Listen First!
When you select a frequency
on which to transmit, the first
thing you should always do is
listen to determine whether the
frequency is busy. If someone
is already using the frequency,
good amateur practice says you
don’t stomp all over them.
Besides, it’s just the right
thing to do!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
1
Repeater Manners – Calling
Another Station
Since most Technicians get their start
on repeaters, it is a good idea to know
how to call another station on the
repeater. For example, how do you call
another station on a repeater if you know
the station's call sign? It’s simple.
Just say the station's call sign and
identify your own station. Then wait for
the other station to answer.
And guess what? If you want to call
another station not on a repeater, you do
the same thing - say the station's call
sign and then identify your own station.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
2
Just Looking For Some
Conversation
Suppose you don’t know anyone on the band, but
you just want to talk. How do you indicate you
are looking for any station with which to make
contact? It’s simple. Just say “CQ” followed by
your call sign. CQ means “calling any station”
and is the ham’s way of saying I just want to talk
with anyone willing to talk.
But be careful about one thing. If you want
to talk to anyone who might be listening on a
repeater, you don’t want to use “CQ.” By custom,
if you want to talk on a repeater, you just
transmit your call sign. (Some hams will transmit
their call sign followed by the words “listening”
or “monitoring.” That’s OK, too, but definitely
avoid CQ on the repeater.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
3
Suppose You Hear A CQ
When you hear someone
transmitting CQ, and you are willing
to talk with them, what should you
transmit when responding to that
call of CQ? Again, it’s very
simple, and the same as calling
another station. Transmit the other
station's call sign followed by your
call sign, and wait for an answer.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
4
Test Transmissions
The FCC says it is perfectly OK to test your
transmitter using a brief transmission, but you
still must identify yourself. A brief test
transmission that does not include any station
identification is an illegal unidentified
transmission. Always properly identify your
station when testing! (See §97.119(a))
When you test your transmitter, find a
frequency, listen, and if it is quiet, give your
call sign. And it is a good idea, although not
required by rule, to follow your call by the words
“test” or “testing.”
Release 1.0 – September 2006
5
How Often To ID When
Testing
The requirement to ID when
testing is the same as at any
other time. The rule says
station identification is
required at least every ten
minutes and at the end of every
transmission.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
6
Making Your Call Sign
Understood
When conditions are bad, it is sometimes hard to
tell the difference between spoken letters when they
sound similar. For example, consider that B, C, D, E,
G, P, T, V and Z may be easily misunderstood in noisy
conditions. Fortunately, the International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) has adopted a phonetic
alphabet that is recognized world wide. It substitutes
easily understood words for each of the letters of the
alphabet.
You don’t have to know this alphabet for the
Technician exam, but you do need to remember that these
words are internationally recognized substitutes for
letters. If you are having trouble being understood,
you can give your call sign using these recognized
phonetics. For example, KA4PUV becomes “kilo alfa four
papa uniform victor.” (See §97.119(b)(2))
Release 1.0 – September 2006
7
ITU Phonetic Alphabet
Like we said, you do not have to know this alphabet
for the test, but just for fun let’s take a look at it.
You can learn it once you get your license!
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Phonetic
Alphabet
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
Alpha
Bravo
Charlie
Delta
Echo
Foxtrot
Golf
Hotel
India
Release 1.0 – September 2006
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
Juliet
Kilo
Lima
Mike
November
Oscar
Papa
Quebec
Romeo
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
Sierra
Tango
Uniform
Victor
Whiskey
X-ray
Yankee
Zulu
8
Avoid “Cutesy” Call Signs
Some hams like to use other older
phonetic alphabets or invent their own
words when giving their call sign
phonetically. Other hams invent cute
phrases to go with their call signs. None
of these are illegal as long as you
properly identify by stating your call
sign in English as the rule requires.
However, you should avoid them. Using
non-standard phonetics or cute phrases can
be a real problem because they are not
easily understood by some operators.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
9
Check-Up Time!
Now let’s try the questions from
this group.
You should make a note of any that
you miss for later review.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
10
T3A01
Which of the following should you do
when selecting a frequency on which
to transmit?
A. Call CQ to see if anyone is
listening
B. Listen to determine if the
frequency is busy
C. Transmit on a frequency that
allows your signals to be heard
D. Check for maximum power output
Release 1.0 – September 2006
11
T3A01 Answer - B
This is a common sense
answer. Before you talk,
always listen to see whether
someone else is already using
the frequency.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
12
T3A02
How do you call another station on a
repeater if you know the station's call
sign?
