306A: Special edition
First-language
acquisition
Guest lecturer
Radial network
English -er
Radial network
English -er
-er, West Germanic -âri; Old Teutonic -ârjo-z; Old
High German -âri; Gothic -areis, …
brazier, clothier, glazier, …
hatter, slater, tinner, singer, …
-ar, Latin
bursar, scholar, vicar, …
-or, Latin
actor, author, captor, censor, confessor, doctor,
…
Multiple choice #8
8.
Se m as iologica lly , the w ord anime (a styl e of anim ation de veloped in
Japa n), e xem plifi es
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
folk etym ology.
cli pp ing.
m eto nymy .
blending.
abb re viation.
Japanime
Multiple choice #8
8.
Se m as iologica lly , the w ord anime (a styl e of anim ation de veloped in
Japa n), e xem plifi es
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
folk etym ology.
cli pp ing.
m eto nymy .
blending.
abb re viation.
Japanime
Multiple choice #8
8.
Se m as iologica lly , the w ord anime (a styl e of anim ation de veloped in
Japa n), e xem plifi es
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
folk etym ology.
cli pp ing.
m eto nymy .
blending.
abb re viation.
Japanime x
Nipponime x
Multiple choice #8
8.
Se m as iologica lly , the w ord anime (a styl e of anim ation de veloped in
Japa n), e xem plifi es
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
folk etym ology.
cli pp ing.
m eto nymy .
blending.
abb re viation.
animation
Multiple choice #8
8.
Se m as iologica lly , the w ord anime (a styl e of anim ation de veloped in
Japa n), e xem plifi es
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
folk etym ology.
cli pp ing.
m eto nymy .
blending.
abb re viation.
animetion
Multiple-choice: #18-20
18 .
T h e E n g li sh w o rd disentanglement
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
19 .
20 .
o n e m o rp h em e.
tw o m o rp h em es.
th ree m orp h em es.
fo ur m orp h em es.
fi v e m o rp hem es.
T h e E n g li sh w o rd disentanglement
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
dis|en|tangle|ment
c o n tain s
o n e b o u n d m o rp h em e.
tw o b o u nd m orp h em es.
th ree b o un d m orp hem es.
fo ur b ou n d m o rp h em es.
fi v e b ou n d m orp h em es.
T h e E n g li sh w o rd disentanglement
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
c o n tain s
o n e der ivation al m orp h em e.
tw o der iv atio n al m orp h em es.
th ree der iv atio n al m orp h em es.
fo ur der iv atio nal m o rp h em es.
fi v e der iv ation al m o rp hem es.
c o n tain s
en-
enlarge, ennoble, ensure, …
enslave, endanger, encrust, …
entrap, enseal, entangle, …
Multiple-choice: #18-20
18 .
T h e E n g li sh w o rd disentanglement
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
19 .
20 .
o n e m o rp h em e.
tw o m o rp h em es.
th ree m orp h em es.
fo ur m orp h em es.
fi v e m o rp hem es.
T h e E n g li sh w o rd disentanglement
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
dis|en|tangle|ment
c o n tain s
o n e b o u n d m o rp h em e.
tw o b o u nd m orp h em es.
th ree b o un d m orp hem es.
fo ur b ou n d m o rp h em es.
fi v e b ou n d m orp h em es.
T h e E n g li sh w o rd disentanglement
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
c o n tain s
o n e der ivation al m orp h em e.
tw o der iv atio n al m orp h em es.
th ree der iv atio n al m orp h em es.
fo ur der iv atio nal m o rp h em es.
fi v e der iv ation al m o rp hem es.
c o n tain s
en-
enlarge, ennoble, ensure, …
enslave, endanger, encrust, …
entrap, enseal, entangle, …
to entangle vs. to tangle
1st language acquisition
Do we need to know this?
Yes
What I mean is, ah, will it be
on the exam?
