Models of Teaching
EDTC 6341 Student-Centered Learning
Models of Teaching are really…
• Models of learning
– Most important role of teacher is to teach students how to
learn as they:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Acquire information
Ideas
Skills
Values
Ways of thinking
Means of expressing themselves
Joyce, B., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2000). Models of teaching.
Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, pp. 6-7.
According to John Goodlad…
• Elementary teachers
use 3-4 strategies
almost exclusively;
in A Place Called School
• Secondary teachers:
1 or 2 strategies
What do you think…
the most common strategy is?
Renner calls it The “Guided Tour”
Approach
The role of educator is “to
pass on mastery over
content as the content is
envisaged by the
teacher…much as a tour
guide points out sights and
the [learner] is discouraged
from taking any detour”
(Sunal, n.d., ¶ 1).
In which the role of teaching is:
– Providing Information
– Verification of information
– Application of Information
Sunal, D. W. (n.d.). The learning cycle: A comparison of models of
strategies for conceptual reconstruction: A review of the
literature. Retrieved January 19, 2008, from
http://astlc.ua.edu/ScienceInElem&MiddleSchool/565LearningC
ycle-ComparingModels.htm
John Goodlad states NOT ENOUGH
• In “Schools for All Seasons”, Goodlad states:
– Schools must provide rich sensory stimulation
– Organized around
•
•
•
•
•
“the kinesthetic,
the aesthetic,
the social,
the linguistic,
the mathematical, and so on”
– Thus, right or left brain does not matter
• Not an easy task and it runs counter to
prevailing high-stakes test environment
• “The unit of selection designed to involve
everyone in the class over a period of weeks,
with accompanying teacher observation and
diagnosis of individual learners, has largely
disappeared from our schools, in part
because it is associated in the public mind
with "progressive education" and in part
because it demands great pedagogical skill.”
Goodlad, J. (1998). Schools for all seasons. Phi Delta
Kappan 79(9), pp. 670-671.
The “Guided Tour” Approach to
Teaching Magnetism
Teacher Writes Rule/Generalization on
Board
Teacher Explains All Words; Ensures
Student Understanding
Teacher Asks Students for Examples
Students Predict Which Materials Will
Be Attracted to Magnets
Students Verify Predictions
According to John Goodlad…
• Elementary teachers
use 3-4 strategies
almost exclusively;
in A Place Called School
• Secondary teachers:
1 or 2 strategies
What can we do differently
As MTTs and/or leaders to
enact change?
A Model of Teaching includes:
* Instructional
Strategies
–
–
–
–
–
–
Lecturing
Small group work
Laboratory activities
Role Playing
Drill/Practice/Recitation
Problem-Oriented
Instruction ...
– Simulations, etc.
* Belief
Systems
- How do people
learn?
- What should the
educational
environment do?
Models we will be using
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inductive Learning (Hilda Taba)
Concept Attainment (Jerome Bruner)
Deductive Learning
Advance Organizers (David Ausubel)
Group Investigation Model
Cooperative Learning
Learning is
Identifying
Patterns!
A Study of Thinking
People can – and do – determine why it is that
they came up with solutions to problems and
why it is that some stimulus affects them
accordingly!
People differ in the way that they do this!
How would you classify the following?
• Think about how you would categorize the
individuals in the next slide
• Type your categories using text chat…
Left to their own devices….
Humans will categorize and act upon the
attributes of the categories…categorization
is a form of invention
There are over 7 million discriminable colors
alone …how many of you know the names of
all 7 million? 1 million?
Is there a color missing?
Think about thinking…
• What mental processes did you go through to
decide whether there was a color missing?
• How did you categorize the colors?
And these categories are
Concepts –
We group objects and
events and people around us into classes
… responding to class membership rather
than uniquenesses
Different ways to categorize
Affective
Functional
Formal
What categories?
Affective, functional, formal
Bruner…
• ..the true act of discovery is not a random
event….it involves an expectation of finding –
discovering -regularities and relationships in
the environment
• Problem solving with structured searching is
the key to discovery learning
Humans are different in the ways
that they conceptualize…
Scanners – select one aspect of a problem
and assume it is correct until new data say
otherwise
Focusers – look at totality and generate a
theory and keep re-assessing as new data
become available.
As a teacher, you know a concept
that students should “have”…
How get it “across” to
students?
