Emerging Europe and
The Byzantine Empire
Germanic Kingdoms
• Germanic people began moving into Rome in the 3rd
• Visigoths occupied Spain & Italy until the
Ostrogoths took control of Italy in the 5th century
• By 500 Western Roman empire had became # of
states ruled by German kings
• Germanic Angles & Saxons = Anglo-Saxons moved
into Britain in 5th century
• Clovis-Christian convert, established Frankish
kingdom -500
Germanic Kingdoms
• Clovis converted to Christianity after calling for
Jesus help during battle – the enemy fled after the
• Clovis gained support of the Roman Catholic
• By 510, Clovis established Frankish kingdom from
Pyrenees to present day Germany
• After Clovis death, his sons divided the kingdom
• Germans & Romans intermarried = German customs
had an important role
• Extended family was center of society
Germanic Kingdoms
• Extended families in German society worked
together & defended each other during violent times
• Germanic law was personal, one injuring another led
to a savage blood feuds
• Wergild (money for a man) system was developed
to avoid bloodshed after crimes such as murder/
wrongdoer paid the injured party’s family a set
amount of money which varied by social status
Role of the Church
• Christianity became main religion of Roman empire
by 4th century
• Roman church developed a system of organization
• Priests was head of parishes – local communities
• Bishop was head of diocese - a group of parishes or
• Archbishop – head of groups of diocese
• Bishop of Rome became known as Pope – the head
of what is now known as the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic Church
• Pope claim was based on the belief that Jesus gave
Peter the keys to Heaven
• Peter was considered to be the chief apostle & the
first bishop of Rome
• Bishops who succeeded Peter were called popes =
Latin word for “papa” – father
• Western Christians accepted the pope as the
church’s leader, but could not agree on the pope’s
• Gregory I strengthened power by taking political
control of Rome & surrounding territories
Gregory I
Role of Church
• Gregory – pope from 590-604, extended papal
authority over the Western Church & actively
converted non-Christians
• Monk = man who separates himself from the rest of
the world to become closer to God/ Monasticism is
the practice of living like a monk
• Saint Benedict founded an order of Monks & wrote
rules for their practice
• Benedict’s rules divided the day into activities;
emphasizing prayer & physical labor to keep monks
Role of Church
• Monks meditated & read privately/ They prayed
together seven times a day
• All aspects of Benedict life was communal
• Abbot (father) ruled each Benedictine monastery
• Monks were to obey the Abbot/ took a vowel of
poverty/monks dedication made then new heroes of
Christian civilization/ were social workers in
• Monks spread Christianity throughout Europe/Irish
& English monks were enthusiastic missionaries
Role of Church
• Nuns = women who withdrew from the world to
dedicate themselves to God
• Nuns lived in convents headed abbesses
• Abess Hilda founded a monastery in Whitby in 657
where she educated five future bishops
• 600 & 700’s, Frankish kings lost their power to the
chief officers of the king’s household = mayor’s of
the palace
• Pepin assumed the kingship
• Pepin’s son became king after his death in 768 = son
was Charles the Great – Charlemagne
• Charlemagne = one of history’s great kings/ curious,
driven, intelligent, strong warrior, devout Christian/
was illiterate, but strongly supported learning
• Ruled from 768 to 814/ Expanded the Frankish
kingdom into Carolingian empire = covered much of
western & central Europe
• Charlemagne established missi dominci (messengers
of the lord king) two men who were sent to make for
sure the kings wishes were followed
• 800, he was crowned emperor of the Romans/ the
coronation symbolized the coming together of the
Roman, Christian, & Germanic elements that forged
European civilization
• Carolingian Renaissance was promoted by
Charlemagne desire to promote learning