A. Say "break, break" then say the station's
call sign
B. Say the station's call sign then identify
your own station
C. Say "CQ" three times then the other
station's call sign
D. Wait for the station to call "CQ" then
answer it
Release 1.0 – September 2006
13
T3A02 Answer - B
Call the other station by
saying the other station’s call
sign first, followed by your
own.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
14
T3A03
How do you indicate you are
looking for any station with
which to make contact?
A.
B.
C.
D.
CQ followed by your callsign
RST followed by your callsign
QST followed by your callsign
SK followed by your callsign
Release 1.0 – September 2006
15
T3A03 Answer - A
To invite any station
listening to answer your call,
always call “CQ.”
Release 1.0 – September 2006
16
T3A04
What should you transmit when
responding to a call of CQ?
A. Your own CQ followed by the other
station's callsign
B. Your callsign followed by the
other station's callsign
C. The other station's callsign
followed by your callsign
D. A signal report followed by your
callsign
Release 1.0 – September 2006
17
T3A04 Answer - C
When answering a station, the
procedure is the same as
calling the station... Give
their call sign first, followed
by your own.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
18
T3A05
What term describes a brief test
transmission that does not include
any station identification?
A. A test emission with no
identification required
B. An illegal un-modulated
transmission
C. An illegal unidentified
transmission
D. A non-voice ID transmission
Release 1.0 – September 2006
19
T3A05 Answer - C
Any time an operator
transmits, that operator must
identify by giving his or her
call sign at least every ten
minutes and at the end of the
transmission. It is illegal
not to identify, so this would
be an illegal unidentified
transmission.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
20
T3A06
What must an amateur do when making
a transmission to test equipment or
antennas?
A. Properly identify the station
B. Make test transmissions only after
10:00 PM local time
C. Notify the FCC of the test
transmission
D. State the purpose of the test
during the test procedure
Release 1.0 – September 2006
21
T3A06 Answer - A
Regardless of why the
operator is transmitting, he or
she must always properly
identify the station. There
are no special identification
procedures for testing
equipment.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
22
T3A07
Which of the following is true when making
a test transmission?
A. Station identification is not required if
the transmission is less than 15 seconds
B. Station identification is not required if
the transmission is less than 1 watt
C. Station identification is required only
if your station can be heard
D. Station identification is required at
least every ten minutes and at the end of
every transmission.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
23
T3A07 Answer - D
There are no special
identification procedures for
testing equipment. The
identification requirements are
the same as for any other type
of transmission - at least
every ten minutes and at the
end of every transmission.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
24
T3A08
What is the meaning of the
procedural signal "CQ"?
A. Call on the quarter hour
B. New antenna is being tested
(no station should answer)
C. Only the called station
should transmit
D. Calling any station
Release 1.0 – September 2006
25
T3A08 Answer - D
“CQ” means calling any
station. When you call CQ, you
are inviting any ham who is
listening to contact you.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
26
T3A09
Why should you avoid using cute phrases or
word combinations to identify your
station?
A. They are not easily understood by some
operators
B. They might offend some operators
C. They do not meet FCC identification
requirements
D. They might be interpreted as codes or
ciphers intended to obscure your
identification
Release 1.0 – September 2006
27
T3A09 Answer - A
§97.119(b)(2)
(b) The call sign must be transmitted with an
emission authorized for the transmitting channel
in one of the following ways:
***
(2) By a phone emission in the English language.
Use of a standard phonetic alphabet as an aid for
correct station identification is encouraged;
When an operator makes up his or her own
phonetics (which is not illegal), the phonetics
are not always readily understood by others. You
should learn the standard phonetic alphabet used
by radio operators.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
28
T3A10
What brief statement is often used in
place of "CQ" to indicate that you are
listening for calls on a repeater?
A. Say
sign
B. Say
C. Say
your
D. Say
call
"Hello test" followed by your call
your call sign
the repeater call sign followed by
call sign
the letters "QSY" followed by your
sign
Release 1.0 – September 2006
29
T3A10 Answer - B
On a repeater, it is
generally considered bad
manners to call CQ. When using
a repeater to invite a
conversation, the generally
accepted procedure is to simply
state your call sign. That is
enough to let others know you
are available for a contact.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
30
T3A11
Why should you use the International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) phonetic
alphabet when identifying your station?