Inductive Teaching
l
l
l
l
l
l
Teacher Gives Students Magnets
Students Identify What Things Are Attracted
to Magnets
Students Generate a Rule/Generalization
Teacher Gives Students Other Materials
Students Predict Which Materials Will Be
Attracted to Magnets
Students Verify Predictions
Elements of a Concept
Jerome Bruner
Every Concept has
1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential
attributes of the concept
Multiple Paths to Learning
l
l
l
l
l
l
Teacher Gives Students Magnets
Students Identify What Things Are Attracted
to Magnets
Students Generate a Rule/Generalization
Teacher Gives Students Other Materials
Students Predict Which Materials Will Be
Attracted to Magnets
Students Verify Predictions
Elements of a Concept
Jerome Bruner
Every Concept has
1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential
attributes of the concept
Field Theory
Behavior is a Function of
Person ......................Environment
B = f (P, E)
Kurt Lewin
Inductive Teaching
Big Idea
Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas
Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas
UNDERSTANDING A CONCEPT MEANS
KNOWING ALL OF THESE ELEMENTS
1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the
essential attributes of the concept
Deductive
• Teacher Writes Rule on Board
• Teacher Explains All Words,
Ensures Meaningfulness
• Teacher Asks Students For
Examples
• Teacher Gives Students
Materials and Magnets
• Students Predict Which
Materials Will Be Attracted to
Magnets
• Students Verify Predictions
Inductive
• Teacher Gives Students
Magnets
• Students Identify What Things
Are Attracted
to
Magnets
• Students Generate a
Rule/Generalization
• Teacher Gives Students Other
Materials
• Students Predict Which
Materials Will Be Attracted to
Magnets
• Students Verify Predictions
Conditions of Learning Concepts
(after Robert Gagne’)
External
• Presentation of examples
representative of the
concept
• Instructions to elicit a
common link
• Verification of concept
• Reinforcement
• REPETITION?
Internal
• Discriminate between
examples and nonexamples
Find the Pattern
Circumference Diameter
11 cm
56 inches
4 ft.
22 m
3.1 inches
3.5 cm
17.8 inches
1.3 ft.
7m
1 inch
Inductive Teaching
Big Idea
Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas
Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas
Elements of a Concept
Jerome Bruner
Every Concept has
1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential
attributes of the concept
UNDERSTANDING A CONCEPT MEANS
KNOWING ALL OF THESE ELEMENTS
1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the
essential attributes of the concept
Deductive
• Teacher Writes Rule on Board
• Teacher Explains All Words,
Ensures Meaningfulness
• Teacher Asks Students For
Examples
• Teacher Gives Students
Materials and Magnets
• Students Predict Which
Materials Will Be Attracted to
Magnets
• Students Verify Predictions
Inductive
• Teacher Gives Students
Magnets
• Students Identify What Things
Are Attracted
to
Magnets
• Students Generate a
Rule/Generalization
• Teacher Gives Students Other
Materials
• Students Predict Which
Materials Will Be Attracted to
Magnets
• Students Verify Predictions
Conditions of Learning Concepts
(after Robert Gagne’)
External
• Presentation of examples
representative of the
concept
• Instructions to elicit a
common link
• Verification of concept
• Reinforcement
• REPETITION?
Internal
• Discriminate between
examples and nonexamples
Interview with OTTO ROTCOD, PH.D.
Man, Oprah's sharp on A.M.
No, Mel Gibson is a casino's big lemon.
Sir, I soon saw Bob was no Osiris.
Oh, no! Don Ho!
Repel evil as a live leper!
Draw pupil’s lip upward.
Sit on a potato pan, Otis.
Go deliver a dare, vile dog.
Ned, go gag Ogden.
Draw, o coward!
Eh, Ca va, la vache?
So, Ida, adios!
A’lautel elle alla, l’autel elle alla, elle le tua la.
Sex at noon taxes.
Stella won no wallets
Too bad, I hid a boot.
More with Dr. Rotcod
Star comedy by Democrats.
Cigar? Toss it in a can, it is so tragic.
No lemons, no melon.
Doc note, I dissent. A fast never prevents a fatness. I diet on cod.
Tuna nut
Go hang a salami! I'm a lasagna hog!
U.F.O. tofu.
Sniff'um muffins.
Bird rib.
Dairy myriad.
Gnu dung.
Laminated E.T. animal.
If I had a hi-fi!
Tarzan raised a Desi Arnaz rat.
Otto Rotcod (continued)
Pa's a sap.
Ma is as selfless as I am!
Racecar
Madam
Kayak
Bob
Ava
03230
Evil olive.
Lager, Sir, is regal.
Red rum, sir is murder!
Yo! Bottoms up, U.S. Motto, boy!
Cain: A maniac!
Senile Felines
Solo gigolos.
Sore eye, Eros?
Egad, an adage!
Rats live on no evil star.
Never odd or even
Step on no pets!