Yes
Stages
Pre-natal
Intonation acquisition and personal
discrimination begins
0 - 2 mo
reflexive, vegetative
2 - 5 mo
responsive cooing, laughing
4 - 7 mo
babbling
6 - 12 mo
reduplicative babbling
9 - 18 mo
non-reduplicative babbling
18 - 72 mo
all hell breaks loose
All Hell Breaks
Loose
+ 72 mo
Syntax, phonology set
Lexical acquisition
continues
Minor morphological
development
Pragmatic development
Stylistic development
(L2 acquisition)
Pre-natal to 7 mo (roughly)
Pre-natal
personal and native
language discrimination
0 - 5 mo
migration from expressive
(indexical) noises to
communicative noises to
vocal play
4 - 7 mo
a wide range of noises
narrows down toward
community speech sounds
(phones).
6 to 12 mo (roughly)
Reduplicative babbling
mama, gaga, baba
phonological practice,
rather than
communication
increased control over
articulators
9 to 18 mo (roughly)
Non-reduplicative babbling
“expressive jargon”
intonation and stress patterns
of language
“sounds like Language X”
(X = Swedish, Hindi,
Basque, …), but just
more sophisticated practicing
overlaps with word development
and the beginnings of clear
communicative intent
bij hQpij hQpij hQpij hQpij...
g√kij g√kij g√kij g√kij g√kij ...
Ajno Ajno Ajno Ajno Ajno...
Phoneme acquisition
Babbling
The cardinal stops p b m
tdn
kg
The cardinal vowels
i
√
u
Other sounds
szhwj
Rare and/or late
f v T D S Z tS dZ l r
N
Consonant progression
stops < fricatives < glides < liquids < affricates
Consonant cluster aversion
Dropping
fricatives
liquids
nasals
when they cluster with stops
Consonant cluster aversion
Dropping
fricatives [stAp]  [tAp]
liquids [trAjt]  [tAj]
nasals [kAjt]  [tAjt]
when they cluster with stops
Substitutions
stopx
fricativex
sonorants
fricatives
liquids
nasals






stopy
fricativey
vowels
stops
glides
stops
[kAjt]  [tAjt]
[fIS]  [fIs]
[wejl]  [wej√]
[sij]  [tij]
[lAjt]  [wAjt]
[t√N]  [t√g]
14mo +
Proto-words and
words commingle
“Noun”-heavy
The dedication and joy
of acquisition
Proto-words (Galen, 15 mo)
meaning
sound
usage
blow
[fff]
Said when food needed
cooling
whoosh
[wus]
Said of toilets and sneezes
oh?
[?o]
Parent-humouring noise
tasty!
[n√mn√m]
Said in appreciation of food
[doi˘j]
Said in joyous appreciation of
favoured objects and totems
yay!
Proto-words (Oriana, 16 mo)
meaning
sound
usage
negatives
[nej] [now] [nowej]
Said when
declining
affirmative
[mmm]
Said when
accepting
Getyourassingear
[?√?√?√]
Said to urge
on parents
“smack”
[nnntj√]
air kiss
√wu √m wAp√ wAp√
Is that right?
mm hmm
dudawa dej √t√ dudijdij
Pardon me?
dudawa dej √t√ dudijdij
Words (Galen, 15 mo)
word
sound
accompany/sub
cat
cow
lamb
[tQt]
[kAw]
[lQm]
[mrAuw]
[mu˘w]
[bA?A?A?]
monkey
[m√ntij]
[E?E?E?]
duck
[dQt]
A trilled, lateral-tongue-against-cheek
flapping noise that actually sounded a bit
like a duck
whale
lion
[wej√]
[lAjn]
Non-totemic
Words (Galen, 15-17 mo)
chair, man, truck, hat, horn, vegetables, night-time,
baby, medicine,shampoo, belt, watch, mail, sleep,
button, train, pizza, fan, light, bath, diaper, hospital,
paper, submarine, …
Mostly “nouns”, some “verbs”, two “prepositions”, a few
“adjectives”, some “greetings”.