A. The words are internationally recognized
substitutes for letters
B. There is no advantage
C. The words have been chosen to represent
amateur radio terms
D. It preserves traditions begun in the
early days of amateur radio
Release 1.0 – September 2006
31
T3A11 Answer - A
§97.119(b)(2)
The FCC encourages the use of
these phonetics. They are used by
radio operators, pilots, mariners
and the military services of many
countries around the world, so they
are widely recognized, even among
non-English speaking people.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
32
Group T3B
Group T3B covers the importance of the
use of minimum power and amateur radio
band plans. It also covers repeater
coordination and certain sub-bands with
restricted modes.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
33
Band Plans
The FCC has established the amateur radio
bands and has divided the bands up into sub-bands
for different types of operation. Sometimes that
isn’t enough, since there are several different
modes using the use digital or data frequencies,
and these modes could conflict with each other.
For that reason, the amateur community has
come up with a number of band plans. A band plan
is a voluntary guideline, beyond the divisions
established by the FCC for using different
operating modes within an amateur band. It is a
sort of “gentlemen’s agreement” that lets several
modes share limited frequencies. Band plans are
voluntary. No rule makes them mandatory.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
34
Repeater Band Plans
Repeaters almost always transmit
on one frequency and receive on
another. We call this split
frequency operation. To make the
best use of the frequencies
available for repeaters, each area
has a recognized frequency
coordination body responsible for
repeater band plans. For example,
in the southeastern U.S., this body
is SERA, or the Southeastern
Repeater Association.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
35
Repeater Coordination
These recognized frequency coordination
organizations perform a valuable service
by coordinating repeaters. Basically, a
person or group that wants to put up a
repeater furnishes information about the
repeater location, power, antenna height
and other data, and the local frequency
coordinator assigned the repeater a
frequency pair. The frequency pair is
chosen to avoid interfering with other
repeaters. This process is called
“repeater coordination.” The main purpose
of repeater coordination is to reduce
interference and promote proper use of the
available frequency spectrum.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
36
Who Is Responsible?
Recall that repeaters are automatically
controlled, so the repeater control
operator is generally not required to be
at the control point all the time.
Suppose a ham begins using the repeater
and starts using obscene language? Who is
accountable if a repeater station
inadvertently retransmits such
communications that violate FCC rules?
Since the repeater control operator is not
required to be there all the time, the FCC
says it is the transmitting station that
will be held accountable. (See
§97.205(g))
Release 1.0 – September 2006
37
How Much Power Should You
Use?
The FCC says that an amateur must
use the minimum transmitter power
necessary to carry out the desired
communication. (See §97.313(a))
The maximum power level allowed
to hams is quite high, but the FCC
has made it clear that hams must use
only the power needed. Using excess
power may create unnecessary
interference and should be avoided.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
38
More Memory Work
Some amateur bands are divided by
the FCC into mode restricted sub
bands. When a sub band is
restricted by mode, only certain
modes can be used on that portion of
the band. The following bands
available to Technician class
licensees have mode restricted subbands: the 6-meter, 2-meter, and 1
1/4-meter bands. You need to
remember this. (See §97.305(c))
Release 1.0 – September 2006
39
And Still More Memory Work
Recall that the 6 meter band extends from 50
megahertz to 54 megahertz. The only emission mode
permitted in the 50 to 50.1 megahertz sub band is
CW (also known as “continuous wave” and used for
Morse code).
Also recall that the 2 meter band goes from
144 megahertz to 148 megahertz. Likewise, the
only emission mode permitted in the restricted
sub-band at 144.0 to 144.1 megahertz is also CW.
Remember both of these as well.
(See §97.305 (a)&(c))
Release 1.0 – September 2006
40
Check-Up Time!
Now let’s try the questions from
this group.
You should make a note of any that
you miss for later review.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
41
T3B01
What is a band plan?
A. A voluntary guideline, beyond the
divisions established by the FCC for using
different operating modes within an
amateur band
B. A guideline from the FCC for making
amateur frequency band allocations
C. A guideline for operating schedules
within an amateur band published by the
FCC
D. A plan devised by a local group
Release 1.0 – September 2006
42
T3B01 Answer - A
Band plans are voluntary, and
are developed by groups such as
the ARRL and others working
together. They help keep some
order on the bands by
suggesting frequencies for
different modes of operation,
thus minimizing interference.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
43
T3B02
Which of the following statements is
true of band plans?
A. They are mandated by the FCC to
regulate spectrum use
B. They are mandated by the ITU
C. They are voluntary guidelines for
efficient use of the radio spectrum
D. They are mandatory only in the US
Release 1.0 – September 2006
44
T3B02 Answer - C
The key word to remember
about band plans is
“voluntary.” A ham can not
follow the band plan and still
be arguably “legal.” However,
disregarding band plans when
operating is not “good amateur
practice.” See §97.101(a).
