1. List and describe the four “critical
properties” of language.
• Symbolic – used to
represent objects, actions,
events and ideas
• Semantic – meaningful for
those who share the
• Generative – can be
combined in infinite ways
• Structured – organized by
2. Approximately how many phonemes are in the
English language?
• 40
3. What are morphemes?
• The smallest units
of meaning in a
• About 50,000 in
4. What is the difference between semantics
and syntax?
• Semantics is
concerned with
understanding the
meaning of words and
word combinations,
whereas syntax is a
system of rules that
specify how words can
be arranged into
5. Why are babies’ first words often dada,
mama, or papa?
• They resemble sounds that infants often
babble spontaneously, and they consist of
sounds that are easy to produce
6. When do most children have a vocabulary
• Around 18-24 months
• Fast mapping – learning a new word after
only one exposure
7. Provide an example of an overextension
in children’s speech.
• Incorrect usage of a word to
describe a wider set of objects
or actions than it is meant to
• Using the word “dog” to
represent all 4 legged animals
• Using “daddy” to represent all
adult men
8. Provide an example of an underextension
in children’s speech.
• Incorrectly using
a word to
describe a
narrower set of
objects or actions
than it is meant to
• Not calling a
shepherd a “dog”
because they
own a Dalmatian
9. Provide an example of overregularizations
in children’s speech.
• When grammatical rules are
incorrectly generalized to
irregular cases where they do
not apply
• "Daddy was talking to the
other mans."
• “Mommy goed to the store”
10. Based on the research, does bilingualism
have any effect on language development, and
cognitive development? Explain.
• Overall, they are similar in
the course and rate of
language development
• Middle-class bilingual
children tend to score
higher on cognitive
flexibility, analytical
reasoning, selective
attention, and
metalinguistic awareness

1. List and describe the four “critical properties” of