Accelerated Technician Class to be used with Element 2 Question Pool 2010-2014 Presented by Wabash Valley Amateur Radio Association, Inc. Adapted from a slide presentation created by Jeff Smith, W4ZH Accelerated Technician Class Session #1 Instructor Contact Info Chuck Procarione, W9COD Jerry Cockrell, W9GWC Home Phone: (765) 832-5132 Cell Phone: (812) 239-8061 E-Mail: email@example.com Home Phone: (812) 877-3067 Cell Phone: (812) 243-9828 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Ray Andrews, K9DUR Steve Shorter, NT9T Home Phone: (812) 870-8810 Cell Phone: (812) 236-6522 E-Mail: email@example.com Cell Phone: (812) 243-4060 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Course Philosophy (At least do the following: #2,3, & 4) 1. Introduce the concepts of electricity and radio communications 2. Do your own memory work 3. 6-12 hours of study will be required 4. Use of on-line practice exams 5. What is not covered: Material that is not on the exam Materials Highly recommended: Ham Radio License Manual FCC Rules & Regulations Both are available from: American Radio Relay League (860) 594-0200 http://arrl.org Other Useful Materials Available from: ARRL (860) 594-0200 Amateur Accessories (800) 829-8321 R&L Electronics (800) 221-7735 Amateur Electronics Supply (800) 558-0411 Ham Radio Outlet (800) 444-7927 Elmers An “Elmer” is an experienced amateur radio operator who helps you get started in amateur radio, study for your license exams or upgrades, or offers any similar encouragement. That’s US! If you don’t have an “Elmer” to mentor you, ask for one. HAM Radio???? HAM Radio is a slang term meaning Amateur Radio. Originally a land-line telegraph derogatory term for a poor operator. Spark-gap transmitters required large contact spacings, so “fist” was not as polished as land-line operators. Later embraced by the amateur community itself. The Question Pool & Test Structure The question pool is divided into 10 sub-elements T1 - Rules T6 – Electrical Components T2 – Operating Procedures T7 - Equipment T3 – Propagation T8 - Modulation Modes T4 - Amateur Radio Practice T9 - Antennas & Feed lines T5 - Electrical Principles T0 - RF Safety Each sub-element is divided into 3 or more groups for a total of 35 groups. There are 35 questions on the test, one question from each group. There are a total of 396 questions in the pool. Introduction to Amateur Radio The Entry-Level Technician License (Element 2 Exam) Only 3 Classes of Amateur Radio Licenses In order of privileges Technician General Amateur Extra Entry Level License Technician 35-question written exam (Element 2) There is no Morse code requirement Provides all operating privileges above 50 MHz, including the popular 2-meter band; all modes including exotic data and satellite modes Also some limited HF privileges. What’s this about Morse Code? NONE! Effective February 23, 2007, the FCC eliminated Morse Code as a requirement for any class of amateur radio license! FCC Rules and Regulations Part 97 - Amateur Radio Service §97.1 Basis and purpose The rules and regulations in this part are designed to provide an amateur radio service having a fundamental purpose as expressed in the following principles: (a) Recognition and enhancement of the value of the amateur service to the public as a voluntary non-commercial communication service, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications. (b) Continuation and extension of the amateur’s proven ability to contribute to the advancement of the radio art. (c) Encouragement and improvement of the amateur service through rules which provide for advancing skills in both the communication and technical phases of the art. (d) Expansion of the existing reservoir within the amateur radio service of trained operators, technicians and electronics experts. (e) Continuation and extension of the amateur’s unique ability to enhance international goodwill. For whom is the Amateur Radio Service untended? A. Persons who have messages to broadcast to the public B. Persons who need communications for the activities of their immediate family members, relatives and friends C. Persons who need two-way communications for personal reasons D. Persons who are interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and without pecuniary interest Rules Can’t we all just get along? Courtesy and Common Sense With only a few exceptions that may seem silly, the rules are basically common sense No music (except from manned spacecraft) No payment, unless you are teaching in a school (or certain club station managers) No profanity or obscenity, no exceptions! In a life or property threatening emergency, just about anything goes. Control Operator Control Operator: An amateur operator designated by the licensee of a station to be responsible for the transmissions from that station to assure compliance with the FCC rules. Generally, that means YOU You can allow another licensed amateur to use your station equipment and call sign Third Party Communications Third Party Communications: A message from the control operator (1st party) of an amateur station to another amateur station control operator (2nd party) on behalf of another (non-amateur) person (3rd party) Be sure there is a 3rd party agreement between the US and the other station’s country before handling 3rd party traffic. Maximum Transmitter Power In HF Technician Bands, 200 watts Peak Envelope Power (PEP). In most other bands, 