CUIN 6371
Models of Teaching
Fall, 2003
Howard L. Jones
Session 4
Inductive Strategies…
Concept Attainment Model
Information Processing
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Inductive
Deductive
Inquiry
- Jerome Bruner/
Hilda Taba
- David Ausubel
- J. J. Schwab/J. Richard Suchman
Jean Piaget/ L. Kohlberg
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Memory
Creativity
- R. Atkinson/J. Levin/J. Lucas
- W. J. J. Gordon
Behavior is a Function of
Person .................Environment
B = f (P, E)
Jerome Bruner, Jacqueline
Goodnow & George Austin
A Study of Thinking
1956
Prevalent Learning Theories in the 1950’s
Behaviorism
S
????
R
Gestalt
S
????
R
The “ah-ha”!
A Study of Thinking
People can – and do – determine why it is
that they came up with solutions to
problems and why it is that some
stimulus affects them accordingly!
People differ in the way that they do this!
Left to their own….
Humans will categorize and
act upon the attributes of the
categories…categorization is
a form of invention
There are over 7 million
discriminable colors alone …
And these categories are
Concepts –
we group
objects and events and people
around us into classes …
respond to class membership
rather than uniquenesses
Teaching Concepts
As a teacher, you know a concept
that students should “have”…
How get it “across”
to students?
Think about a lesson…
Introduction
Guided Practice
Introduce New
Ideas
Check
For
Understanding
Think about a lesson…
Introduction
Guided Practice
Introduce New
Ideas
Check
For
Understanding
Think about a lesson…
Introduction
Guided Practice
Introduce New
Ideas
Check
For
Understanding
A Model of Teaching
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* Instructional
Strategies
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Lecturing
Small group work
Laboratory activities
Role Playing
Drill/Practice/Recitation
Problem-Oriented
Instruction ...
Simulations
*Belief
Systems
- How to People
Learn?
- What Should the
Educational
Environment Do?
The Most Common The “Guided Tour”
Teaching Pattern
Approach
• Providing Information
• Verification of information
• Application of Information
(after Renner)
One Path to Learning The “Guided Tour” Approach to
Teaching Magnetism
Teacher Writes Rule/Generalization on
Board
Teacher Explains All Words; Ensures
Student Understanding
Teacher Asks Students for Examples
Students Predict Which Materials Will
Be Attracted to Magnets
Students Verify Predictions
Generalizations/Rules Applied to
Real World Situations
Deductive Teaching
• Teacher Writes Rule on Board
• Teacher Explains All Words, Ensures
Meaningfulness
• Teacher Asks Students For Examples
• Teacher Gives Students Materials and
Magnets
• Students Predict Which Materials Will Be
Attracted to magnets
• Students Verify Predictions
Deductive Teaching
Big Idea (Big Deal)
Smaller Ideas
Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas
Small Ideas
Learning is
Identifying
Patterns!
Find the Pattern
Circumference
11 cm
56 inches
4 ft.
22 m
3.1 inches
Diameter
3.5 cm
17.8 inches
1.3 ft.
7m
1 inch
Multiple Paths to Learning
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Teacher Gives Students Magnets
Students Identify What Things Are Attracted
to Magnets
Students Generate a Rule/Generalization
Teacher Gives Students Other Materials
Students Predict Which Materials Will Be
Attracted to Magnets
Students Verify Predictions
Inductive Teaching
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Teacher Gives Students Magnets
Students Identify What Things Are Attracted
to Magnets
Students Generate a Rule/Generalization
Teacher Gives Students Other Materials
Students Predict Which Materials Will Be
Attracted to Magnets
Students Verify Predictions
Inductive Teaching
Big Idea
Smaller Ideas
Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas
Small Ideas
Elements of a Concept
Robert Gagné
Every Concept has
1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential
attributes of the concept
UNDERSTANDING A CONCEPT
MEANS KNOWING ALL OF THESE
ELEMENTS
1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the
essential attributes of the concept
Deductive
• Teacher Writes Rule on Board
• Teacher Explains All Words,
Ensures Meaningfulness
• Teacher Asks Students For
Examples
• Teacher Gives Students
Materials and Magnets
• Students Predict Which
Materials Will Be Attracted to
Magnets
• Students Verify Predictions
Inductive
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Teacher Gives Students
Magnets
Students Identify What
Things Are Attracted to
Magnets
Students Generate a
Rule/Generalization
Teacher Gives Students
Other Materials
Students Predict Which
Materials Will Be Attracted
to Magnets
Students Verify Predictions
Where Did Models Come From?
Original Theory/Philosophy
(Bruner)
Application of Original Theory
(Gagne’)
Model of Teaching
(Joyce)
Robert Gagné’s Types of Learning
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Basic
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Signal Learning – Stimulus Response
Higher Order
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Concepts
Rules/Generalizations
Problem Solving
Motor Skills
Attitudes
Conditions of Learning Concepts
(after Robert Gagne’)
Internal
External
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Presentation of
examples representative
of the concept
Instructions to elicit a
common link
Verification of concept
Reinforcement
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REPETITION?
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Discriminate
between examples
and non-examples
There are different ways to
categorize
Affective
Functional
Formal
MIB
mother
mama
mom
Ma
….
We search through our linguistic banks
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Greek - meter
(meter)
Latin - Mater
Old English –
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mOdor
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Old High German
–muoter
Middle English -
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moder
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French – mere
Spanish – madre
mam (Welsh)
mat (Russian)
masake
(Crow Tribal)
Sanskrit mAtr
Ibu (Indonesian)
What do these words share?
bash
crash
clash
lash
trash
gash
smash
mash …
What do these words share?
sniffle
snoot
snore
snout
snoop
snot
snuf
snooty
snub
Humans are different in the
ways that they conceptualize
Enactive
Iconic
Symbolic
http://www.math.usu.edu/matti/
Utah State Mathematics
Manipulatives Project
Watch for the “ah-ha”!
FACETIOUS
CAESIOUS
ABSTEMIOUS
PARECIOUS
ABSTENTIOUS
DUOLITERAL
SUBCONTINENTAL
QUODLIBETAL
UNCOMPLIMENTARY
QUODLIBETARY
UNORIENTAL
ADVENTITIOUS
UNNOTICEABLY
FRACEDINOUS