• Benedictine monks played important role in revival
of learning
Early Weapons of Mass
Fall of Carolingian empire
• Charlemagne died in 814/ by 844 Carolingian
empire divided into 3 kingdoms by grandsons
• Muslims invaded southern France
• Magyars settled on the plains of Hungary
• Vikings (Norsemen of Scandinavia) attacked the
• Vikings were superb warriors & shipbuilders/ famed
dragon ships carrying about 50 men could go
shallow rivers to attack inland
• 9th century, Vikings settled in Europe
• 911, Frankish king gave Vikings land of Normandy
• Invaders posed a threat to the safety of the people
due to decentralized government
• People began to turn landed aristocrats or nobles for
protection/ led to feudalism
• Feudalism arose between 800-900/ similar system in
Japan- Samurai
• Vassalage = center of feudalism/ came from
Germanic society where warriors swore oath to their
• Vassal = man who served a lord militarily
Feudalism: Military
Service for Land
Knights = heavily armored warriors
Male = armor made of metal links or plates
Frankish army initially set up foot soldiers in mail
Heavily armored knights dominated warfare for over
500 years
• Knights had great prestige & formed much of
European aristocracy
• Early Middle Ages (500-1000) wealth was based on
owning land/very little trade
• Nobles gave a piece of land to vassals in exchange
for fighting = fief
• Vassals had political authority in their fief/in charge
of keeping order
• Feudalism became complicated = kings had vassals
who had vassals
• Feudal contract = unwritten rules that characterized
feudalism/relationship between king &
vassal/knights for about 40-60 days a year
• Vassals were to advise the lord, financial obligations
to the lord, knighting of his eldest son,
• Lord supported the vassal with land grant &
protection in military & court
Feudal Obligations
Military service for 4060 days.
Serve on the lord’s
Gifts for weddings and
Wardship – oversee
personal affairs and
family if vassal dies in
• Castles = permanent residences & fortresses/#’s
increased in high middle ages(1000-1300)
• Middle Ages = nobles dominated European society/
main concern was warfare
• Nobles = kings, dukes, counts, barons, bishops,
• Knighthood = united lords & knights in aristocracy
• Knights = trained as warriors/ no adult responsibility
• Young knights held tournaments to show their skills/
joust became main attraction
• 11th & 12th century, under influence of Churchchivalry became important to knights
• Chivalry = civilized behavior, knights were to
defend the church & defenseless people, treat
captives as honored guests, fight for glory not
• Women could own property, but were under control
of men/ first their fathers, then their husbands
• Lady of the castle in charge of household & estate
• Eleanor of Aquitane = married to king Louis VII of
France & Henry II of England/ 2 children became
kings of England
Alfred the Great Unified
The Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy
• King Alfred the Great united the various kingdoms
of England that had been ruled by Anglo-Saxon
• Angles, Saxons, Germanic people were united
Norman Conquest
• 10/4/1066, William of Normandy defeated King
Harold of England at the battle of Hastings
• William was then crowned King of England
• Norman knights received land as a fief and swore
allegiance to the king
• Marriage of French & Anglo-Saxons led to a new
English culture
• Normans adopted Anglo-Saxon institutions = office
of sheriff, census called Domesday Book
• William further developed taxation & royal courts
William I, the Conqueror
Brought Norman
Feudalism To England
Henry II
• Henry II enlarged English monarchy
• Expanded the power of the royal courts & king’s
power/increased # of criminal cases tried on the
king’s court
• Common law replaced law codes across the
• Tried to control Church but failed
• Thomas Beckett, archbishop of Canterbury said only
Roman Catholic Church could try clergy
• Four knights murdered Beckett, Henry was outraged
& backed down
Magna Carta
• English nobles resented the growth of the king’s
power/ rebellion was raised against King John