Even More Dr. Rotcod…
Yawn a more Roman way.
Rise to vote, Sir!
A man, a plan, a canal; Panama?
A dog, a plan, a canal: pagoda.
A man, a plan, a cat, a canal; Panama?
A man, a plan, a cat, a ham, a yak, a yam, a hat, a canal--Panama!
A Toyota! Race fast, safe car. A Toyota
A man, a plan, a canal, Panama!
A man, a plan, a cat, a ham, a yak, a yam, a hat, a canal - Panama!
Dennis, Nell, Edna, Leon, Nedra, Anita, Rolf, Nora, Alice, Carol,
Leo, Jane, Reed, Dena, Dale, Basil, Rae, Penny, Lana, Dave,
Denny, Lena, Ida, Bernadette, Ben, Ray, Lila, Nina, Jo, Ira,
Mara, Sara, Mario, Jan, Ina, Lily, Arne, Bette, Dan, Reba, Diane,
Lynn, Ed, Eva, Dana, Lynne, Pearl, Isabel, Ada, Ned, Dee,
Rena, Joel, Lora, Cecil, Aaron, Flora, Tina, Arden, Noel, and
Ellen sinned.
Web Site of
Doctor Otto Rotcod
http://www.doctorottorotcod.www//:ptth
Find the Pattern
Circumference Diameter
11 cm
56 inches
4 ft.
22 m
3.1 inches
3.5 cm
17.8 inches
1.3 ft.
7m
1 inch
There are different ways to
categorize
Affective
Functional
Formal
Watch for the “ah-ha”!
Edward Benbow…
A Palindrome of 100,000 words
Begins “Al, sign it ‘Lover’!…
And ends …
Lawrence Levine’s 1986 palindromic
novel, Dr. Awkward and Olson in Oslo
contains 31,594 words
ROMA TIBI SUBITO
MOTIBUS IBIT AMOR
NIYON ANOMHMATA MH MONAN OYIN
A man, a plan, a caret, a ban, a myriad, a sum, a lac, a liar, a hoop, a pint, a catalpa, a
gas, an oil, a bird, a yell, a vat, a caw, a pax, a wag, a tax, a nay, a ram, a cap, a yam,
a gay, a tsar, a wall, a car, a luger, a ward, a bin, a woman, a vassal, a wolf, a tuna, a
nit, a pall, a fret, a watt, a bay, a daub, a tan, a cab, a datum, a gall, a hat, a fag, a
zap, a say, a jaw, a lay, a wet, a gallop, a tug, a trot, a trap, a tram, a torr, a caper, a
top, a tonk, a toll, a ball, a fair, a sax, a minim, a tenor, a bass, a passer, a capital, a rut,
an amen, a ted, a cabal, a tang, a sun, an ass, a maw, a sag, a jam, a dam, a sub, a
salt, an axon, a sail, an ad, a wadi, a radian, a room, a rood, a rip, a tad, a pariah, a
revel, a reel, a reed, a pool, a plug, a pin, a peek, a parabola, a dog, a pat, a cud, a nu,
a fan, a pal, a rum, a nod, an eta, a lag, an eel, a batik, a mug, a mot, a nap, a maxim,
a mood, a leek, a grub, a gob, a gel, a drab, a citadel, a total, a cedar, a tap, a gag, a
rat, a manor, a bar, a gal, a cola, a pap, a yaw, a tab, a raj, a gab, a nag, a pagan, a
bag, a jar, a bat, a way, a papa, a local, a gar, a baron, a mat, a rag, a gap, a tar, a
decal, a tot, a led, a tic, a bard, a leg, a bog, a burg, a keel, a doom, a mix, a map, an
atom, a gum, a kit, a baleen, a gala, a ten, a don, a mural, a pan, a faun, a ducat, a
pagoda, a lob, a rap, a keep, a nip, a gulp, a loop, a deer, a leer, a lever, a hair, a pad, a
tapir, a door, a moor, an aid, a raid, a wad, an alias, an ox, an atlas, a bus, a madam, a
jag, a saw, a mass, an anus, a gnat, a lab, a cadet, an em, a natural, a tip, a caress, a
pass, a baronet, a minimax, a sari, a fall, a ballot, a knot, a pot, a rep, a carrot, a mart,
a part, a tort, a gut, a poll, a gateway, a law, a jay, a sap, a zag, a fat, a hall, a gamut,
a dab, a can, a tabu, a day, a batt, a waterfall, a patina, a nut, a flow, a lass, a van, a
mow, a nib, a draw, a regular, a call, a war, a stay, a gam, a yap, a cam, a ray, an ax, a
tag, a wax, a paw, a cat, a valley, a drib, a lion, a saga, a plat, a catnip, a pooh, a rail, a
calamus, a dairyman, a bater, a canal--Panama.