AEIOU
Humans are different in the
ways that they conceptualize
Scanners
Focusers
Interview with OTTO ROTCOD, PH.D.
Man, Oprah's sharp on A.M.
No, Mel Gibson is a casino's big lemon.
Sir, I soon saw Bob was no Osiris.
Oh, no! Don Ho!
Repel evil as a live leper!
Draw pupil’s lip upward.
Sit on a potato pan, Otis.
Go deliver a dare, vile dog.
Ned, go gag Ogden.
Draw, o coward!
Eh, Ca va, la vache?
So, Ida, adios!
A’lautel elle alla, l’autel elle alla, elle le tua la.
Sex at noon taxes.
Stella won no wallets
Too bad, I hid a boot.
More with Dr. Rotcod
Star comedy by Democrats.
Cigar? Toss it in a can, it is so tragic.
No lemons, no melon.
Doc note, I dissent. A fast never prevents a fatness. I diet on cod.
Tuna nut
Go hang a salami! I'm a lasagna hog!
U.F.O. tofu.
Sniff'um muffins.
Bird rib.
Dairy myriad.
Gnu dung.
Laminated E.T. animal.
If I had a hi-fi!
Tarzan raised a Desi Arnaz rat.
Otto Rotcod
Pa's a sap.
Ma is as selfless as I am!
Racecar
Madam
Kayak
Bob
Ava
03230
Evil olive.
Lager, Sir, is regal.
Red rum, sir is murder!
Yo! Bottoms up, U.S. Motto, boy!
Cain: A maniac!
Senile Felines
Solo gigolos.
Sore eye, Eros?
Egad, an adage!
Rats live on no evil star.
Never odd or even
Step on no pets!
(continued)
Even More Dr. Rotcod…
Yawn a more Roman way.
Rise to vote, Sir!
A man, a plan, a canal; Panama?
A dog, a plan, a canal: pagoda.
A man, a plan, a cat, a canal; Panama?
A man, a plan, a cat, a ham, a yak, a yam, a hat, a canal--Panama!
A Toyota! Race fast, safe car. A Toyota
A man, a plan, a canal, Panama!
A man, a plan, a cat, a ham, a yak, a yam, a hat, a canal Panama!
Dennis, Nell, Edna, Leon, Nedra, Anita, Rolf, Nora, Alice, Carol, Leo,
Jane, Reed, Dena, Dale, Basil, Rae, Penny, Lana, Dave, Denny,
Lena, Ida, Bernadette, Ben, Ray, Lila, Nina, Jo, Ira, Mara, Sara,
Mario, Jan, Ina, Lily, Arne, Bette, Dan, Reba, Diane, Lynn, Ed,
Eva, Dana, Lynne, Pearl, Isabel, Ada, Ned, Dee, Rena, Joel,
Lora, Cecil, Aaron, Flora, Tina, Arden, Noel, and Ellen sinned.
Web Site of
Doctor Otto Rotcod
http://www.doctorottorotcod.www//:ptth
Edward Benbow…
A Palindrome of 100,000 words
Begins “Al, sign it ‘Lover’!…
And ends …
Lawrence Levine’s 1986
palindromic novel, Dr. Awkward and
Olson in Oslo contains 31,594 words
ROMA TIBI SUBITO
MOTIBUS IBIT AMOR
NIYON ANOMHMATA MH MONAN
OYIN
A man, a plan, a caret, a ban, a myriad, a sum, a lac, a liar, a hoop, a pint, a catalpa, a
gas, an oil, a bird, a yell, a vat, a caw, a pax, a wag, a tax, a nay, a ram, a cap, a yam,
a gay, a tsar, a wall, a car, a luger, a ward, a bin, a woman, a vassal, a wolf, a tuna, a