Release 1.0 – September 2006
45
T3B03
Who developed the band plans
used by amateur radio
operators?
A. The US Congress
B. The FCC
C. The amateur community
D. The Interstate Commerce
Commission
Release 1.0 – September 2006
46
T3B02 Answer - C
The amateur community is all
of us as represented by various
clubs and amateur organizations
such as the ARRL.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
47
T3B04
Who is in charge of the
repeater frequency band plan in
your local area?
A. The local FCC field office
B. RACES and FEMA
C. The recognized frequency
coordination body
D. Repeater Council of America
Release 1.0 – September 2006
48
T3B04 Answer - C
Having groups to coordinate
repeaters results in less
interference between repeaters and
better communications for all
amateurs. In the southeast U.S.,
the Southeast Repeater Association
(SERA) coordinates repeater
frequencies through volunteers who
used sophisticated software and
solid engineering practices to
assign repeater frequencies.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
49
T3B05
What is the main purpose of repeater
coordination?
A. To reduce interference and promote proper
use of spectrum
B. To coordinate as many repeaters as
possible in a small area
C. To coordinate all possible frequencies
available for repeater use
D. To promote and encourage use of simplex
frequencies
Release 1.0 – September 2006
50
T3B05 Answer - A
When repeaters are
coordinated, nearby repeaters
will not operate on the same
frequencies. This prevents
each repeater from interfering
with the other making both
repeaters useless.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
51
T3B06
Who is accountable if a repeater
station inadvertently retransmits
communications that violate FCC
rules?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The
The
The
All
repeater trustee
repeater control operator
transmitting station
of these answers are correct
Release 1.0 – September 2006
52
T3B06 Answer - C
§97.205(g)
The control operator of a repeater that
retransmits inadvertently communications that
violate the rules in this Part is not accountable
for the violative communications.
A repeater owner spends a lot of money to make
repeaters available to the amateur community,
almost always at no expense to the community. The
rules relieve the control operator from liability
for the unlawful actions of a repeater user.
Every ham is accountable for what he or she says
over the air, whether on a repeater, or on
simplex. Watch what you say!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
53
T3B07
Which of these statements is true about
legal power levels on the amateur bands?
A. Always use the maximum power allowed to
ensure that you complete the contact
B. An amateur may use no more than 200 Watts
PEP to make an amateur contact
C. An amateur may use up to 1500 Watts PEP
on any amateur frequency
D. An amateur must use the minimum
transmitter power necessary to carry out
the desired communication
Release 1.0 – September 2006
54
T3B07 Answer - D
§97.313(a)
An amateur station must use the
minimum transmitter power necessary
to carry out the desired
communications.
Use only the power you need to
communicate. Your signal will be
cleaner and less likely to cause
harmful interference to others.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
55
T3B08
Which of the bands available to Technician
class licensees have mode restricted subbands?
A. The 6-meter, 2-meter, and 70-centimeter
bands
B. The 2-meter and 13-centimeter bands
C. The 6-meter, 2-meter, and 1 1/4-meter
bands
D. The 2-meter and 70-centimeter bands
Release 1.0 – September 2006
56
T3B08 Answer - C
§97.305(c)
This subsection contains
another important table. You
need to know the restrictions
placed on the bands you will
use as a Technician licensee.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
57
T3B09
What emission modes are
permitted in the restricted
sub-band at 50.0-50.1 MHz?
A.
B.
C.
D.
CW only
CW and RTTY
SSB only
CW and SSB
Release 1.0 – September 2006
58
T3B09 Answer - A
§97.305 (a)(c)
There are only three possible
questions dealing with modes on
specific bands. Chances are about 1
in 3 that you will have one on your
exam. However, there is a 100%
chance you will need to know this
information when you get ready to
make that first amateur contact.
Don’t wait until then to learn what
is allowed!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
59
T3B10
What emission modes are
permitted in the restricted
sub-band at 144.0-144.1 MHz?
A.
B.
C.
D.
CW only
CW and RTTY
SSB only
CW and SSB
Release 1.0 – September 2006
60
T3B10 Answer - A
§97.305 (a)(c)
Here’s a hint. The lower end
of each band is generally
reserved for CW.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
61
Group T3C
Group T3C covers some of the most
important aspects of amateur radio
- courtesy and respect for others,
sensitive subject areas, and
obscene and indecent
Release 1.0 – September 2006
62
Breaking In On Another
Conversation
In the CB world, it is considered
perfectly normal to break into another
conversation by saying “break break” or
“breaker.” That is NOT the case in the
amateur world!
