EA Summer Training Workshop: “Developing Grammar and Vocabulary through Required Content” June 30, July 1 & 2, 2009 – 2:30 to 5:30 p.m. Kapi‘olani Community College Teacher Preparation Program Shawn Ford and Veronica Ogata, Facilitators Tuesday, June 30 Today’s Schedule Topic Greetings: Vice-Chancellor Pagotto Introduction/ Schedule/ Workshop Topic and Announcements Workshop Maxims Reflection on your instructional needs Grammar Review Parts of Speech Quiz Parts of Speech Lecture Grammar across Languages Reflection on student needs BREAK: Snack and Discussion Grammar and HI Standards Grammar Focus: Verb Tense Tense Consistency Activity Feedback Activity Homework: Content and Grammar Workshop Evaluation Mns. 5 5 5 15 5 10 15 10 5 15 10 20 20 20 10 5 WELCOME! EA in ESL Teacher Training Summer Workshops Sponsors: Teacher Preparation Program at KCC, funded in part by a federal Perkins grant Audience: Workshops prepared for in-service EAs who work with NEP and LEP students in the DOE Purpose: Provide EAs with additional training, and Provide EAs with knowledge and strategies to facilitate and accelerate the language development of their ESL students We hope you enjoy our program and find it useful for your teaching situations! Topic: Developing Grammar and Vocabulary through Required Content - Language Arts, Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Social Sciences - Primary, intermediate and secondary levels Goals 1. Develop attendee’s individual strategies, and 2. Develop a booklet of sample materials. Special Announcements: Be sure to sign in before the beginning of each workshop and after the break to ensure your credit for the workshop and certificate of attendance. During the workshop, please remember to… 1. Actively participate and be open to new ideas. 2. Complete all group, reflection, and “homework” tasks. 3. Stay on task so we can complete the material in each session on time. Workshop Maxims (general truths; fundamental principles) 1. Grammar and vocabulary should be taught explicitly. ELL students will not just “pick up” grammar and vocabulary; we must teach them forms directly. 2. Grammar and vocabulary should be taught in context. Grammar and vocabulary are learned best via content and production. Workshop Maxims (general truths; fundamental principles) 3. Whenever possible, grammar and vocabulary should be taught together. Find opportunities to teach grammar and vocabulary as forms naturally occur in language (e.g.: collocations, idioms). 4. Emphasis should be on providing meaningful feedback to students to acquire important grammar skills and vocabulary. Feedback is an essential part of language development. We will visit these maxims throughout the workshop over the next three days. Reflection on Your Instructional Needs: Take 5 minutes to quickly reflect on needs that you have in terms of grammar when working with your students. Think about yourself, not your students at this point. Write your reflection in the space below. PLEASE WRITE LEGIBLY SO WE CAN READ STOP Now, take 5 minutes to discuss your reflection with people at your table. REPORT Grammar Review When we talk about grammar, what are we talking about? Grammar is all of the rules of a language. It includes rules of: Parts of Speech (verb, noun, adjective, adverb, etc.) Word Order (subject – verb – object) Pronunciation (specific sounds of a language, accent) Usage in Context (dialect, slang, etc.) • All languages have grammar, and all languages have the same kinds of rules about grammar. However, specific rules differ across languages. • In this workshop, we’ll look at Parts of Speech (POS) and Word Order. Parts of Speech Quiz Try to define each part of speech listed below as best as you can without using a dictionary. Also, give an example of each part of speech. Parts of Speech Lecture verb- one of the major grammatical groups, and all sentences must contain one. Verbs refer to an action (do, break, walk, etc.) or a state (be, like, own). tense- ways to mark verbs to show when verbs take place – past, present or future. In English, the present tense is usually the same as the bare, root form of the word, also known as the to- infinitive (e.g.: to think) with the exception of be (is/ am). The past and active present tenses are marked directly on the verb by adding a suffix or changing the whole word (e.g.: drink – drank, drinking; eat – ate, eating). Future tense is marked by adding another word – called a modal – to the sentence (I will see you later.) • gerund- a gerund is a verb when it acts as a noun; gerunds can act as the subject or object of a main verb. EG: Studying is good for