nit, a pall, a fret, a watt, a bay, a daub, a tan, a cab, a datum, a gall, a hat, a fag, a
zap, a say, a jaw, a lay, a wet, a gallop, a tug, a trot, a trap, a tram, a torr, a caper, a
top, a tonk, a toll, a ball, a fair, a sax, a minim, a tenor, a bass, a passer, a capital, a rut,
an amen, a ted, a cabal, a tang, a sun, an ass, a maw, a sag, a jam, a dam, a sub, a
salt, an axon, a sail, an ad, a wadi, a radian, a room, a rood, a rip, a tad, a pariah, a
revel, a reel, a reed, a pool, a plug, a pin, a peek, a parabola, a dog, a pat, a cud, a nu,
a fan, a pal, a rum, a nod, an eta, a lag, an eel, a batik, a mug, a mot, a nap, a maxim,
a mood, a leek, a grub, a gob, a gel, a drab, a citadel, a total, a cedar, a tap, a gag, a
rat, a manor, a bar, a gal, a cola, a pap, a yaw, a tab, a raj, a gab, a nag, a pagan, a
bag, a jar, a bat, a way, a papa, a local, a gar, a baron, a mat, a rag, a gap, a tar, a
decal, a tot, a led, a tic, a bard, a leg, a bog, a burg, a keel, a doom, a mix, a map, an
atom, a gum, a kit, a baleen, a gala, a ten, a don, a mural, a pan, a faun, a ducat, a
pagoda, a lob, a rap, a keep, a nip, a gulp, a loop, a deer, a leer, a lever, a hair, a pad, a
tapir, a door, a moor, an aid, a raid, a wad, an alias, an ox, an atlas, a bus, a madam, a
jag, a saw, a mass, an anus, a gnat, a lab, a cadet, an em, a natural, a tip, a caress, a
pass, a baronet, a minimax, a sari, a fall, a ballot, a knot, a pot, a rep, a carrot, a mart,
a part, a tort, a gut, a poll, a gateway, a law, a jay, a sap, a zag, a fat, a hall, a gamut,
a dab, a can, a tabu, a day, a batt, a waterfall, a patina, a nut, a flow, a lass, a van, a
mow, a nib, a draw, a regular, a call, a war, a stay, a gam, a yap, a cam, a ray, an ax, a
tag, a wax, a paw, a cat, a valley, a drib, a lion, a saga, a plat, a catnip, a pooh, a rail, a
calamus, a dairyman, a bater, a canal--Panama.
Your Turn…complete the
palindromes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Name no ___________
Step on ____________
Never odd _______________
Some men interpret ______________
Dennis and Edna ____________
Egad, a base tone denotes _________
Was it Eliot’s _________________?
23+45
Add them together
23
45
Stop if the sum is a palindrome
68
Otherwise reverse the number
86
And add these numbers
154
451
Continue the process until
Take any two numbers
The sum is a palindrome
605
506
1111
Let’s Teach the Concept
Oxymoron
Attributes
a
Examples
Non-Examples
Recorded live
Scotch tape
Small fortune
Ms. Wilson