When you want to break into a
conversation between two stations that are
using the frequency, you should simply say
your call sign between their
transmissions. Most hams don’t care too
much for that CB slang!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
63
More Repeater Manners
Good repeaters are sometimes very
busy. Some things you should do
when using a repeater include:
- Monitor before transmitting and
keep transmissions short
- Identify legally
- Use only the minimum amount of
transmitter power necessary
Release 1.0 – September 2006
64
Staying Legal
Before responding to another
stations call, you should
always make sure you are
operating on a permissible
frequency for your license
class. We know it sounds
silly, but if you are not
careful, you can easily stray
outside of your privileges.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
65
“I Was Here First!”
There are only so many frequencies
available. If two amateur stations want
to use the same frequency, the FCC says no
frequency will be assigned for the
exclusive use of any station and neither
operator has priority. (See §97.101(b))
When there a conflict about the use of
a frequency, nobody has an exclusive right
to that frequency, so the operators will
need to work it out between themselves –
hopefully as adults!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
66
More on Indecent and
Obscene Language
You recall that indecent and obscene language
is prohibited in the Amateur Service. Why? There
are several reasons, including:
- It is offensive to some individuals
- Young children may intercept amateur
communications with readily available receiving
equipment
- And most importantly, such language is
specifically prohibited by FCC Rules
(See §97.113(a)(4))
Release 1.0 – September 2006
67
So What Exactly Is Obscene
or Indecent?
There is no official list of
prohibited obscene and indecent
words that should not be used
in amateur radio. There isn’t
an unofficial one either. You
just have to use your good
common sense here. If you don’t
think you can use common sense,
perhaps you need to take up
another hobby!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
68
Racial And Ethnic Slurs
Speaking of no official list, racial
and ethnic slurs are not necessarily
obscene or indecent speech and may not be
illegal because of the First Amendment.
However, legal or not, amateur radio
operators should avoid the use of racial
or ethnic slurs when talking to other
stations, because they are offensive to
some people and reflect a poor public
image on all amateur radio operators.
Don’t use them!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
69
We All Make Mistakes
You are not even licensed yet,
but when you do get your license,
you can bet on one thing – you will
make mistakes!
Once you have
learned the ropes and you hear
another new ham having trouble with
his or her station, you should
contact the person and (tactfully)
offer to help with the problem.
This is not a rule, but it is
amateur tradition and the right
thing to do!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
70
OK, So What Can I Talk
About?
Other than indecent or obscene speech,
just about anything else is fair game.
You can engage in political discussions,
tell jokes and stories, or talk about
religion. But regardless of what you talk
about, you should always bear in mind that
others are listening, and some folks may
be more easily offended than others. Even
if something is legal, use good judgment
about what you say on the air, and you’ll
never go wrong.
(See §97.113(a)(4))
Release 1.0 – September 2006
71
Good Engineering and
Amateur Practices
No matter how many rules there are,
they can never cover everything. So when
circumstances are not specifically covered
by FCC rules, what general operating
standard must be applied to amateur
station operation? The FCC says that if
nothing else applies, the standard is
always going to be good engineering and
amateur practices. (See §97.101 (a))
This phrase is not really defined, but
it basically means doing what a good
engineer or ham would do under similar
circumstances.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
72
Check-Up Time!
Now let’s try the questions from
this group.
You should make a note of any that
you miss for later review.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
73
T3C01
What is the proper way to break into a
conversation between two stations that are
using the frequency?
A. Say your call sign between their
transmissions
B. Wait for them to finish and then call CQ
C. Say "Break-break" between their
transmissions
D. Call one of the operators on the
telephone to interrupt the conversation
Release 1.0 – September 2006
74
T3C01 Answer - A
All you need to do is to say
your call sign between
transmissions. Unless there is
an emergency, “break-break”
should not be used. It is
acceptable on CB, but frowned
upon on the ham bands.
Release 1.0 – September 2006
75
T3C02
What is considered to be proper
repeater operating practice?
A. Monitor before transmitting and
keep transmissions short
B. Identify legally
C. Use the minimum amount of
transmitter power necessary
D. All of these answers are correct
Release 1.0 – September 2006
76
T3C02 Answer - D
All of these answers are
“good amateur practice,” as
well as being required by rule.
They are not only good practice
for amateur frequencies, but
for all contacts!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
77
T3C03
What should you do before responding to
another stations call?
A. Make sure you are operating on a
permissible frequency for your license
class
B. Adjust your transmitter for maximum power
output
C. Ask the station to send their signal
report and location
D. Verify the other station's license class
Release 1.0 – September 2006
78
T3C03 Answer - A
You are responsible for the
proper operation of your
station, not the other
person’s. Keep your power to
the minimum required to
communicate, and make sure you
are legal to operate on that
frequency!