Words (Oriana, 16 mo)
ward
sound
contexts
ow
[Aw]
when hurt, tickled, inconvenienced in
any way
more
[mow√]
said mostly of food and drink, but also
of activities (being carried), sometimes
before she has had any
hiya
[hAj√]
said in greeting
Conversing with Oriana (14 mo)
Oriana:
IR:
Oriana:
IR:
Oriana:
bApA! bApA!
Yes, Oriana?
wu baktijn matsa mow√
Juice?
gij (affirmative
intonation, nod)
Conversing with Oriana (16 mo)
Oriana:
IR:
Oriana:
IR:
Oriana:
bApA! bApA!
Yes, Oriana?
hQmij wu tA wu
Juice?
wu (affirmative
intonation, nod)
Re-babbling (Galen, 19 - 21 mo)
baby-bAby, baby-bAby, baby-bAby, baby-bAby
... (coming from the chorus of a song his
mother also reduplicated endlessly)
woodsy, woodsy, woodsy, woodsy, ... (repeating
the name of a toy squirrel)
dzuaaha, dzuaaha, dzuaaha, dzuaaha, ...
budgia, budgia, budgia, budgia … (I think they
just sounded good)
dibbadibbadibba —What’s Galen saying? (19
mo)
Galen @ 28 mo
Galen @ 127 mo
Galen @ 28 mo
Acquisition strategies
Repetitions, echoes
Playfulness: noises and elaborate
pronunciations
Immediate environmental interaction:
naming, questioning
Galen @ 28 mo
PAPAPAPAPAPA! WHAT did you
BRING!? You brought
GROCERIES! You brought CANS
OF SOUP! (picking them out of
the bag and running off with
them; he had no particular
fondness for soup; it was just
something to shout about).
(Returning) And you brought
GARBAGE BAGS! GREEN ONES!
These are BIG GREEN GARBAGE
BAGS! And LIGHTBULBS!
General vocal behaviours
noises, hoots, and squeals
wide range of voices (slow, fast, creaky, redrum,
Louis-Armstrongish plaint)
demented chanting (deedeedeedee …
deedeedeetABLE)
special pronuciations (Bhhhr-e-e-a-a-duh,
t.a.b.le.s.a.n.d.ch.ai.r.s)
(walks: groucho, flying nun, stiff-legged sidestep, and wiggle-butt)
Suprasegmental phonology (Galen)
He’s b-a-a-A-A-A-a-a-d, papa. That beetle’s ba-a-A-A-A-a-a-a-d! (23 mo)
I want to go outs-i-i-i-i-I-I-I-I-i-i-i-i-de! (22 - 25
mo)
I want Strawbe-e-e-e-E-E-E-E-e-e-e-e-ries! (24
mo)
No-o-o-O-O-O-o-o-o! (a lot, c20 - 26 mo)
DeedeedeedeedeedeedeedeedeedeetABLE!
(22 mo)
L-l-l-l-et’s go outside! (24 mo)
Syntax (Galen)
Hellooo Papa! Hellooo cat! Hellooo pitzy truck! (c17 mo; said to everybody and
everything, with devout conviction that an answer would come back)
More X! (More books! More banana! More sticks! ...; c17 mo)
Want some juice now, for Galen. (19 mo)
Go! Go! Go! (c18 mo; said while running full tilt in no specific direction)
Let’s go! (c18 mo; said just before running full titlt in no specific direction)
Run! Run! Run! (c18 mo; see “Go! Go! Go!”)
I’ll take it! (c19 mo, of anything which took his fancy)
Must take it! (c20 mo; this one often had a noun in place of the pronoun, as in
“Must take tractor!”)
Go this way! (Let’s go this way!;18 - 22 mo; said, usually in the car but sometimes
when being carried, while pointing in any direction you’re not going)
Maybe X! (Maybe sit down! Maybe read a book! Maybe sit down right here!; 19
mo)
Galen’s First passive
constituent-question
G: What are they doing there? (He had seen some potato chips
in a store)
IR: Waiting to be bought and eaten, I guess.