• 1215, King John was forced to put his seal on the
Magna Carta
• Magna Carta = feudal document, written recognition
that the power of the king was limited
• 13th century, under Edward I = English parliament
• Parliament = 2 knights from every county, 2 people
from every town, and all the bishops & nobles
throughout England
John Was
To Sign the
Carta in 1215
English Parliament
Eventually 2 houses were formed
Nobles & church lords formed = House of the Lords
Knights & townspeoples = House of Commons
Parliaments granted taxes & passed laws
Edward I Called a Parliament
Of Lords and Commons
French Kingdom
• Kingdom of France was 1/3 of the former
Carolingian empire
• Hugh Capet was chosen to be king by west Frankish
nobles establishing the Capetian dynasty
• Capetians had little power & only controlled the
land around Paris/ Dukes had more power than
• Phillip II of Augustus = was the turning point in the
French monarchy
• Phillip waged war against England & gained control
of the Normandy, Maine, Anjou, & Aquitaine
French Kingdom
• Phillip II successors continued to add land to the
• 13th century, Louis IX ruled/ deeply religious man
who later made a saint by the Catholic
church/Known for his attempts bring justice to his
• Phillip IV, Phillip the Fair, effective in strengthening
the French monarchy & expanding the royal
• Phillip IV started a French parliament/Estates
Philip IV Called the EstatesGeneral to Raise Taxes
Holy Roman Empire
• German kings attempted to rule both German &
Italian lands but struggled to do so
• Frederick’s attempt to conquer northern Italy caused
• Pope opposed him fearing that he wanted to include
Rome & the papal states
• Northern Italian cities did not want to be his subjects
• Alliance of Italian cities & pope defeated Frederick I
in 1176
• Frederick II also waged a war against the pope &
northern cities & lost
East & Central Europe
• Slavic people divided into 3 groups: western,
eastern, & southern Slavs
• Western Slavs formed the Polish & Bohemian
• Poles, Czechs, Hungarians were all converted to
Christianity by German Monks
• Eastern Slavic people were converted to Orthodox
Christianity by two Byzantine missionary brothers;
Cyril & Methodius
• Croats, Serbs, & Bulgarians were converted to
Eastern Orthodoxy
St. Cyril and St. Methodius
• Eastern Slavic people settled in present day Ukraine
& Russia
• 8th century, Swedish Vikings began to move in
search of plunder & trade routes
• Vikings eventually dominated the native people
• Vikings named it Rus = where word Russia is
Kievan Rus
• Oleg, Viking leader, settled in Kiev at the beginning
of 10th century & created principality of Kiev
• Oleg successors expanded Kiev until it reached
territory between Baltic & Black Seas, & Danube &
Volga rivers
• Vikings married Slavic wives & gradually
assimilated into the Slavic population
• Rus leader, Vladimir, married sister of Byzantine
Emperor & officially accepted the Eastern Orthodox
Church for all the people in 988
• Kievan Rus prospered up until invasions brought an
end to the 1st Russian state in 1169
Vladimir I Chose
Eastern Orthodoxy
Mongol Rule in Russia
• 13th century, Mongols conquered Russia & forced
Russian princes to pay tribute to them
• Alexander Nevsky, prince of Novgorood, defeated a
German army in northwest Russia in 1242
• Khan, leader of Mongolia, rewarded Nevsky title of
grand prince
• Nevsky descendants became princes of Moscow &
eventual leaders of Russia
Nevsky, Prince
Of Novgorod
Thanksgiving Kitty
Reign of Justinian
• 5th century, Eastern Roman empire was centered
around Constantinople
• Justinian became emperor in 527/ determined to
reestablish the Roman empire in the Mediterranean/
reached his goals by 552
• 3 years after Justinian’s death, the Lombards
conquered Italy & most of the area that Justinian had
• Justinian created the Body of Civil Law = code of
Roman laws that was the basis of imperial law in
Eastern Roman empire until its end in 1453
Emperor Justinian
Beginning of Byzantine Empire
• Justinian’s conquest left Eastern Roman empire with