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T3C04
What rule applies if two amateur stations want to
use the same frequency?
A. The station operator with a lesser class of
license must yield the frequency to a higher-class
licensee
B. The station operator with a lower power output
must yield the frequency to the station with a
higher power output
C. No frequency will be assigned for the exclusive
use of any station and neither has priority
D. Station operators in ITU Regions 1 and 3 must
yield the frequency to stations in ITU Region 2
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T3C04 Answer - C
§97.101(b)
Each station licensee and each control
operator must cooperate in selecting
transmitting channels and in making the
most effective use of the amateur service
frequencies. No frequency will be assigned
for the exclusive use of any station.
No one “owns” any frequency. In the
case of conflicts between operators, the
matter should be resolved in an adult
manner.
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T3C05
Why is indecent and obscene language
prohibited in the Amateur Service?
A. Because it is offensive to some
individuals
B. Because young children may intercept
amateur communications with readily
available receiving equipment
C. Because such language is specifically
prohibited by FCC Rules
D. All of these choices are correct
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T3C05 Answer - D
§97.113(a)(4)
No amateur station shall transmit:
***
(4) Music using a phone emission except as
specifically provided elsewhere in this section;
communications intended to facilitate a criminal act;
messages encoded for the purpose of obscuring their
meaning, except as otherwise provided herein; obscene
or indecent words or language; or false or deceptive
messages, signals or identification;
Not only is it against the rules, it is just plain
rude, so the other answers are correct as well.
Consider that when you speak into the microphone
people all over the world can possibly hear you. This
is especially true with many repeaters now tied into
Echolink and IRLP.
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T3C06
Why should amateur radio operators avoid
the use of racial or ethnic slurs when
talking to other stations?
A. Such language is prohibited by the FCC
B. It is offensive to some people and
reflects a poor public image on all
amateur radio operators
C. Some of the terms used may be unfamiliar
to other operators
D. You transmissions might be recorded for
use in court
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T3C06 Answer - B
The FCC prohibits indecent or
obscene language. Racial slurs
may not fit into either
category, but they do reflect
poorly on all hams.
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T3C07
What should you do if you hear a
newly licensed operator that is
having trouble with their station?
A. Tell them to get off the air until
they learn how operate properly
B. Report them to the FCC
C. Contact them and offer to help
with the problem
D. Move to another frequency
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T3C07 Answer - C
Amateur radio has a rich
tradition of “Elmers” – more
experienced hams who help
newcomers learn the ropes. As
you gain experience, you should
always be willing to offer a
helping hand instead of
ignoring the problem or
criticizing the new operator.
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T3C08
Where can an official list be found of
prohibited obscene and indecent words that
should not be used in amateur radio?
A. On the FCC web site
B. There is no official list of prohibited
obscene and indecent words
C. On the Department of Commerce web site
D. The official list is in public domain and
found in all amateur study guides
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T3C08 Answer - B
§97.113(a)(4)
There is NO list of forbidden
words. It’s up to you to keep
your speech decent. When in
doubt, just don’t say it.
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T3C09
What type of subjects are not
prohibited communications while
using amateur radio?
A. Political discussions
B. Jokes and stories
C. Religious preferences
D. All of these answers are
correct
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T3C09 Answer - D
§97.113(a)(4)
You should know by now that the
only prohibited speech is obscene or
indecent speech. However, you
should always bear in mind that many
people can be listening to what you
say. Legal or not, if it is likely
to be offensive, seriously consider
not saying it!
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T3C10
When circumstances are not
specifically covered by FCC rules,
what general operating standard must
be applied to amateur station
operation?
A. Designated operator control
B. Politically correct control
C. Good engineering and amateur
practices
D. Reasonable operator control
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T3C10 Answer - C
§97.101 (a)
In all respects not
specifically covered by FCC
Rules each amateur station must
be operated in accordance with
good engineering and good
amateur practice.
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Group T3D
Group T3D covers how amateurs should
deal with interference to and from
consumer devices. It also covers public
relations, and intentional and
unintentional interference caused by an
amateur operator.
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“I’m Interfering?!?”
Suppose you receive a report that
your transmissions are causing
splatter or interference on nearby
frequencies. What should you do?
The first thing you should do is
stop transmitting and check your
transmitter for off frequency
operation or spurious emissions. If
your equipment is not working right,
you don’t want to use it until you
find out what the problem is.