Your Turn…complete the
palindromes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Name no ___________
Step on ____________
Never odd _______________
Some men interpret ______________
Dennis and Edna ____________
Egad, a base tone denotes _________
Was it Eliot’s _________________?
23+45
Add them together
23
45
Stop if the sum is a palindrome
68
Otherwise reverse the number
86
And add these numbers
154
451
Continue the process until
Take any two numbers
The sum is a palindrome
605
506
1111
Let’s Teach the Concept
Oxymoron
Attributes a
Examples
Non-Examples
a
b
•Colorless green leaves,
sleeping furiously
Chomsky
Romeo, wherefore art thou…
Why then, O brawling love? O loving hate! O
anything, of nothing first create! O heavy
lightness! Serious vanity! Misshapen
chaos of well-seeming forms! Feather of
lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health!
Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is.
This love I fee, that feel no love in this.
(Act 1)
Old customs (and nocturnal vampires) die hard.
And so, each and every time I see an actor on
stage perform delicate surgery, I think that it is
extremely urgent to consider whether or not it
is a close shave. Thoughtfully consider this
arranged staged scenario:
Noticing her dark black shorts, and not wishing
to come to a complete stop, I clumsily blurted,
“Real genuine messy garbage obviously
clearly is bad waste.” Irregardless, could you
visually picture all that?
Honest truth?
Pleonasm…the use of more
words than those necessary to
denote mere
sense…redundancy
Waste of Time?
Check out these AP Style Analysis Concepts
• Figurative Language
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Alliteration
Assonance/Consonance
•
Simile
Metaphor
Personification
Onomatopoeia
Hyperbole
Paradox
Sarcasm
Invective/Splenetic
Metonymy
Synedoche
Diction
–
–
–
–
–
–
Monosyllabic/Polysyllabic
Colloquial/Informal
Archaic
Denotative/Connotative
Concrete/Abstract
Eupnonious Cacophonous
Which of these might be taught using an
inductive concept model?
1. Identify adverbs
Find the Concept
Yes The hunter ran quickly after the fleeing deer.
No Jimmy ran his razor scooter off the path.
Yes Kit Carson stole quietly up to the working beaver.
No The grizzly bear rummaged in the garbage can.
Yes The cowboy rapidly fired his gun until it was
empty.
No The book was about knights in armor.
Yes Susan lovingly hugged her younger sister.
Yes The magnificently powerful tiger slithered through
the dense undergrowth.
Yes The miner very quickly filled his sacks with gold
dust.
Which of these might be taught using an
inductive concept model?
1. Identify adverbs
2. Know time period in which Poe wrote
3. Recognize similes in writing examples
The Big High and Lonesome
The big high and lonesome’s a place in my mind
like out from Lakeview to Burns
Or up on the Judith or at Promontory
‘bout where the UP tracks turn
It’s anywhere you feel tiny
when you get a good look at the sky
And sometimes when it’s stormin’
you can look the Lord in the eye.
Which of these might be taught using an
inductive concept model?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Identify adverbs
Know time period in which Poe wrote
Recognize similes in writing examples
Understand miscibility in liquids
Know why two coffee cans roll down an
inclined plane at different speeds
6. Recognize a “zone” defense in football
7. Understand gerrymandering
Steps in the Concept Attainment Model
•
•
•
•
•
•
Select a concept
Determine the Definition
Select the attributes
Choose the examples
Introduce the process
Present the examples and have students
identify the attributes
• Have students develop their concept
definition and possibly provide examples
• Focus student attention on how they
developed the concept
Now Here’s a Concept
The girl wearing a bow took a bow.
Jason moped around the house when his dad.
refused to buy him a moped.
The sewer threw her sewing into the sewer.
The unionized stockroom workers had ionized
and unionized water.
At the present, Rob will present the award.
The bass bass sang “Take Me to the River.”
Some more…
• The bandage was wound around the wound.
• The dump was so full that it had to refuse
more refuse.
• The wind was too strong to wind the sail.
• After a number of injections my jaw got
number.
• The soldier decided to desert his dessert in
the desert.
Still more of these suckers…
• The farm was used to produce produce.
• The dump was so full that it had to refuse
more refuse.
• We must polish the Polish furniture.
• He could lead if he would get the lead out.
• When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes.
A Heteronym
(words spelled same with a different meaning and
pronunciation)
As a teacher, you know a concept
that students should “have”…
How get it “across” to
students?
Elements of a Concept
Jerome Bruner
Every Concept has
1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential
attributes of the concept.