you. Gerunds are used after prepositions, but not usually after 'to'. Parts of Speech Lecture • noun- a word used to refer to people, animals, objects, substances, states, events and feelings. Nouns can be a subject or an object of a verb, can be modified by an adjective and can take an article or determiner. Nouns may be divided into two groups: countable nouns have plural forms and uncountable nouns do not. Parts of Speech Lecture • adjective- modifies a noun. It describes the quality, state or action that a noun refers to. Adjectives can come before nouns: a new car. They can come after verbs such as be, become, seem, look, etc.: that car looks fast. They can be modified by adverbs: a very expensive car. They can be used as complements to a noun: the extras make the car expensive Parts of Speech Lecture • adverb- usually formed by adding -ly to an adjective. An adverb is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a noun or noun phrase, determiner, a numeral, a pronoun, or a prepositional phrase, and can sometimes be used as a complement of a preposition. Parts of Speech Lecture • pronoun- a word that substitutes a noun or noun phrase. There are a number of different kinds of pronouns in English: 1) demonstrative pronoun - this, that, these, those; 2) personal pronoun I, you, he, she, etc…; 3) possessive pronoun mine, yours, his, etc…; 4) reflexive pronoun myself, yourself, etc…; 5) interrogative pronoun - who, what, where, etc…; 6) negative pronoun - nothing, no, nobody, etc…; 7) reciprocal pronoun - each other, etc…; 8) relative clause - who, whose, which, that, etc…; 9) quantifier - some, any, something, much, many, little, etc. Parts of Speech Lecture • preposition- a word that links a noun, pronoun or gerund to other words. They can have a variety of meanings: direction- He's going TO the shops; location- It's IN the box; time- He left AFTER the lesson had finished; possession- The Government OF Italy. Some prepositional phrases can function like single word prepositions: next to, in front of, etc., called complex prepositions. Parts of Speech Lecture • article- a word that belongs to a group of words which are known as determiners, which restrict or specify a noun in some way. A, an, and the are called articles. The is the definite article. It is used to restrict the meaning of a noun to make it refer to something that is known by both the speaker or writer and the listener or reader: She went to the meeting. It can also be used to refer back to something that has already been mentioned: There's a word for that. Now, what is the word? It can be used to refer forwards to something that is coming: The key to the front door is under the mat. It can be used to refer to a group: The car has changed our way of living. A and an are both used for the indefinite article. They are used before a singular noun that has a plural form. A is used before a consonant sound and an is used before a vowel sound. The boy refers to a definite, particular boy, but a boy refers to no particular boy; it could be any boy. When no article is used, it is sometimes referred to as the zero article: time is money. Parts of Speech Lecture • phrase- a group of words that go together, but do not make a complete sentence. Parts of Speech Lecture • clause- a part of a sentence that usually contains a subject and a verb. It may be connected to another clause or phrase by a conjunction. It is not necessarily a complete sentence on its own. Parts of Speech Lecture • sentence- a group of words beginning with a capital letter and ending with a full-stop, exclamation or question mark in written language, containing a main verb. • topic sentence- a sentence that sets out the main idea or topic of a paragraph. It is often the first sentence especially when arguing a point where it may well be followed by further information, examples etc.. If the writing is exploring a point, it frequently comes as the last sentence, drawing a conclusion from the argument. Grammar across Languages All languages have grammar, and all languages have the same types of rules about grammar. However, language learners encounter problems when learning the grammar rules of a new language because the specific grammar rules differ between languages. Some examples: Chinese Same word order (SVO) as English. Tense is not marked on the verb but on the sentence. Prepositions can go after the noun as well as before. Adverb position is not flexible. Japanese and Korean- Different word order (SOV) than English. Verbs are marked for tense, negation and person by adding up suffixes. • No article system. Ilokano and Tagalog- Different word