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When You Accidentally Butt
In
If you unintentionally interfere
with another station or stations,
the best course of action is to
properly identify your station and
move to a different frequency. If
the other hams were there first, and
you did not realize it until after
you spoke, the polite thing to do is
ID as required by the FCC and move
on to an empty frequency.
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Who Owns The Frequency?
OK, by now you should know that no
station has exclusive use of any
frequency. There is one exception,
though.
If the FCC declares a communications
emergency, it can specify that certain
amateur frequencies may be used only by
people working the emergency. Otherwise,
repeat after me - no station has exclusive
use of any frequency!
Release 1.0 – September 2006
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You’re On TV – Your
Neighbor’s!
When signals from your
transmitter are causing front end
overload in your neighbor's
television receiver, your neighbor
is not likely to be happy. He’ll be
even less happy when he finds out
that as long as your equipment is
operating properly, he as the owner
of the television receiver is
responsible for fixing the problem.
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Why IS The TV Owner
Responsible?
Here’s why. The FCC has set certain standards
for the operation of your transmitter. If you are
within those standards, you are in compliance with
the law. Those standards are developed to insure
that a well-designed TV will not be bothered by
interference. Unfortunately, cheap consumer
electronics products are sometimes underengineered and susceptible to interference from
legal equipment. When that happens, the owner has
to fix it.
But here’s where you can shine as a ham. You
are in a good position to (carefully) explain this
to your neighbor, and more importantly, help him
or her solve the problem. Better to make a friend
than an enemy!
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You’re On the Other
Neighbor’s Phone!
Just like cheap TV’s, cheap phones are
subject to interference from amateur
equipment, even when the equipment is
operating properly. The major cause of
this interference is the same as well. It
is likely that the telephone was not
equipped with adequate interference
protection when it was manufactured. As
long as your gear is working properly, it
is not your fault. (But don’t let that
stop you from trying to help!)
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Still Another Interference
Problem!
Sometimes there is a break in a cable
television transmission line. This could
have an effect on your amateur operations
because TV interference may result when
the amateur station is transmitting, or
interference may occur to the amateur
receiver.
Signals from your transmitter can
sometimes penetrate the break and be
carried into nearby TV sets via the cable,
or the broken cable can act as a strong TV
signal source that can possibly interfere
with your receiver.
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Use A Dummy Load, Dummy!
When you are testing your transmitter,
you want to avoid putting out signals that
could cause interference. There is a
device called a “dummy load” that is
connected to your radio where the antenna
is usually connected. When you connect
the dummy load and operate your
transmitter, nearly all of the signal
generated by your transmitter is converted
to heat energy, and the potential for
interference is greatly reduced! The best
way to reduce on the air interference when
testing your transmitter is to use a dummy
load.
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Use A Dummy Load to Prevent
Harmful Interference!
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FCC Rules in an Emergency
When you are using amateur
radio at the request of public
service officials or at the
scene of an emergency, do you
know what rules apply? You
should. They are the same
rules that apply all the time.
FCC rules always apply to
amateur operations. (See
§97.103(a)
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RACES and ARES
There are two very important
groups to remember for amateur
emergency communications. They
are Radio Amateur Civil
Emergency Service (RACES) and
Amateur Radio Emergency Service
(ARES). RACES and ARES have in
common that they both provide
communications during
emergencies.
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Receiver Front-end
Overload
A radio receiver is a wonderful thing.
It can take the tiniest bit of electricity
from the air generated half a world away
and turn it into the voice of the person
who generated it. A radio receiver is
also a very sensitive piece of equipment.
It can be overloaded by strong signals
very close to it. This happens because of
something called “receiver front-end
overload.” Receiver front-end overload is
interference caused by strong signals from
a nearby source.
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Check-Up Time!
Now let’s try the questions from
this group.
You should make a note of any that
you miss for later review.
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T3D01
What should you do if you receive a report
that your transmissions are causing
splatter or interference on nearby
frequencies?
A. Increase transmit power
B. Change mode of transmission
C. Report the interference to the equipment
manufacturer
D. Check transmitter for off frequency
operation or spurious emissions
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T3D01 Answer - D
If you have reason to believe
your transmitter is not working
properly, you should stop
transmitting until you
determine whether you have an
equipment problem. If so, you
should determine exactly what
the problem is and correct it.
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T3D02
Who is responsible for taking care of the
interference if signals from your
transmitter are causing front end overload
in your neighbor's television receiver?