1500 watts PEP. In all cases, use the minimum power required to make a reliable contact. Station Identification FCC rules require amateur stations to identify every 10 minutes and at the end of each series of transmissions Do not make unidentified transmissions, (with some exceptions, like for Radio Controlled craft.) Note: More about station identification will be covered under “Operating Procedures” About Your Call sign Amateur call signs in the US begin with the letters A, K, N or W Each US call sign contains 1 or 2 letters, a one-digit number (0-9), and 1, 2, or 3 letters. The arrangement of letters indicates license class (maybe), with shorter calls going to higher license classes Licenses are good for 10 years There is a 2 year grace period for renewal ARRL CALL DISTRICT MAP ITU “International Telecommunications Union” North America is in Region 2!!! Technician class - Band Privileges All amateur bands 50 MHz and above All available modes No power restrictions Limited privileges on frequencies below 50 MHz 80m, 40m, & 15m – CW only. 10m – CW & SSB only. Amateur Radio Frequency Bands The Relationship of Frequency and Wavelength The distance a radio wave travels in one cycle is called wavelength. V+ One Cycle 0V time VOne Wavelength Wavelength Formula To convert from frequency to wavelength also this tells you what Band you are on: 300 Wavelength (Band) = freq (MHz) Wavelength and Frequency are Inversely Proportional. As one goes up, the other must go down. On what amateur bands will you find these frequencies? 3.975 21.25 145.21 7,233 28.350 MHz MHz MHz kHz MHz 80/75 meter band _______ 15 meter band _______ 2 meter band _______ 40 meter band _______ 10 meter band _______ What is an amateur station control point? A. The location of the station’s transmitting antenna B. The location of the station transmitting apparatus C. The location in which the control operation function is performed D. The mailing address of the station licensee How soon may you operate a transmitter on an Amateur radio service frequency after you pass the examination required for you first amateur radio license? A. Immediately B. 30 days after the test date C. As soon as your name and call sign appear in the FCC’s ULS database D. You must wait until you receive your license in the mail from the FCC Which of the following types of transmissions Are prohibited? A. Transmissions that contain obscene or indecent words or language B. Transmissions to establish one-way communications C. Transmission to establish model aircraft control D. Transmissions for third party communications What are the frequency limits of the VHF spectrum? A. 30 - 300 kHz B. 30 - 300 MHz C. 300 - 3000 kHz D. 300 - 3000 MHz Which of the following is an acceptable language for use for station identification when operating in a phone sub-band? A. Any language recognized by the United Nations B. Any language recognized by the ITU C. The English language D. English, French or Spanish What amount of transmitter power should be used on the uplink frequency of an amateur satellite or space station? A. The maximum power of your transmitter B. The minimum amount of power needed to complete the contact C. No more than half the rating of your linear amplifier D. No more than 1 watt What is the maximum power allowed when transmitting telecommand signals to radio controlled models? A. 500 milliwatts B. 1 watt C. 25 watts D. 1500 watts INTERMISSION 38 Operating Procedures Work the neighborhood on the repeater. Work the world on HF Right is a ProtoType “TSA Go Kit by J. Smith PNS for HF/VHF/UHF Voice and HF Email & will deliver 100 watts Repeaters Repeater: An amateur station that simultaneously retransmits the transmission of another amateur station on a different channel or channels Why? A powerful repeater transmitter located at altitude greatly increases the effective range of weaker hand held and mobile radios. Repeaters In order to use a repeater, you must first know the repeater’s transmit frequency and offset. The offset is the difference in the repeater’s transmit and receive frequencies. Most modern radios will calculate the offset for you. A Repeater in Action Output Freq 145.21 MHz Input Freq 144.61 MHz Offset - 600 kHz 60 miles Repeaters Squelch: A squelch circuit keeps the radio speaker turned off until sufficient RF energy is present at the receiver. This keeps the radio quiet until a signal is received. In a repeater, the squelch also turns on the transmitter. In some areas, there is such a level of RF noise the squelch circuit is constantly opening the audio. What do we do? Repeaters PL Tones: Developed by Motorola, Privacy Lock (PL) tones, or Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System (CTCSS) tones are sub-audible tones sent by your radio to the repeater along with your regular transmission. On a CTCSS-equipped repeater, there must be enough signal strength to open the squelch and the correct frequency CTCSS tone must be present before the repeater will retransmit a signal. Repeaters At the end of each transmission through a repeater, you will hear a “courtesy tone” (a short beep, or series of beeps). Do not begin your transmission until after you hear the courtesy tone. Do not confuse the courtesy tone with the CTCSS tone. Repeater Operations Listen! If nobody is there, then the repeater is not in use. Give your call sign once. If the repeater is busy, wait for a break and give your call