Inductive Teaching






Teacher gives students magnets
Students identify what things are
attracted to magnets
Students generate a rule/ generalization
Teacher gives students other materials
Students predict which materials will be
attracted to magnets
Students verify predictions
Inductive Teaching
Big Idea
Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas
Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas
Conditions of Learning Concepts
(after Robert Gagne’)
External
• Presentation of examples
representative of the
concept
• Instructions to elicit a
common link
• Verification of concept
• Reinforcement
• REPETITION?
Internal
• Discriminate between
examples and nonexamples
Find the Pattern
Circumference
11 cm
56 inches
4 ft
22 m
3.1 inches
Diameter
3.5 cm
17.8 inches
1.3 ft.
7m
1 inch
Let’s Teach the Concept
Oxymoron
Attributes
Examples
Non-Examples
a
b
•Colorless green leaves,
sleeping furiously
-- Chomsky
Romeo, wherefore art thou…
Why then, O brawling love? O loving hate! O
anything, of nothing first create! O heavy
lightness! Serious vanity! Misshapen
chaos of well-seeming forms! Feather of
lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health!
Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is.
This love I fee, that feel no love in this.
(Act 1)
Old customs (and nocturnal vampires) die hard.
And so, each and every time I see an actor on
stage perform delicate surgery, I think that it is
extremely urgent to consider whether or not it
is a close shave. Thoughtfully consider this
arranged staged scenario:
Noticing her dark black shorts, and not wishing
to come to a complete stop, I clumsily blurted,
“Real genuine messy garbage obviously
clearly is bad waste.” Irregardless, could you
visually picture all that?
Honest truth?
Pleonasm…the use of more
words than those necessary to
denote mere sense. . .
redundancy (all over again?)
Waste of Time?
Check out these AP Style Analysis Concepts
• Figurative Language
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Alliteration
Assonance/Consonance
Simile
Metaphor
Personification
Onomatopoeia
Hyperbole
Paradox
Sarcasm
Invective/Splenetic
Metonymy
Synedoche
• Diction
–
–
–
–
–
–
Monosyllabic/Polysyllabic
Colloquial/Informal
Archaic
Denotative/Connotative
Concrete/Abstract
Eupnonious Cacophonous
Which of these might be taught using an
inductive concept model?
1. Identify adverbs
Find the Concept
Yes The hunter ran quickly after the fleeing deer.
No Jimmy ran his razor scooter off the path.
Yes Kit Carson stole quietly up to the working beaver.
No The grizzly bear rummaged in the garbage can.
Yes The cowboy rapidly fired his gun until it was
empty.
No The book was about knights in armor.
Yes Susan lovingly hugged her younger sister.
Yes The magnificently powerful tiger slithered through
the dense undergrowth.
Yes The miner very quickly filled his sacks with gold
dust.
Which of these might be taught using an
inductive concept model?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Identify adverbs
Know time period in which Poe wrote
Recognize similes in writing examples
Understand miscibility in liquids
Know why two coffee cans roll down an
inclined plane at different speeds
6. Recognize a “zone” defense in football
7. Understand gerrymandering
Steps in the Concept Attainment Model
•
•
•
•
•
•
Select a concept
Determine the Definition
Select the attributes
Choose the examples
Introduce the process
Present the examples and have students
identify the attributes
• Have students develop their concept
definition and possibly provide examples
• Focus student attention on how they
developed the concept
Now Here’s a Concept
The girl wearing a bow took a bow.
Jason moped around the house when his dad.
refused to buy him a moped.
The sewer threw her sewing into the sewer.
The unionized stockroom workers had ionized
and unionized water.
At the present, Rob will present the award.
Some more…
• The bandage was wound around the wound.
• The dump was so full that it had to refuse
more refuse.
• The wind was too strong to wind the sail.
• After a number of injections my jaw got
number.
• The soldier decided to desert his dessert in
the desert.
Still more of these suckers…
• The farm was used to produce produce.
• The dump was so full that it had to refuse
more refuse.
• We must polish the Polish furniture.
• He could lead if he would get the lead out.
• When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes.
A Heteronym
(words spelled same with a different meaning and
pronunciation)
The bass bass sang “Take Me to the River.”
Your job?
• To teach an inductive lesson this week (or
very early next week and present your
findings to the class on Tuesday.
• Have fun…and hear you next week.
Very special thanks to:
Dr. Howard Jones from the University
of Houston for generously allowing me
to “steal” his ideas (and use his
PowerPoint Presentations) and
encouraging me to continue my quest to
be a missionary of models.
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A Model of Teaching