Colorless green
leaves, sleeping
furiously
Chomsky
Romeo, wherefore art thou…
Why then, O brawling love? O loving
hate! O anything, of nothing first
create! O heavy lightness! Serious
vanity! Misshapen chaos of wellseeming forms! Feather of lead,
bright smoke, cold fire, sick health!
Still-waking sleep, that is not what
it is. This love I fee, that feel no
love in this. (Act 1)
Old customs (and nocturnal vampires) die
hard. And so, each and every time I see an
actor on stage perform delicate surgery, I
think that it is extremely urgent to consider
whether or not it is a close shave.
Thoughtfully consider this arranged staged
scenario:
Noticing her dark black shorts, and not
wishing to come to a complete stop, I
clumsily blurted, “Real genuine messy
garbage obviously clearly is bad waste.”
Irregardless, could you visually picture all
that?
Honest truth?
Pleonasm…the use of
more words than those
necessary to denote mere
sense…redundancy
Waste of Time?
Check out these AP Style Analysis Concepts
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Figurative Language
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Alliteration
Assonance/Consonance
Simile
Metaphor
Personification
Onomatopoeia
Hyperbole
Paradox
Sarcasm
Invective/Splenetic
Metonymy
Synedoche

Diction
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Monosyllabic/Polysyllabic
Colloquial/Informal
Archaic
Denotative/Connotative
Concrete/Abstract
Eupnonious Cacophonous
Which of these might be taught
using an inductive concept model?
1.
Identify adverbs
Find the Concept
The hunter ran quickly after the fleeing deer.
Jimmy ran his razor scooter off the path.
Kit Carson stole quietly up to the working beaver.
The grizzly bear rummaged in the garbage can.
The cowboy rapidly fired his gun until it was
empty.
No The book was about knights in armor.
Yes Susan lovingly hugged her younger sister.
Yes The magnificently powerful tiger slithered
through the dense undergrowth.
Yes The miner very quickly filled his sacks with gold
dust.
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Which of these might be taught
using an inductive concept model?
1.
2.
3.
Identify adverbs
Know time period in which Poe wrote
Recognize similes in writing examples
The Big High and Lonesome
The big high and lonesome’s a place in my mind
like out from Lakeview to Burns
Or up on the Judith or at Promontory
‘bout where the UP tracks turn
It’s anywhere you feel tiny
when you get a good look at the sky
And sometimes when it’s stormin’
you can look the Lord in the eye.
I stood and watched in amazement
out on San Augustine Plain
While the sky turned as black as the curtains in Hell
and the wind come a’chasin’ the rain
And standing there watching I felt it
in the minutes before it arrived
An unearthly stillness prickled my skin
like the storm itself was alive.
When it hit, it hit with a fury
the wind with its sabre unsheathed
Led the charge with the scream of a demon;
the storm was barin’ its teeth.
The thunder cracked and sky split apart
with a horrible deafening roar
I felt like a fox in a cage made of bones
in sight of the hounds at the door.
Which of these might be taught
using an inductive concept model?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Identify adverbs
Know time period in which Poe wrote
Recognize similes in writing examples
Understand miscibility in liquids
Know why two coffee cans roll down an
inclined plane at different speeds
Recognize a “zone” defense in football
Understand gerrymandering
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Steps in the Concept Attainment Model
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Select a concept
Determine the Definition
Select the attributes
Choose the examples
Introduce the process
Present the examples and have
students identify the attributes
Have students develop their concept
definition and possibly provide
examples
Focus student attention on how they
developed the concept
Things that might be taught…


Polysemy .. Words with two or more
meanings (one word whose meanings have
diverged or radiated. In the dictionary,
separate meanings are listed under one
word)
Homonym/Homophone/Homograph – Words
identical in sound and spelling but different in
meaning (In the dictionary, each meaning
receives a separate entry)
Now Here’s a Concept
The girl wearing a bow took a bow.
Jason moped around the house when his dad.
refused to buy him a moped.
The sewer threw her sewing into the sewer.
The unionized stockroom workers had ionized
and unionized water.
At the present, Rob will present the award.
The bass bass sang “Take Me to the River.”
Some more…

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
The bandage was wound around the wound.
The dump was so full that it had to refuse
more refuse.
The wind was too strong to wind the sail.
After a number of injections my jaw got
number.
The soldier decided to desert his dessert in
the desert.
Still more of these suckers…

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The farm was used to produce produce.
The dump was so full that it had to
refuse more refuse.
We must polish the Polish furniture.
He could lead if he would get the lead
out.
When shot at, the dove dove into the
bushes.
A Heteronym
(words spelled same with a different meaning
and pronunciation)
Attributes
a
Examples
Non-Examples
….
…
Thixotropic Substances
Attributes
a
Examples
Non-Examples
Attributes
Examples
Non-Examples
Attributes
Examples
Non-Examples
a
b
Attributes
Examples
Non-Examples
a
b
Attributes
Examples
Non-Examples
a
b
Effects of the Concept
Attainment Model
Instructional
Nurturant

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Sensitivity to Logical
Reasoning in
Communication
Awareness of
Alternative Perspectives
Tolerance of Ambiguity
(But Appreciation of
Logic)

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
Specific Concepts
Nature of Concepts
Improved Concept
Building Strategies
Inductive Reasoning
Competence
Motivation
R. W. White
Next time we are together



Identify 2-3concepts from your subject
field(s) that might be usefully presented
using the Concept Attainment Model
Choose 1 concept and suggest a list of
examples and non-examples that might
be usefully presented to your students
If possible bring in examples/nonexamples on a PC floppy
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