G: What are they going to be eaten for ... with ... what are they
going to be eaten for ... by ... Who are they going to be
eaten by? (27 mo)
I’m a bit sore today.
I don’t want you to be sore. I want
you to be clean. I want you to be
clean in your diaphragm.
You’ve got a freckle.
What’s a freckle called?
It’s called a “freckle”.
No. What are freckles called?
Maybe means “no”!
I know it means “yes or no” but it really means “no”.
I know what it really means, but … Just forget about it!
It means no!
[To a stuffed pig:] You miss your parents? That’s OK. I
have a memory of them. They were pink. Just a minute,
I have a memory of them. [Goes off and returns with a
long pink snake.] Here it is. It’s a memory of your mom
and dad.
Morphology (Galen)
Those are ambulances , Papa: ambulancES! (21 mo)
I’m digestING my penne, mommy. DigestING. (28 mo)
WolFS, papa, wolFS. Not wolVES, wolFS (28 mo)
I’m up-pleased (c 27-29 mo)
I need a ball to tennis (26 mo; upon picking up a tennis
racket)
What’s it for tanking? (27 mo; of a tanker truck)
I get it! One octopi is an octopus, but two octopusses is
an octopi!
Morphology (Oriana)
…need to keep our hands undry. (38 mo)
It was still unwet (38 mo)
Same
day
[on finding a newspaper in our driveway]
Somebody slobbed us!
Galen’s the most unlistener!
Well, Linda and Auntie Dolly are bestest mommies in
the world. But you’re the most bester mommy in the
world, mommy!
Well, papa. I don’t want
you to do no more
jokeness. You did
jokeness. Why did you do
that? That jokeness.
Lookit!
That’s a school, a school
of fish.
Mmm-hmm
Which one’s the
teacher?
… Her warmth revived
the swallow. …
… Thumbelina’s warmness
saved the swallow. …
Lexical innovation
I’m really yumming it.
That will feel me better!
(also, That will feel me up)
Fish! Dragon! I’ll call it a
‘funny-fish dragon’. Is that a
good deal?
The good-er you are, the
far-er you have to go
back.
I ick it.
‘Na’ means I’m going to be
your sister again. Okay?
Okay, Galen?
‘Whatever
….. Na! …. Na! …. Na! Na,
Galen!
Philosophy of language
Hello cat. I’m fine. I’m fine. You’re fine. (Oriana, 19 mo)
Don’t be noisy, wind! I’m talking, wind! Don’t be noisy! That’s rude!
Don’t be rude, wind! (Galen, 27 mo)
Don’t blow! Wind! Don’t blow! (Oriana, 32 mo)
No! Don’t say that! Don’t say it, Papa! (Oriana, 26 mo)
I’m pretending you didn’t tell me that. You pretend too, Papa! (Galen, 28
mo)
G:
M:
G:
M:
G:
I want some salt, please, Mommie.
Just a minute, Darlo.
Some salt please, Mommie.
… no response ...
Some of that white stuff there. (Galen, 27 mo)
Stages
Pre-natal
0 - 2 mo
reflexive, vegetative
2 - 5 mo
responsive cooing, laughing
4 - 7 mo
babbling
6 - 12 mo
reduplicative babbling
9 - 18 mo
non-reduplicative babbling
18 - 72 mo
all hell breaks loose
Phoneme acquisition
Lexical acquisition
Morphological acquisition
Syntactic acquisition
L1 Acquisition
Stages
Prenatal learning - syntactic acquisition
Phonology
Cardinal consonants & vowels
Consonant progression
Substitutions
Lexical acquisition
Responsive cooing - “noun” gathering
Morphological, syntactic acquisition
Rule acquisition
Kids’ philosophy of language
Power and omnipresence of language
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