Accelerated Technician Class
to be used with Element 2 Question Pool 2010-2014
Presented by
Wabash Valley Amateur Radio
Association, Inc.
Adapted from a slide presentation created by Jeff Smith, W4ZH
Accelerated Technician Class
Session #1
Instructor Contact Info
Chuck Procarione, W9COD
Jerry Cockrell, W9GWC
Home Phone: (765) 832-5132
Cell Phone: (812) 239-8061
E-Mail: [email protected]
Home Phone: (812) 877-3067
Cell Phone: (812) 243-9828
E-Mail: [email protected]
Ray Andrews, K9DUR
Steve Shorter, NT9T
Home Phone: (812) 870-8810
Cell Phone: (812) 236-6522
E-Mail: [email protected]
Cell Phone: (812) 243-4060
E-Mail: [email protected]
Course Philosophy
(At least do the following: #2,3, & 4)
1. Introduce the concepts of electricity
and radio communications
2. Do your own memory work
3. 6-12 hours of study will be required
4. Use of on-line practice exams
5. What is not covered: Material that is
not on the exam
Highly recommended:
Ham Radio License Manual
FCC Rules & Regulations
Both are available from:
American Radio Relay League
(860) 594-0200
Other Useful Materials
Available from:
 ARRL (860) 594-0200
 Amateur Accessories (800) 829-8321
 R&L Electronics (800) 221-7735
 Amateur Electronics Supply (800) 558-0411
 Ham Radio Outlet (800) 444-7927
An “Elmer” is an
experienced amateur radio
operator who helps you
get started in amateur
radio, study for your
license exams or
upgrades, or offers any
similar encouragement.
That’s US!
If you don’t have an
“Elmer” to mentor you, ask
for one.
HAM Radio????
HAM Radio is a slang term meaning
Amateur Radio.
Originally a land-line telegraph
derogatory term for a poor operator.
Spark-gap transmitters required large
contact spacings, so “fist” was not as
polished as land-line operators.
Later embraced by the amateur
community itself.
The Question Pool & Test Structure
The question pool is divided into 10 sub-elements
T1 - Rules
T6 – Electrical Components
T2 – Operating Procedures
T7 - Equipment
T3 – Propagation
T8 - Modulation Modes
T4 - Amateur Radio Practice
T9 - Antennas & Feed lines
T5 - Electrical Principles
T0 - RF Safety
Each sub-element is divided into 3 or more
groups for a total of 35 groups.
There are 35 questions on the test, one question
from each group.
There are a total of 396 questions in the pool.
Introduction to Amateur Radio
The Entry-Level
(Element 2 Exam)
Only 3 Classes of
Amateur Radio Licenses
In order of privileges
Amateur Extra
Entry Level License
35-question written exam (Element 2)
There is no Morse code requirement
Provides all operating privileges above
50 MHz, including the popular 2-meter
band; all modes including exotic data
and satellite modes
Also some limited HF privileges.
What’s this about Morse Code?
NONE! Effective February 23, 2007, the FCC eliminated
Morse Code as a requirement for any class of amateur
radio license!
FCC Rules and Regulations
Part 97 - Amateur Radio Service
§97.1 Basis and purpose
The rules and regulations in this part are designed to provide
an amateur radio service having a fundamental
purpose as expressed in the following principles:
(a) Recognition and enhancement of the value of the
amateur service to the public as a voluntary non-commercial
communication service, particularly with respect to
providing emergency communications.
(b) Continuation and extension of the amateur’s proven
ability to contribute to the advancement of the radio art.
(c) Encouragement and improvement of the amateur service
through rules which provide for advancing skills in both the
communication and technical phases of the art.
(d) Expansion of the existing reservoir within the amateur
radio service of trained operators, technicians and electronics
(e) Continuation and extension of the amateur’s unique
ability to enhance international goodwill.
For whom is the Amateur Radio Service
A. Persons who have messages to broadcast to the
B. Persons who need communications for the activities
of their immediate family members, relatives and
C. Persons who need two-way communications for
personal reasons
D. Persons who are interested in radio technique
solely with a personal aim and without pecuniary
Can’t we all just
get along?
Courtesy and Common Sense
With only a few exceptions that may seem silly,
the rules are basically common sense
No music (except from manned spacecraft)
No payment, unless you are teaching in a
school (or certain club station managers)
No profanity or obscenity, no exceptions!
In a life or property threatening emergency,
just about anything goes.
Control Operator
Control Operator: An amateur operator
designated by the licensee of a station to be
responsible for the transmissions from that
station to assure compliance with the FCC
Generally, that means YOU
You can allow another licensed amateur to
use your station equipment and call sign
Third Party Communications
Third Party Communications: A message from
the control operator (1st party) of an
amateur station to another amateur station
control operator (2nd party) on behalf of
another (non-amateur) person (3rd party)
Be sure there is a 3rd party agreement
between the US and the other station’s
country before handling 3rd party traffic.
