAL SELLING
•DIRECT FROM FACTORY
SEGMENT B
(PROFESSORS)
•GOLD INK PEN
•$50.00
•MAGAZINES
•DEPARTMENT STORES
SEGMENT C
(EXECUTIVES)
16
A SEGMENTED MARKETING STRATEGY
WITH SINGLE MARKETING MIX
MARKETING MIX
VIEW OF MARKET
SEGMENT A
(PROFESSORS)
•FELT-TIP PEN
•$1.00
•CAMPUS NEWSPARER
•VENDING MACHINES
SEGMENT A
(STUDENTS)
SEGMENT C
(EXECUTIVES)
Segmenting vs. Combining
Combiners Try
to Satisfy
“Pretty Well”
(Try to
increase
market size)
Profit Is the
Balancing Point
Too Much
Combining Is
Risky (innovative
segmenter may chip
away)
Segmenters Try to
Satisfy “Very Well”
(develop marketing mix
for each segment)
Key Issues
Segmenting May
Produce Bigger
Sales
(dictates how
specialized a
marketing mix can be)
Segment or Combine?
(based on the firms resources;
competition in various segments;
similarity of customer needs,
attitudes, buying behavior)
(consumers are willing to
pay more in order to
satisfy their needs more
precisely)
Checking Your Knowledge
A neighborhood restaurant in a diverse market area sought to
appeal to a wide range of consumers by offering a menu with
a few choices from each of several different styles of
cuisine—American, Italian, Chinese, German, Thai, and Indian.
Recently, the restaurant has lost sales to newer restaurants
that offer many choices from a single style of cuisine. This
example illustrates the danger of adopting a _______________
approach.
A. Single target market
B. Multiple target market
C. Combined target market
D. Structured target market
E. Mixed-mode market
What Dimensions are used to Segment
Markets?
Qualifying
Dimensions
• Relevant to
including a
customer type in a
product-market
• Help identify “core
benefits”
Determining
Dimensions
OR
• Affect the
customer’s
purchase of a
product or brand
• Can be further
segmented
QUALIFYING DIMENSIONS FOR A
PROSPECTIVE CAR BUYER
 MONEY OR CREDIT
 DRIVER’S LICENSE
 NEED
 JOB THAT REQUIRES
A CAR
 CHILDREN
 ETC.
21
DETERMINING DIMENSIONS
FOR THE CAR
 STYLE
 PERFORMANCE
 APPEARANCE
 SAFETY
 ETC.
Behavioral dimensions for segmenting
consumer markets
Information
required (lot
vs. limited)
Type of problem
solving
(approaches)
Kind of shopping
(comparison or
convenience)
Needs (e.g.,
economic;
functional)
Behavioral
Segmenting
Dimensions
Brand familiarity
(insisting; nonrecognition)
Benefits
Sought (e.g.,
gas mileage)
Thoughts (e.g.,
beliefs about a
brand)
Rate of use
(e.g., heavy,
medium, light)
Purchase relationship
(ongoing; intermittent; bad
relationship)
Examples of Possible Segmenting
Dimensions for Consumer Markets
 CUSTOMER RELATED:
 Customer needs (automobiles)
 Geographic location (tire chains)
 Age (insurance policies)
 Sex (clothing)
 Family size (child care services)
 Income (vacation services)
 Education (magazines)
 SITUATION RELATED:
 Benefits offered (toothpaste)
 Consumption/use patterns (cameras)
 Brand familiarity (health care products)
 Buying situation (soft drinks)
Geographic dimensions for segmenting
consumer markets
Region of world
or country (North
America vs.
Europe)
Region in a
country
(South vs.
North)
Geographic
Segmentation
Dimensions
Size of city
Demographic Dimensions for Segmenting
Consumer Markets
Income
Sex or age
Demographic
Segmentation
Dimensions
Family size or family
life cycle
Occupation or
education
Ethnicity or social
class
Segmenting business markets
Kind of
relationship
(e.g., weak vs.