order (VSO) than English. Verbs are marked for tense through complex fixation. Word order is very flexible, resulting in the same meaning. Marshallese and Chuukese- Same word order (SVO) as English. • Complex system of masculine, feminine, house particles to modify words. Reflection on Student Needs Return to the Reflection Sheets on pages 3 & 4. Write your reflection on student needs on page 4. BREAK: 15 MINUTES Now, take a quick break to use the restroom and get a snack. When you return to your table, discuss your reflection with people at your table. Grammar Focus: Verb Tense See the “Verb Tense PowerPoint Slides” handout at the end of today’s packet. Tense Consistency Activity 1 Change verbs where needed in the following selection so that they are consistently in the past tense. Cross out each incorrect verb and write the correct verb tense form below it. You will need to make eight corrections. Tense Consistency Activity 2: Practice on your Own Read the following short story and identify the tenses used. Each tense is used at least once. Show your answers to your colleagues and discuss. For the answers, see the “Tense Consistency Answer Key” handout at the end of today’s packet. Grammar Focus: Modals See the “Modals PowerPoint Slides” handout at the end of today’s packet. Modal Activity Fill in the gaps with "could , can , may , must , might , should" Show your answers to your colleagues and discuss. See the PowerPoint slide for possible answers. He _____ walk thirty miles a day. When she was young, she _____ swim across the lake. He says I _____ take the day off. _____ you please tell me how to get to Almond Street? They _____ work harder if they are to succeed. You _____ try asking the bus driver to help you. He wished he _____ visit France. I wish I _____ have helped you. If he were stronger, he _____ help us push the car out of the snow. You _____ take an umbrella with you, in case it starts to rain. She _____ have caught the bus if she had left right away. If he _____ have solved the problem, he would have felt happier. _____ I have some more soup? Feedback Activity Recall our workshop Maxims: 1. Grammar should be taught explicitly. 2. Grammar should be taught in context. 4. Emphasis should be on providing meaningful feedback to students to acquire important grammar skills. Using these maxims, look at the following two student paragraphs. How will you help the students develop their grammar skills? This is a sample paragraph from a 4th grade ELL student: My papa is the best. He do many thing. If he want, he pick up a very heave thing. My papa carry big rock bigger than me if he want. He also ride a motorbike. He go so fast even with me too. It so fun. One time my papa take me to hiking in the mountain. He make a house and a fire. We have so much fun in there. My papa do anything I need him to. What does this student need to work on? How will you help this student? What kind of feedback will you give the student? This is a sample paragraph from a high school ELL student: The second reason why I want go to college is I wanted to complete my dream to become a nurse. Why I will have this dream because when I was young, my grandmother always get sick and went to the hospital, also my relatives are very busy with their jobs, so if my grandmother gets sick, I have to stay at hospital to take care her. When someone gets sick their mood already was very bad, but sometimes I saw the nurse taking care the patient not very well. They are not very nice to the patients. Maybe they don’t know when the patients were in a bad mood. From that time, I want to become a nurse to do by best to take care patient. Though it is very hard to become a nurse in United Stated. However, I will work hard to make my dream come true. If I want to become a nurse the only way is go to school. Therefore, I want a college education because I wanted to complete my dream to become a nurse try my best to take care of patients. What does this student need to work on? How will you help this student? What kind of feedback will you give the student? Feedback • Listen to the student. • Model for the student. • Ask the students questions to clarify and repeat. • Provide a mixture of positive and negative feedback. • Tolerate some error DON’T OVER-CORRECT! Please write your reflection on another piece of paper as a formal reflection on today’s workshop. Include any other thoughts and comments. Bring it on Wednesday to drop off when you sign in. Also, please take 5 minutes to complete today’s workshop feedback form, which is located in your folder. Please leave it on your tables when you are finished. Thank you!