Maximum Transmitter Power
In HF Technician Bands, 200 watts Peak
Envelope Power (PEP).
In most other bands, 1500 watts PEP.
In all cases, use the minimum power
required to make a reliable contact.
Station Identification
FCC rules require amateur stations to
identify every 10 minutes and at the
end of each series of transmissions
Do not make unidentified transmissions,
(with some exceptions, like for Radio
Controlled craft.)
Note: More about station identification will be covered
under “Operating Procedures”
About Your Call sign
Amateur call signs in the US begin with the
letters A, K, N or W
Each US call sign contains 1 or 2 letters, a
one-digit number (0-9), and 1, 2, or 3 letters.
The arrangement of letters indicates license
class (maybe), with shorter calls going to
higher license classes
Licenses are good for 10 years
There is a 2 year grace period for renewal
ITU “International Telecommunications Union”
North America is in Region 2!!!
Technician class - Band Privileges
All amateur bands 50 MHz and above
All available modes
No power restrictions
Limited privileges on frequencies below
50 MHz
80m, 40m, & 15m – CW only.
10m – CW & SSB only.
Amateur Radio Frequency Bands
The Relationship of Frequency and
The distance a radio wave travels in one cycle is called wavelength.
One Cycle
VOne Wavelength
Wavelength Formula
To convert from frequency to wavelength
also this tells you what Band you are
Wavelength (Band) =
freq (MHz)
Wavelength and Frequency are Inversely
Proportional. As one goes up, the other
must go down.
On what amateur bands will you
find these frequencies?
80/75 meter band
15 meter band
2 meter band
40 meter band
10 meter band
What is an amateur station control point?
A. The location of the station’s transmitting
B. The location of the station transmitting
C. The location in which the control operation
function is performed
D. The mailing address of the station licensee
How soon may you operate a transmitter on an
Amateur radio service frequency after you pass
the examination required for you first amateur
radio license?
A. Immediately
B. 30 days after the test date
C. As soon as your name and call sign appear
in the FCC’s ULS database
D. You must wait until you receive your license
in the mail from the FCC
Which of the following types of transmissions
Are prohibited?
A. Transmissions that contain obscene or
indecent words or language
B. Transmissions to establish one-way
C. Transmission to establish model aircraft
D. Transmissions for third party communications
What are the frequency limits of the VHF
A. 30 - 300 kHz
B. 30 - 300 MHz
C. 300 - 3000 kHz
D. 300 - 3000 MHz
Which of the following is an acceptable
language for use for station identification when
operating in a phone sub-band?
A. Any language recognized by the United
B. Any language recognized by the ITU
C. The English language
D. English, French or Spanish
What amount of transmitter power should be
used on the uplink frequency of an amateur
satellite or space station?
A. The maximum power of your transmitter
B. The minimum amount of power needed to
complete the contact
C. No more than half the rating of your linear
D. No more than 1 watt
What is the maximum power allowed when
transmitting telecommand signals to radio
controlled models?
A. 500 milliwatts
B. 1 watt
C. 25 watts
D. 1500 watts
Operating Procedures
Work the
on the
repeater. Work
the world on
Right is a
ProtoType “TSA Go
Kit by J. Smith PNS
Voice and HF Email
& will deliver 100
Repeater: An amateur station that
simultaneously retransmits the
transmission of another amateur station
on a different channel or channels
Why? A powerful repeater transmitter
located at altitude greatly increases the
effective range of weaker hand held
and mobile radios.
In order to use a repeater, you must
first know the repeater’s transmit
frequency and offset. The offset is
the difference in the repeater’s
transmit and receive frequencies.
Most modern radios will calculate
the offset for you.
A Repeater in Action
Output Freq
145.21 MHz
Input Freq
144.61 MHz
- 600 kHz
60 miles
Squelch: A squelch circuit keeps the radio
speaker turned off until sufficient RF energy
is present at the receiver. This keeps the
radio quiet until a signal is received. In a
repeater, the squelch also turns on the
In some areas, there is such a level of RF
noise the squelch circuit is constantly opening
the audio. What do we do?
PL Tones: Developed by Motorola, Privacy Lock
(PL) tones, or Continuous Tone Coded Squelch
System (CTCSS) tones are sub-audible tones
sent by your radio to the repeater along with
your regular transmission.
On a CTCSS-equipped repeater, there must be
enough signal strength to open the squelch and
the correct frequency CTCSS tone must be
present before the repeater will retransmit a
At the end of each transmission through
a repeater, you will hear a “courtesy
tone” (a short beep, or series of beeps).
Do not begin your transmission until
after you hear the courtesy tone.
Do not confuse the courtesy tone with
the CTCSS tone.
Repeater Operations
Listen! If nobody is there, then the repeater is not in
use. Give your call sign once.
If the repeater is busy, wait for a break and give your
call sign ONCE.
Observe rotation, if there is one.
When calling another station, always give the other
station’s call sign first, then yours.
ID every 10 minutes and at the end of the conversation
(QSO), you need not ID after every exchange.
