EA Summer Training Workshop:
“Developing Grammar and Vocabulary
through Required Content”
June 30, July 1 & 2, 2009 – 2:30 to 5:30 p.m.
Kapi‘olani Community College
Teacher Preparation Program
Shawn Ford and Veronica Ogata, Facilitators
Tuesday, June 30
Today’s Schedule
Greetings: Vice-Chancellor Pagotto
Introduction/ Schedule/
Workshop Topic and Announcements
Workshop Maxims
Reflection on your instructional needs
Grammar Review
Parts of Speech Quiz
Parts of Speech Lecture
Grammar across Languages
Reflection on student needs
BREAK: Snack and Discussion
Grammar and HI Standards
Grammar Focus: Verb Tense
Tense Consistency Activity
Feedback Activity
Homework: Content and Grammar
Workshop Evaluation
EA in ESL Teacher Training Summer Workshops
Sponsors: Teacher Preparation Program at KCC, funded in
part by a federal Perkins grant
Audience: Workshops prepared for in-service EAs who
work with NEP and LEP students in the DOE
Purpose: Provide EAs with additional training, and
Provide EAs with knowledge and strategies to
facilitate and accelerate the language
development of their ESL students
We hope you enjoy our program and
find it useful for your teaching situations!
Topic: Developing Grammar and Vocabulary
through Required Content
- Language Arts, Mathematics, Physical Sciences and
Social Sciences
- Primary, intermediate and secondary levels
1. Develop attendee’s individual strategies, and
2. Develop a booklet of sample materials.
Special Announcements:
Be sure to sign in before the beginning
of each workshop and after the break to
ensure your credit for the workshop and
certificate of attendance.
During the workshop, please remember to…
1. Actively participate and be open to new ideas.
2. Complete all group, reflection, and “homework”
3. Stay on task so we can complete the material
in each session on time.
Workshop Maxims (general truths; fundamental
Grammar and vocabulary should be taught
ELL students will not just “pick up” grammar and
vocabulary; we must teach them forms directly.
Grammar and vocabulary should be taught in
Grammar and vocabulary are learned best via
content and production.
Workshop Maxims (general truths; fundamental
Whenever possible, grammar and vocabulary
should be taught together.
Find opportunities to teach grammar and
vocabulary as forms naturally occur in language (e.g.:
collocations, idioms).
Emphasis should be on providing meaningful
feedback to students to acquire important grammar
skills and vocabulary.
Feedback is an essential part of language
We will visit these maxims throughout the workshop
over the next three days.
Reflection on Your Instructional Needs:
Take 5 minutes to quickly reflect on needs that
you have in terms of grammar when working
with your students. Think about yourself, not
your students at this point. Write your reflection
in the space below.
Now, take 5 minutes to
discuss your reflection with
people at your table.
Grammar Review
When we talk about grammar, what are we
talking about?
Grammar is all of the rules of a language. It
includes rules of:
Parts of Speech (verb, noun, adjective,
adverb, etc.)
Word Order (subject – verb – object)
Pronunciation (specific sounds of a
language, accent)
Usage in Context (dialect, slang, etc.)
• All languages have grammar, and all
languages have the same kinds of rules
about grammar. However, specific rules
differ across languages.
• In this workshop, we’ll look at Parts of
Speech (POS) and Word Order.
Parts of Speech Quiz
Try to define each part of speech
listed below as best as you can
without using a dictionary. Also, give
an example of each part of speech.
Parts of Speech Lecture
verb- one of the major grammatical groups, and all sentences
must contain one. Verbs refer to an action (do, break, walk, etc.)
or a state (be, like, own).
tense- ways to mark verbs to show when verbs take place –
past, present or future. In English, the present tense is usually
the same as the bare, root form of the word, also known as the
to- infinitive (e.g.: to think) with the exception of be (is/ am).
The past and active present tenses are marked directly on the
verb by adding a suffix or changing the whole word (e.g.: drink –
drank, drinking; eat – ate, eating). Future tense is marked by
adding another word – called a modal – to the sentence (I will
see you later.)