sign ONCE. DO NOT “KER-CHUNK” THE REPEATER Observe rotation, if there is one. When calling another station, always give the other station’s call sign first, then yours. ID every 10 minutes and at the end of the conversation (QSO), you need not ID after every exchange. Autopatch Amateurs can use the repeater’s “autopatch” to connect to the public telephone network via radio. Autopatch You can make phone calls from your radio All repeaters are required to have a 3 minute transmit time-out feature. This applies to the autopatch as well. Do not abuse the autopatch. Use judgment calling 911. Use of autopatch may be subject to payment of dues to the repeater owner or club. The World of High Frequency (HF) These are the traditional world wide bands people usually associate with ham radio. HF/Single Sideband (SSB) Operations When trying to find a clear frequency, LISTEN FIRST, then ask, “Is this frequency in use? <call sign>.” If the frequency is clear, then call “CQ” 3 x 3 - Call CQ three times followed by your call sign phonetically three times, listen, repeat. When calling another station, always give the other station’s call sign first, then yours. ID every 10 minutes and at the end of the QSO, you need not ID after every exchange. Give stations you contact honest signal reports. The RST Reporting System The RST system is a quick way amateurs use to describe a received signal. Readability 1 = Poor 5 = Good Signal Strength 1 = Poor 9 = Good Tone (CW only) 1 = Poor 9 = Good Note: Do not use the RST system on repeaters. Q-signals Q-signals are a kind of “short-hand” hams use to communicate quickly, especially via Morse Code. Purists will say that it is poor practice to use Q-signals on voice, but everybody does it. Q-signals Most can be a question or a statement: QSY (change frequency) “Can you QSY to 7.250?” “I will QSY to 7.250” “There is QRM on the Freq” QRM made interference) “Do you hear any QRM?” “There is QRM on the Freq” (man Q-Signals The use of Q-signals began in the days of the telegraph, where operators developed a way to exchange commonly transmitted information (location, output power, etc.) more efficiently. Some common Q-signals are on the next slide… Q-Signals QRM - Is my transmission being interfered with?/Something is causing interference QRN - Are you troubled by static/noise?/I am troubled by static/noise. QRO - Shall I increase transmitter power?/I am running high power. QRP - Shall I decrease transmitter power?/I am running low power. QRQ - Shall I send faster?/Please send faster. QRS - Shall I send slower?/Please send slower QRT - Shall I stop sending?/I am going off the air. QRZ – AM I being called by?/You are being called by. (Not correct but most common usage: Who is calling me?) QSB - Are my signals fading?/Your signal is fading. QSL - Can you acknowledge receipt?/I received the message. QSO - Can you communicate with ____ directly?/I will communicate with ________ directly. QSY - Shall I change frequency?/I am changing frequency to _______. QTH - What is your location?/My location is _______. QSL Cards A QSL card is a written confirmation of contact between two amateur radio stations. ITU Phonetic Alphabet A Alpha H Hotel O Oscar V Victor B Bravo I India P Papa W Whiskey C Charlie J Juliet Q Quebec X X-ray D Delta K Kilo R Romeo Y Yankee E Echo L Lima S Sierra Z Zulu F Foxtrot M Mike T Tango G Golf N November U Uniform ITU Phonetic Alphabet Used for accurate copy when band conditions are noisy or crowded. Always use the proper words, they were carefully selected so no two sound alike. Avoid being cute. Generally not needed on repeaters. Some No-No’s Don’t use CB slang or 10-codes!!!! Don’t interrupt conversations (QSO’s) in progress. Don’t tune up on the air, use a dummy load. Avoid subject matter that could be offensive. Don’t forget your manners – be polite. Don’t whine and complain. Don’t forget that the whole world can hear you! What is the term used to describe an amateur station that is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency? A. Full duplex communication B. Diplex communication C. Simplex communication D. Half duplex communication What is the FCC Part 97 definition of a space station? A. Any multi-stage satellite B. An Earth satellite that carries one or more amateur operators C. An amateur station located less than 25 km above the Earth’s surface D. An amateur station located more than 50 km above the Earth’s surface Which of the following meets the FCC definition of harmful interference? A. Radio transmissions that annoy users of a repeater B. Unwanted radio transmissions that cause costly harm to radio station apparatus C. That which seriously degrades, obstructs or repeatedly interrupts a radio communication service operating in accordance with Radio Regulations D. Static from lightning storms What is the term for an FCC-issued primary station/operator license grant? A. Five years B. Life C. Ten years D. Twenty years What is the most common repeater frequency offset in the 2 meter band? A. plus 500 khz B. Plus or minus 600 khz C. Minus 500 khz D. Only plus 600 khz What is an appropriate way to call another station on a repeater if you know the other station’s call sign? A. Say “break, break” then say the station’s call sign B. Say the station’s call sign then identify your call sign C. Say “CQ” three times then the other station’s call sign D. Wait for the station to call “CQ” then answer it Questions?