Amateurs can use the repeater’s
“autopatch” to connect to the public
telephone network via radio.
You can make phone calls from your radio
All repeaters are required to have a 3 minute
transmit time-out feature. This applies to the
autopatch as well.
Do not abuse the autopatch.
Use judgment calling 911.
Use of autopatch may be subject to payment
of dues to the repeater owner or club.
The World of High Frequency
These are the
traditional world wide bands people
usually associate with ham radio.
HF/Single Sideband (SSB) Operations
When trying to find a clear frequency, LISTEN
FIRST, then ask, “Is this frequency in use? <call
If the frequency is clear, then call “CQ” 3 x 3 - Call
CQ three times followed by your call sign phonetically
three times, listen, repeat.
When calling another station, always give the other
station’s call sign first, then yours.
ID every 10 minutes and at the end of the QSO, you
need not ID after every exchange.
Give stations you contact honest signal reports.
The RST Reporting System
The RST system is a quick way amateurs
use to describe a received signal.
1 = Poor 5 = Good
Signal Strength 1 = Poor 9 = Good
Tone (CW only) 1 = Poor 9 = Good
Note: Do not use the RST system on repeaters.
Q-signals are a kind of “short-hand” hams
use to communicate quickly, especially
via Morse Code.
Purists will say that it is poor practice to
use Q-signals on voice, but everybody
does it.
Most can be a question or a statement:
QSY (change frequency)
“Can you QSY to 7.250?”
“I will QSY to 7.250”
“There is QRM on the Freq” QRM
made interference)
“Do you hear any QRM?”
“There is QRM on the Freq”
The use of Q-signals began in the days of
the telegraph, where operators
developed a way to exchange commonly
transmitted information (location, output
power, etc.) more efficiently.
Some common Q-signals are on the next
QRM - Is my transmission being interfered with?/Something is
causing interference
QRN - Are you troubled by static/noise?/I am troubled by
QRO - Shall I increase transmitter power?/I am running high power.
QRP - Shall I decrease transmitter power?/I am running low power.
QRQ - Shall I send faster?/Please send faster.
QRS - Shall I send slower?/Please send slower
QRT - Shall I stop sending?/I am going off the air.
QRZ – AM I being called by?/You are being called by.
(Not correct but most common usage: Who is calling me?)
QSB - Are my signals fading?/Your signal is fading.
QSL - Can you acknowledge receipt?/I received the message.
QSO - Can you communicate with ____ directly?/I will communicate
with ________ directly.
QSY - Shall I change frequency?/I am changing frequency to
QTH - What is your location?/My location is _______.
QSL Cards
A QSL card is a written confirmation of contact
between two amateur radio stations.
ITU Phonetic Alphabet
A Alpha
H Hotel
O Oscar
V Victor
B Bravo
I India
P Papa
W Whiskey
C Charlie
J Juliet
Q Quebec
X X-ray
D Delta
K Kilo
R Romeo
Y Yankee
E Echo
L Lima
S Sierra
Z Zulu
F Foxtrot
M Mike
T Tango
G Golf
N November
U Uniform
ITU Phonetic Alphabet
Used for accurate copy when band
conditions are noisy or crowded.
Always use the proper words, they were
carefully selected so no two sound
Avoid being cute.
Generally not needed on repeaters.
Some No-No’s
Don’t use CB slang or 10-codes!!!!
Don’t interrupt conversations (QSO’s) in
Don’t tune up on the air, use a dummy load.
Avoid subject matter that could be offensive.
Don’t forget your manners – be polite.
Don’t whine and complain.
Don’t forget that the whole world can hear
What is the term used to describe an amateur
station that is transmitting and receiving on the
same frequency?
A. Full duplex communication
B. Diplex communication
C. Simplex communication
D. Half duplex communication
What is the FCC Part 97 definition of a space
A. Any multi-stage satellite
B. An Earth satellite that carries one or more
amateur operators
C. An amateur station located less than 25
km above the Earth’s surface
D. An amateur station located more than 50
km above the Earth’s surface
Which of the following meets the FCC
definition of harmful interference?
A. Radio transmissions that annoy users of a repeater
B. Unwanted radio transmissions that cause costly
harm to radio station apparatus
C. That which seriously degrades, obstructs or
repeatedly interrupts a radio communication service
operating in accordance with Radio Regulations
D. Static from lightning storms
What is the term for an FCC-issued primary
station/operator license grant?
A. Five years
B. Life
C. Ten years
D. Twenty years
What is the most common repeater frequency
offset in the 2 meter band?
A. plus 500 khz
B. Plus or minus 600 khz
C. Minus 500 khz
D. Only plus 600 khz
What is an appropriate way to call another
station on a repeater if you know the other
station’s call sign?
A. Say “break, break” then say the station’s call
B. Say the station’s call sign then identify your
call sign
C. Say “CQ” three times then the other station’s
call sign
D. Wait for the station to call “CQ” then answer

One Day Technician Class