• gerund- a gerund is a verb when it acts as a noun; gerunds can
act as the subject or object of a main verb. EG: Studying is good
for you. Gerunds are used after prepositions, but not usually after
Parts of Speech Lecture
• noun- a word used to refer to people,
animals, objects, substances, states,
events and feelings. Nouns can be a
subject or an object of a verb, can be
modified by an adjective and can take
an article or determiner. Nouns may be
divided into two groups: countable
nouns have plural forms and
uncountable nouns do not.
Parts of Speech Lecture
• adjective- modifies a noun. It describes the
quality, state or action that a noun refers to.
Adjectives can come before nouns: a new
car. They can come after verbs such as be,
become, seem, look, etc.: that car looks fast.
They can be modified by adverbs: a very
expensive car. They can be used as
complements to a noun: the extras make the
car expensive
Parts of Speech Lecture
• adverb- usually formed by adding -ly to
an adjective. An adverb is a word that
modifies the meaning of a verb, an
adjective, another adverb, a noun or
noun phrase, determiner, a numeral, a
pronoun, or a prepositional phrase, and
can sometimes be used as a
complement of a preposition.
Parts of Speech Lecture
• pronoun- a word that substitutes a noun or noun
phrase. There are a number of different kinds of
pronouns in English: 1) demonstrative pronoun
- this, that, these, those; 2) personal pronoun I, you, he, she, etc…; 3) possessive pronoun mine, yours, his, etc…; 4) reflexive pronoun myself, yourself, etc…; 5) interrogative
pronoun - who, what, where, etc…; 6) negative
pronoun - nothing, no, nobody, etc…; 7)
reciprocal pronoun - each other, etc…; 8)
relative clause - who, whose, which, that, etc…;
9) quantifier - some, any, something, much,
many, little, etc.
Parts of Speech Lecture
• preposition- a word that links a noun,
pronoun or gerund to other words. They can
have a variety of meanings: direction- He's
going TO the shops; location- It's IN the box;
time- He left AFTER the lesson had finished;
possession- The Government OF Italy.
Some prepositional phrases can function like
single word prepositions: next to, in front of,
etc., called complex prepositions.
Parts of Speech Lecture
• article- a word that belongs to a group of words which are
known as determiners, which restrict or specify a noun in some
way. A, an, and the are called articles. The is the definite
article. It is used to restrict the meaning of a noun to make it
refer to something that is known by both the speaker or writer
and the listener or reader: She went to the meeting. It can also
be used to refer back to something that has already been
mentioned: There's a word for that. Now, what is the word? It
can be used to refer forwards to something that is coming: The
key to the front door is under the mat. It can be used to refer to a
group: The car has changed our way of living. A and an are both
used for the indefinite article. They are used before a singular
noun that has a plural form. A is used before a consonant sound
and an is used before a vowel sound. The boy refers to a
definite, particular boy, but a boy refers to no particular boy; it
could be any boy. When no article is used, it is sometimes
referred to as the zero article: time is money.
Parts of Speech Lecture
• phrase- a group of words that go
together, but do not make a complete
Parts of Speech Lecture
• clause- a part of a sentence that
usually contains a subject and a verb. It
may be connected to another clause or
phrase by a conjunction. It is not
necessarily a complete sentence on its
Parts of Speech Lecture
• sentence- a group of words beginning with a
capital letter and ending with a full-stop,
exclamation or question mark in written
language, containing a main verb.
• topic sentence- a sentence that sets out the
main idea or topic of a paragraph. It is often
the first sentence especially when arguing a
point where it may well be followed by further
information, examples etc.. If the writing is
exploring a point, it frequently comes as the
last sentence, drawing a conclusion from the
Grammar across Languages
All languages have grammar, and all
languages have the same types of rules about
grammar. However, language learners
encounter problems when learning the
grammar rules of a new language because the
specific grammar rules differ between
Some examples:
Chinese Same word order (SVO) as English.
 Tense is not marked on the verb but on
the sentence.
 Prepositions can go after the noun as
well as before.
 Adverb position is not flexible.
Japanese and Korean-
 Different word order (SOV) than English.
 Verbs are marked for tense, negation
and person by adding up suffixes.