A. You alone are responsible, since your
transmitter is causing the problem
B. Both you and the owner of the television
receiver share the responsibility
C. The FCC must decide if you or the owner
of the television receiver is responsible
D. The owner of the television receiver is
responsible
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T3D02 Answer - D
Be careful here. If your
equipment is working properly within
FCC guidelines, and the TV set is
still experiencing interference, it
is probably due to the fact that the
TV is not properly designed to
prevent front end overload. In that
case, it is the problem of the owner
to solve. HOWEVER, to help yourself
and your hobby, you should work with
your neighbor to find solutions to
the problem.
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T3D03
What is the major cause of telephone
interference?
A. The telephone wiring is inadequate
B. Tropospheric ducting at UHF
frequencies
C. The telephone was not equipped
with adequate interference
protection when manufactured.
D. Improper location of the telephone
in the home
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T3D03 Answer - C
Many inexpensive consumer devices allow
interference from radio frequency (RF)
sources. Often this is due to poor design
or cost cutting by eliminating a few
simple parts that would prevent the
problem. Either way, the consumer loses
and the amateur is often blamed for the
problem. It is very important that you
work with your neighbor to locate and fix
the problem, even though it may not be not
required by law.
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T3D04
What is the proper course of action
if you unintentionally interfere
with another station?
A. Rotate your antenna slightly
B. Properly identify your station and
move to a different frequency
C. Increase power
D. Change antenna polarization
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T3D04 Answer - B
If you become the interfering
station, you have an obligation
to cease the interference. The
best way is to properly ID and
then move off the frequency.
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T3D05
When may you deliberately interfere with
another station's communications?
A. Only if the station is operating
illegally
B. Only if the station begins transmitting
on a frequency you are
using
C. Never
D. You may cause deliberate interference
because it can't be helped during crowded
band conditions
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T3D05 Answer - C
§97.101(d)
Deliberate interference is
NEVER lawful, and there is no
justification for it.
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T3D06
Who has exclusive use of a specific
frequency when the FCC has not
declared a communication emergency?
A. Any net station that has traffic
B. The station first occupying the
frequency
C. Individuals passing health and
welfare communications
D. No station has exclusive use of
any frequency
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T3D06 Answer - D
No station or net "owns" any
frequency. However, it is good
amateur practice to yield to
the stations there first, or if
necessary, ask them to move.
Even if they don't, to attempt
to communicate over them is
deliberate interference and is
unlawful.
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T3D07
What effect might a break in a cable television
transmission line have on amateur communications?
A. A break cannot affect amateur communications
B. Harmonic radiation from the TV may cause the
amateur transmitter to transmit off-frequency
C. TV interference may result when the amateur
station is transmitting, or interference may occur
to the amateur receiver
D. The broken cable may pick up very high voltages
when the amateur station is transmitting
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T3D07 Answer - C
The cable acts as an antenna.
If the shielding is broken,
some of the radio frequency
(RF) emissions may get from the
break to a nearby amateur
receiver, causing interference.
In the same way, RF from your
antenna may penetrate the
break, causing interference in
the TV receiver.
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T3D08
What is the best way to reduce on
the air interference when testing
your transmitter?
A. Use a short indoor antenna when
testing
B. Use upper side band when testing
C. Use a dummy load when testing
D. Use a simplex frequency instead of
a repeater frequency
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T3D08 Answer - C
A good dummy load will absorb
nearly all of the RF energy
from your transmitter,
minimizing the chances of
interference to other stations.
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T3D09
What rules apply to your station
when using amateur radio at the
request of public service officials
or at the scene of an emergency?
A.
B.
C.
D.
RACES
ARES
FCC
FEMA
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T3D09 Answer - C
FCC rules always apply to the
use of an amateur station!
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T3D10
What do RACES and ARES have in
common?
A. They represent the two largest ham
clubs in the United States
B. One handles road traffic, the
other weather traffic
C. Neither may handle emergency
traffic
D. Both organizations provide
communications during emergencies
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T3D10 Answer - D
RACES (Radio Amateur Civil
Emergency Service) and ARES
(Amateur Radio Emergency
Communications) are both
organizations that provide
emergency communications
services.
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T3D11
What is meant by receiver front-end
overload?
A. Too much voltage from the power
supply
B. Too much current from the power
supply
C. Interference caused by strong
signals from a nearby source
D. Interference caused by turning the
volume up too high
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T3D11 Answer - C
Strong signals from a nearby
source, whether or not it is on
the same frequency, can
overload a receiver, making it
temporarily useless for
receiving other stations. If
the transmitted signal is very
strong or very close, it can
permanently damage the
receiver.
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Three Down, Seven to
Go!
This concludes Study Guide # 3.
Once you are satisfied that you can answer
80% of the questions in this Sub-element, you
are ready to move on to Study Guide # 4.
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