too much land to protect far from Constantinople
• Arab Muslims were the biggest threat to Eastern
Roman Empire
• Islamic forces defeated an army of Eastern Roman
at Yarmuk in 636 & lost Syria & Palestine
• 679, Bulgars defeated the Eastern Roman empire &
took possession of the lower Danube Valley
• 8th century, Eastern Roman empire was much
smaller (Asia minor & eastern Balkans)
Byzantine Empire
• Both a Greek & Christian state
• Greek replaced Latin as the official language
• Christian church became known as Eastern
Orthodox Church
• Byzantine emperor controlled the church & the state
• Emperor appointed the head of the church
• Government & religious officials were all bound
together in the service of a spiritual ideal
Life in Constantinople
• Largest city in Europe in the Middle Ages
• Based on trade until the 12th century/ Europe’s
greatest center of Commerce
• During Justinian’s reign, silkworms were smuggled
from China to begin a silk industry
• Hagia Sophia = church of Holy Wisdom
• Hippodrome = arena where gladiator fights &
chariot races were held
Byzantine Empire
• Macedonians ruled the Byzantine Empire from 8761081
• Macedonians expanded the empire
• Expanded trade relations w/ Western Europe
• Late 11th century = lot of political & social disorder
EOC & Catholic Split
• Eastern Orthodox Church did not accept the pope’s
claim as head of Church
• 1054, Pope Leo IX & Michael Cerularius (Head of
Byzantine Church) excommunicated each other
• Great Schism = seperation between two great
branches of Christianity
Byzantine Art: Mosaics
and Illuminated Manuscripts
Hagia Sophia
What a Bunch of Turkeys
• 11th & 13th centuries, European Christians carried
out a series of military expeditions to take back the
holy land from the Muslims
• Seljuk Turks won the battle of Manzikert &
threatened Constantinople
• Crusades began when Pope Urban II responded to
the request of Alexius I to liberate Jerusalem &
• Urban II called for crusades @ infidels
• Infidels were the non believers = Muslims, Jews
Alexius I Asked
For Help and
Urban II Called
For the
First Crusade
First Crusades
• Mostly French knights = captured Antioch in 1098
& Jerusalem in 1099
• Massacred Muslim & Jewish inhabitants
• 4 Latin Crusader states were established that lasted
100 years
• 1120’s, Muslims began to strike back which led to
another Crusade
• The fall of a Latin Kingdom led to the call of
another crusade
• Saint Bernard of Clairvaux called for the crusade &
got the support of King Louis VII of France &
Conrad III of Germany
• 2nd Crusade was a total failure
• 1187, Jerusalem fell to Saladin
• 3 important rulers then agreed to begin a third
Louis VII and Conrad III Respond
To Bernard of Clairvaux’s Call
For a Second Crusade
Saladin’s Capture of Jerusalem
Sparked the Third Crusade
• Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, Richard I
(Richard the Lionhearted) of England, Phillip II of
Augustus of France
• Members of the 3rd arrived in the East by 1189 &
encountered problems
• Barbarossa drowned while swimming in a river
• English & French had success with their naval fleets
against coastal cities, but failed as they moved
• Richard I negotiated a settlement with Saladin to
allow Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem
Philip II, Frederick I
And Richard I Responded
4th Crusade
• 6 years after the death of Saladin in 1193, Pope
Innocent III initiated the 4th crusade
• On their way to the East became involved a conflict
with the Byzantine Empire over the succession to
the Byzantine throne
• Crusaders diverted to Constantinople & sacked the
city in 1204/ Byzantine empire was reestablished in
1261 but was never as powerful
• Ottoman Turks eventually conquered Byzantine 190
years later
Osman: Founder
Of the Ottoman Turks
Sultan Mahmet II:
Conqueror of
Results of the Crusades
Increased wealth of Italian city-states like
Genoa and Venice.
Began Jewish persecution and genocide.
Started the breakdown of feudalism and
an increase in the power of kings.
Improved technology such as better ships
and maps, and skills in siege techniques
and weapons.
Crusading Kitty