• No article system.
Ilokano and Tagalog-
 Different word order (VSO) than
 Verbs are marked for tense through
complex fixation.
 Word order is very flexible, resulting
in the same meaning.
Marshallese and Chuukese-
 Same word order (SVO) as English.
• Complex system of masculine,
feminine, house particles to modify
Reflection on Student Needs
Return to the Reflection Sheets on
pages 3 & 4. Write your reflection on
student needs on page 4.
Now, take a quick break to
use the restroom and get a
snack. When you return to
your table, discuss your
reflection with people at your
Grammar Focus: Verb Tense
See the “Verb Tense PowerPoint
Slides” handout at the end of
today’s packet.
Tense Consistency Activity 1
Change verbs where needed in the
following selection so that they are
consistently in the past tense. Cross
out each incorrect verb and write the
correct verb tense form below it. You
will need to make eight corrections.
Tense Consistency Activity 2:
Practice on your Own
Read the following short story and
identify the tenses used. Each tense
is used at least once. Show your
answers to your colleagues and
discuss. For the answers, see the
“Tense Consistency Answer Key”
handout at the end of today’s packet.
Grammar Focus: Modals
See the “Modals PowerPoint Slides”
handout at the end of today’s packet.
Modal Activity
Fill in the gaps with "could , can , may , must ,
might , should"
Show your answers to your colleagues and
discuss. See the PowerPoint slide for possible
He _____ walk thirty miles a day.
When she was young, she _____ swim across the lake.
He says I _____ take the day off.
_____ you please tell me how to get to Almond Street?
They _____ work harder if they are to succeed.
You _____ try asking the bus driver to help you.
He wished he _____ visit France.
I wish I _____ have helped you.
If he were stronger, he _____ help us push the car out
of the snow.
You _____ take an umbrella with you, in case it starts to
She _____ have caught the bus if she had left right
If he _____ have solved the problem, he would have felt
_____ I have some more soup?
Feedback Activity
Recall our workshop Maxims:
1. Grammar should be taught explicitly.
2. Grammar should be taught in context.
4. Emphasis should be on providing meaningful
feedback to students to acquire important grammar
Using these maxims, look at the following two
student paragraphs. How will you help the students
develop their grammar skills?
This is a sample paragraph from a 4th grade ELL
My papa is the best. He do many thing. If he
want, he pick up a very heave thing. My papa carry big
rock bigger than me if he want. He also ride a
motorbike. He go so fast even with me too. It so fun.
One time my papa take me to hiking in the mountain.
He make a house and a fire. We have so much fun in
there. My papa do anything I need him to.
What does this student need
to work on?
How will you help this
student? What kind of
feedback will you give the
This is a sample paragraph from a high school ELL
The second reason why I want go to college is I
wanted to complete my dream to become a nurse. Why
I will have this dream because when I was young, my
grandmother always get sick and went to the hospital,
also my relatives are very busy with their jobs, so if my
grandmother gets sick, I have to stay at hospital to take
care her. When someone gets sick their mood already
was very bad, but sometimes I saw the nurse taking
care the patient not very well. They are not very nice to
the patients. Maybe they don’t know when the patients
were in a bad mood. From that time, I want to become
a nurse to do by best to take care patient.
Though it is very hard to become a nurse in
United Stated. However, I will work hard to make my
dream come true. If I want to become a nurse the only
way is go to school. Therefore, I want a college
education because I wanted to complete my dream to
become a nurse try my best to take care of patients.
What does this student need to work on?
How will you help this student?
What kind of feedback will you give the student?
• Listen to the student.
• Model for the student.
• Ask the students questions to clarify and
• Provide a mixture of positive and negative
• Tolerate some error DON’T OVER-CORRECT!
Please write your reflection on another piece of paper
as a formal reflection on today’s workshop. Include any
other thoughts and comments. Bring it on Wednesday
to drop off when you sign in.
Also, please take 5 minutes to complete today’s
workshop feedback form, which is located in your folder.
Please leave it on your tables when you are finished.
Thank you! 

EA Summer Training Workshop: “Developing Grammar …