strong loyalty)
Purchasing
methods (bids,
e-commerce
websites)
Segmenting
Dimensions
for
Business
Markets
Type of buying
situation
(centralized or
decentralized)
Type of customer
(service, Gov’t
agency or
manufacturer
Demographics
(geographic
locations; size of
firm or industry)
How customers will use
the product
(installation,
component, raw
material)
Examples of Possible Segmenting
Dimensions for Business Markets
 Type of organization (computer software)
 Closeness of relationship with customer (travel
services)
 Size (buildings)
 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
codes (machinery)
 Geographic location (electronic parts)
 Type of product (X-ray film)
 Buying situation (automobile components)
 Source loyalty (office supplies)
 Reciprocity (transporting services)
Business-toBusiness
Segmentation
Checking Your Knowledge
The pastor of a new church decides to start prospecting for
new members. He focuses first on people who live within a
mile radius of the church, and contacts them via mail and by
visiting them door-to-door. He then moves on to people who
live from one to two miles away from the church, then two to
three miles away, and so on, up to a limit of ten miles away.
The pastor appears to be focusing on a __________
segmenting dimension.
A. Behavioral
B. Demographic
C. Benefit
D. Geographic
E. Relationship
Ethical Issues in Selecting segmenting
dimensions
Ethical
Issues
Exploitation
Creates
Unnecessary
Wants
Does Harm
International
Issues
Checking Your Knowledge
A father taking his family of four on vacation was trying to
make hotel reservations for a trip to Disney World. He first
eliminated all hotels that were in excess of two miles from the
main gate to Disney World. Then he focused exclusively on
hotels offering suites so that his family would have more
space. He eventually selected the Excelsior Hotel because he
knew the hotel offered suites and a complementary breakfast.
For him, the available of the complementary breakfast was a
______________ segmenting dimension.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Qualifying
Determining
Differentiated
Geographic
demographic
Segmenting Product Markets
1. Select the broad
product-market (what market firm wants to be in)
2. Identify potential
customer needs (why people buy product)
3. Form initial homogeneous Submarkets
(typical customer/aggregate similar people)
Best
Practice
Approach
for
Segmenting
Product-Markets
4. Identify determining dimensions(customer
-related characteristics—e.g., economic needs)
5. Name possible product-markets
(based on importance of determining detm.
6. Evaluate product-market
Segments (why behave as they do)
7. Estimate size of each
product-market segments
More Sophisticated Techniques May
Help in Segmenting
Clustering
(find similar patterns)
Customer Database
(past customer behavior)
Customer Relationship
Management (CRM) (modeling
help predict types of products
customer might want or need
based on information in database)
Positioning
Positioning
+
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
“Product Space” Representation of
Positioning
High moisturizing
4
7
Tone
Zest
Lever 2000
Dove
5
Nondeodorant
2
Lux
Coast
Sensitive
Safeguard
8
Deodorant
3
1
Dial
Lifebuoy
Lava
6
low moisturizing
Positioning and Advertising
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
TOO MANY UNNECESSARY
PRODUCTS ARE OFFERED
 NECESSITY IS IN THE
EYE OF THE
BEHOLDER.
 WHO SAYS THIS IS AN
UNNECESSARY
PRODUCT?
 NOT FOR THIS DOG!
Study Question 1
Which of the following is the BEST
example of a "generic market?"
A. the meat market.
B. the minivan market.
C. the e-commerce market.
D. the beer market.
E. the "singles" entertaining market.
40
Study Question 2
Which of the following is the BEST
example of a "generic market?"
A. The adult "personal expression" market
B. The roller blade market
C. The female exercise shoes market
D. The sports drink market
E. The sporting goods market
41
Study Question 3
A product-market is one
A. In which exchanges are based on barter rather than money.
B. Where one seller has a patent for a superior product and
other firms try to imitate the leader the best they can.
C. Where all of the customers want the same product but will
consider a substitute if their preferred brand is not
available.
D. In which competing sellers offer physically or conceptually
similar products.
E. In which no intermediaries operate.
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Study Question 4
Which of the following offers a firm the
greatest potential for profit?
A. Mass marketing
B. The multiple target market approach
C. The combined target market approach
D. The single target market approach
E. Any of the above—depending on the situation
43
Study Question 5
A large firm with ample resources wants to minimize the risk of
"inviting“ competitors to "chip away" at its target market(s). It has
segmented its broad product-market and identified several
Homogeneous submarkets—each of which is large enough to offer
attractive sales and profit potential. Which of the following
approaches should the firm use?
A. Multiple target market approach
B. Mass marketing approach
C. Combined target market approach
D. Single target market approach
E. All of the above
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