Stages of Reading Development
Early literacy or pre-reading
Early literacy learnings. Awareness of print.
Phonological awareness. Reads common signs
and labels. Can write one’s name.
Below grade 1
reading level
Stage 1
Decoding
Letter-sound correspondences. Knowledge of
the alphabetic principle and skill in its use.
Identifies about 1,000 of the most common
words in the oral language. Can read very
simple texts.
Stage 2
Reading grade levels 1
and beginning 2
Fluency
Integrates knowledge and skills acquired in
Stages 1 and 2. Relies on context and meaning
as well as on decoding (phonics for identifying
new words). Reads with greater fluency. By the
end of Stage 2, can recognize about 3,000
familiar words and derivatives.
Stage 3
Reading levels 2-3.
Uses reading for learning
Can use reading as a tool for learning new
information, ideas, attitudes, and values.
Growth in background knowledge, meaning
vocabulary, and cognitive abilities.
Stage 4
Reading grade levels 4-8.
Multiple viewpoints
Ability to read widely a broad range of
complex materials, expository and narrative,
from a variety of viewpoints and at a variety of
levels of comprehension: inferential and critical
as well as literal.
Stage 5
Reading grade levels 9-12.
Construction and reconstruction
Reading for one’s own needs and purposes
(professional, personal, civic) to integrate one’s
knowledge with that of others and to create new
knowledge.
Stage 6
College and beyond.
The Reading Process

Reading must be fluent.

Reading is a constructive process.

Reading is strategic.

Reading requires motivation.

Reading is a lifelong pursuit.
Dyslexia
• People with this baffling disorder find it
extremely difficult to recognize letters and
words and to interpret information that is
presented in print form
Dyslexia
General Agreement on 4 Points
1. Dyslexia is probably due to a congenital
neurological condition.
2. Dyslexic problems persist into
adolescence and adulthood.
3. Dyslexia has perceptual, cognitive, and
language dimensions.
4. Dyslexia leads to difficulty in many areas
of life as the individual matures.
The Language Experience Method
This is a well-accepted method that builds on
a. the student’s knowledge
b. the student’s language base
c. and links the different forms of language:
listening, speaking, reading & writing
The Language Experience Method
The method uses the students’ own
experiences and language as raw
material. It is a very effective method
of showing children that they CAN
think, and read and learn.
Word-Recognition Strategies
• Sight words
• Phonics
• Context clues
• Structural analysis
• Combining word-recognition strategies
Concepts of Reading Comprehension
• Reading comprehension depends on what
the reader brings to the written material.
• Reading comprehension is a language
process
• Reading comprehension is a thinking
process
• Reading comprehension requires active
interaction with the text
a fish ate a rock. the fish
said, “I ate a rock.”
a cow ate the fish. the cow
said, “I ate a fish. And now I
feel sick.”
Emergent Literacy and Writing
• Encourages early writing
• Children use invented spelling
• Children explore the alphabetic properties
of writing
• Children develop concepts about print
Emergent Literacy
•
•
•
•
•
•
Oral language proficiency
Concepts about print
Alphabet knowledge
Phonological awareness
Letter-sound correspondence
Beginning reading vocabulary
Cloze Passage
This is a book ____learning disabilities, a
problem _____impedes learning for _____,
adolescents, and adults, affecting ____
schooling and adjustment to ____. There is
growing concern ____ children and youth
with ____ disabilities who have extreme
____ in learning academic and ____ skills,
despite their mental ____ for doing so.
Interactive Elements in Reading
Comprehension
• The Reader. Each reader comes to a reading
selection with some knowledge and interests
that affect what this reader is willing and able
to read.
• The Text. Text refers to the written language
or the printed information. The clarity and
organization of the text will affect the
reader’s ability to make sense of it.
Interactive Elements
• The Context. The reading situation or
environment also affects the reading
process. In a testing situation, for example,
intense anxiety could prevent a reader from
comprehending material that he or she
could easily read in a less threatening
setting.
Theories of How Children
Acquire Language
• Behavioral theories
• Innatist theories
• Cognitive theories
• Social theories
Whole-Language Views
• Use integrated language system: oral
language, reading, writing
• Both oral and written languages are
acquired through natural usage
• Use only authentic literature
Whole-Language Views
• Teach writing early
• Provide abundant opportunities for writing
• Avoid instruction on separate
nonmeaningful parts of language or use or
exercises and drills
Manuscript Writing
Handwriting instruction usually begins with
manuscript writing in kindergarten, where
children begin to write letters of the
alphabet. Manuscript writing usually
continues in first, second, and third grade.
Cursive Writing
In cursive writing (sometimes called script)
the letters are connected. The transfer to
cursive writing is typically made
somewhere in the third grade, although
schools teach cursive writing as late as fifth
grade.
D’Nealian Writing System
Another handwriting form is the D’Nealian
writing system (Thurber & Jordan, 1981).
This system helps students make the
transition to cursive writing more easily.
The D’Nealian system is a simplified
cursive writing style in which manuscript
letters have the basic forms of the
corresponding cursive letters.
The Left-handed Student
Left-handed people encounter a special
handwriting problem because their natural
tendency is to write from right to left on the
page. In writing from left to right, lefthanders have difficulty seeing what they
have written.
Linguistic Approach to Spelling
The linguistic approach to spelling is based
on the contention that the spelling of
American English is sufficiently rule covered
to warrant an instructional method that
stresses phonological, morphological, and
syntactic rules or word patterns. This might
also be called a phonics or word-family
approach to spelling since it selects words to
teach phonics generalizations, structural
analysis, or linguistic patterns.
Word-Frequency Approach to Spelling
In the word-frequency approach to spelling
instruction, words for spelling instruction are
chosen on the basis of frequency of use rather
than phonological patterns. The criteria for
word selection are frequency of use,
permanency, and utility. A core of spelling
words that are most frequently used in writing
was determined through extensive
investigations of the writing of children and
adults.
10 commonly misspelled words
1. mayonnaise
2. moccasin
3. accommodate
4. impostor
5. inoculate
6. magnificence
7. privilege
8. liquefy
9. souvenir
10. calendar
Math Instruction
Time
EvenPasses
More
Time Passes
More Time Passes
Is it coming yet
Papa Smurf?
Theories of Math Instruction
• Progression from concrete to abstract
• Constructive learning
• Direct instruction
• Learning strategies instruction
• Problem solving
Spatial relations
Learning strategies
Body Image
Visual-motor
Precursors of Mathematics
Disabilities
Language
Math anxiety
Direction
Memory
Time
Visual perception
Does
this
chair
exist?
Progressing from Concrete to
Abstract
What Chair?
1. Concrete level:
Real objects
4 apples + 3 apples = 7 apples
+
=
2. Representational level:
Graphic symbols
0 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (7)
3. Abstract level:
Numbers
3+4=7
Multiplier
Multiplicand
Sum
Dividend
Math Vocabulary
Addend
Quotient
Subtrahend
Minuend
Difference
Math Vocabulary
Addition
+
3
Addend
5
Addend
8
Sum
Math Vocabulary
Subtraction
9
Minuend
3
Subtrahend
6
Difference
Math Vocabulary
Multiplication
X
7
Multiplicand
5
Multiplier
35
Product
Math Vocabulary
Division
Divisor
6
7
Quotient
42
Dividend
I can’t subtract!
I can’t divide!
I can’t add!
Common Math Errors
I can’t multiply!
Common Math Errors
Place value
72
+
29
91
Common Math Errors
Computation Facts
5
X
9
47
Common Math Errors
Wrong Process
16
2
18
Common Math Errors
Working from left to right
42
+
85
28
Descargar

Document