Bahan kajian pada MK. Pertanian Berlanjut EFEK PERTANIAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN DAMPAK PESTISIDA Diabstraksikan oleh: smno.jurstnh.fpub.sept2013 ..dampak lingkungan akibat pestisida…. Dampak lingkungan akibat aplikasi pestisida seringkali lebih besar dari apa yang “diperkirakan” oleh mereka yang menggunakannya. Lebih dari 98% dari insektisida disemprotkan dan 95% dari herbisida mencapai “sasaran” selain spesies-target, termasuk spesies nontarget, udara, air, tanah, sedimen, dan makanan. Aplikasi pestisida memberikan banyak manfaat, penggunaan yang tidak tepat dapat meningkatkan munculnya fenomena resistensi hama dan membunuh musuh-musuh alami dari hama. Aplikasi Pestisida dapat mencemari tanah dan air , ketika bahan ini disemprotkan ke pertanaman, atau pembuangan limbahnya ke lingkungan bebas. .. Jumlah pestisida yang menigngalkan (ke luar) dari daerah aplikasi nya (lahan pertanian) dipengaruhi oleh sifat kimia pestisida: kecenderungan untuk mengikat tanah, tekanan uap, kelarutannya dalam air, dan ketahanan degradasinya di lingkungan. Faktor-faktor sifat tanah, seperti tekstur, kemampuannya tanah menahan air, dan kandungan bahan organik tanah, juga mempengaruhi jumlah pestisida yang akan meninggalkan area aplikasinya. Beberapa jenis pestisida berkontribusi pada pemanasan global dan penipisan ozon lapisan. .. Dampak pestisida terhadap lingkungan perairan sering dipelajari dengan menggunakan model transportasi hidrologi untuk mempelajari gerakan dan perilaku bahan kimia polutan dalam aliran sungai. Pada awal 1970-an analisis kuantitatif dari air limpasan yang mengandung pestisida dilakukan untuk memprediksi jumlah pestisida yang akan mencapai permukaan perairan. Ada empat rute utama yang dapat ditempuh oleh pestisida untuk mencapai perairan: melayang di udara ketika disemprotkan; meresap ke dalam tanah, atau resapan, melalui tanah; dibawa oleh erosi dan air limpasan; atau mungkin tumpah. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kemampuan pestisida untuk mencemari air meliputi kelarutannya dalam air, jarak lokasi aplikasi dengan perairan, cuaca, jenis tanah, keberadaan tanaman yang tumbuh, dan metode aplikasinya. .. Banyak bahan kimia pestisida bersifat persisten dalam tanah, yang dampaknya dapat bertahan selama puluhan tahun. Penggunaan pestisida dapat menurunkan keanekaragaman hayati dalam tanah. Tidak menggunakan bahan kimia dapat mengakibatkan kualitas tanah yang lebih baik, efek lainnya adalah Kandungan BOT lebih tinggi, sehingga tanah mampu menyimpan air lebih banyak. Hal ini membantu untuk meningkatkan hasil pertanian selama periode tahuntahun kering, ketika pertanian organik memiliki hasil 20 -40% lebih tinggi daripada pertanian konvensional. Rendahnya kandungan BOT meningkatkan jumlah pestisida yang akan meninggalkan lokasi aplikasinya, karena bahan organik tanah mampu mengikat dan membantu mendegradasi residu pestisida. .. Degradasi dan sorpsi residu pertisida dalam tanah dapat mempengaruhi persistensi pestisida dalam tanah. Kedua proses tersebut tergantung pada sifat kimia pestisida, kedua proses ini juga mengontrol langsung transportasi residu pestisida dalam tanah dan air, dan pada gilirannya ke udara dan mencapai bahan makanan. Degradasi senyawa organik melibatkan interaksi mikroorganisme dalam tanah. Sorpsi (Serapan) mempengaruhi bioakumulasi pestisida yang diikat oleh bahan organik tanah. Asam organik lemah telah terbukti lemah diserap oleh tanah, karena pH dan struktur asam. Bahan kimia yang diikat oleh aprtikel tanah kurang dapat diakses oleh mikroorganisme tanah. “Semakin lama residu pestisida tinggal dalam tanah”. residu pestisida itu menjadi lebih tahan terhadap degradasi karena mereka kehilangan aktivitas biologisnya. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . Soil contamination Pesticides enter the soil via spray drift during foliage treatment, wash-off from treated foliage, release from granulates or from treated seeds in soil. Some pesticides such as soil fumigants and nematocides are applied directly into soil to control pests and plant diseases presented in soil. The transport, persistence or degradation of pesticides in soil depend on their chemical properties as well as physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. All these factors affect sorption/ desorption, volatilisation, degradation, uptake by plants, runoff, and leaching of pesticides. Persistent organochlorine pesticides (OC) in soils Persistence of pesticides in soil can vary from few hours to many years in case of OC pesticides. Despite OC pesticides were banned or restricted in many countries, they are still detecting in soils (Shegunova et al., 20071; Toan et al., 20072; Li et al., 20083; Hildebrandt et al., 20094; Jiang et al., 20095; Ferencz and Balog 20106). ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . Sorption is the most important interaction between soil and pesticides and limits degradation as well as transport in soil. Pesticides bound to soil organic matter or clay particles are less mobile, bio available but also less accessible to microbial degradation and thus more persistent. Soil organic matter is the most important factor influencing sorption and leaching of pesticides in soil. Addition of organic matter to soil can enhance sorption and reduce risk to water pollution. It has been demonstrated that amount and composition of organic matter had large impact on pesticides sorption. For example soil rich on humus content are more chemically reactive with pesticides than nonhumified soil (Farenhorst 2006). Farenhorst, A. (2006): Importance of Soil Organic Matter Fractions in SoilLandscape and Regional Assessments of Pesticide Sorption and Leaching in Soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70(3), pp 1005-1012. Sumber: https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/articles/70/3/1005 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . High yield agriculture, as it is widely practised in Europa, depletes soil organic matter and will reduce sorption. Fast sorption usually occurs in short time after pesticide application. With time sorption is much slower. However, it has been observed for many pesticides that increasing time, repeated application could increase their sorption and formation of bound, non-extractable residues. Although bound residues are considered of low significance because they are inactive and nonavailable, it has been detected that they can release in some time. Change in soil pH or addition of nitrate fertilizers can induced a release of this residues. There exist also evidences that some organisms, e.g. plants and earthworms, can uptake and remobilise old tightly bound residues (Gevao et al., 2000). Gevao, B., Mordaunt, C., Semple, K.T., Piearce, T.G., Jones, K.C. (2000): Bioavailability of Nonextractable (Bound) Pesticide Residues to Earthworms. Environmental Science & Technology 35(3), pp 501-507. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . . Water contamination Pesticides can get into water via drift during pesticide spraying, by runoff from treated area, leaching through the soil. In some cases pesticides can be applied directly onto water surface e.g. for control of mosquitoes. Water contamination depends mainly on nature of pesticides (water solubility, hydrophobicity), soil properties, weather conditions, landscape and also on the distance from an application site to a water source. Rapid transport to groundwater may be caused by heavy rainfall shortly after application of the pesticide to wet soils. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . During 90ies, herbicide Atrazine and Endosulphan were found most often in surface waters in the USA and Australia due to their widespread use. Other pesticides detected included Pronofos, Dimethoate, Chlordane, Diuron, Prometryn and Fluometuron (Cooper 1996). More recent studies also reported presence of pesticides in surface water and groundwater close to agriculture lands over the world (Cerejeira et al., 20031; Konstantinou et al., 20062; Añasco et al., 20105). In general, the compounds most frequently detected were currently used pesticides (herbicides Atrazine, Simazine, Alachlor, Metolachlor and Trifluralin, insecticides Diazinon, Parathion methyl, and organochlorine compounds due to their long persistance (lindane, endosulfan, aldrin, and other organochlorine pesticides). Cerejeira, M.J., Viana, P., Batista, S., Pereira, T., Silva, E., Valério, M.J., Silva, A., Ferreira, M., SilvaFernandes, A.M. (2003): Pesticides in Portuguese surface and ground waters. Water Research 37(5), pp 10551063. Cooper, B. (1996): Central and North West Regions Water Quality Program 1995/1996. Report on Pesticide Monitoring. TS96.048, NSW Department of Land & Water Conservation, Sydney, Australia Konstantinou, I.K., Hela, D.G., Albanis, T.A. (2006): The status of pesticide pollution in surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece. Part I. Review on occurrence and levels. Environmental Pollution 141(3), pp 555-570. Añasco, N., Uno, S., Koyama, J., Matsuoka, T., Kuwahara, N. (2010): Assessment of pesticide residues in freshwater areas affected by rice paddy effluents in Southern Japan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 160(1), pp 371-383. . ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. The geographic and seasonal distribution of pesticide occurrence follows patterns in land use and pesticide use. Streams and rivers were frequently more polluted that groundwaters and more near the areas with substantial agricultural and/or urban land use. Pesticides usually occurred in mixture of multiple compounds, even if individual pesticide were detected bellow limits. This potentially can lead to underestimation of toxicity when assessments are based on individual compounds. High levels of pesticides chlordecone were detected in coastline, rivers, sediments and groundwater in the Caribbean island of Martinique due to its massive application on bananas plantations (Bocquené and Franco 2005). Bocquené, G., Franco, A. (2005): Pesticide contamination of the coastline of Martinique. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51(5-7), pp 612-619. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . Effects on organisms Soil organisms and processes Soil microorganisms play a key role in soil. They are essential for maintenance of soil structure, transformation and mineralization of organic matter, making nutrients available for plants. Soil microorganisms are also able to metabolise and degrade a lot of pollutants and pesticides and thus are of great concern for using in biotechnology. On the other hand, microbial degradation can lead to formation of more toxic and persistent metabolites. Although soil microbial population are characterized by fast flexibility and adaptability to changed environmental condition, the application of pesticides (especially long-term) can cause significant irreversible changes in their population. Inhibition of species, which provide key process, can have a significant impact on function of whole terrestrial ecosystem. Fungicides were found to be toxic to soil fungi and actinomycetes and caused changes in microbial community structure (Liebich et al., 20034; Pal et al., 20055). Liebich, J., Schäffer, A., Burauel, P. (2003): Structural and functional approach to studying pesticide side-effects on specific soil functions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22(4), pp 784-790. Pal, R., Chakrabarti, K., Chakraborty, A., Chowdhury, A. (2005): Pencycuron application to soils: Degradation and effect on microbiological parameters. Chemosphere 60(11), pp 1513-1522. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . A ew studies show that some organochlorine pesticides suppress symbiotic nitrogen fixation resulting in lower crop yields. Authors found out that pesticides Pentachlorphenol, DDT and Methyl parathion at levels found in farm soils interfered signalling from leguminous plant such as alfalfa, peas, and soybeans to symbiotic soil bacteria. This effect, loosely comparable to endocrine disruption effects of pesticides in human and animals, significantly disrupt N2 fixation. As consequence increased dependence on synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer, reduced soil fertility, and unsustainable long-term crop yields occur. The observations also may explain a trend in the past 40 years toward stagnant crop yields despite record high use of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers worldwide (Fox et al., 20078; Potera 20079). Fox, J.E., Gulledge, J., Engelhaupt, E., Burow, M.E., McLachlan, J.A. (2007): Pesticides reduce symbiotic efficiency of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and host plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(24), pp 10282-10287. Potera, C. (2007): Agriculture: Pesticides Disrupt Nitrogen Fixation. Environ Health Perspect 115(12). ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . Soil invertebrates Nematodes, springtails, mites and further micro-arthropods, earthworms, spiders, insects and all these small organisms make up the soil food web and enable decomposition of organic compounds such as leaves, manure, plant residues and they also prey on crop pests. Soil organisms enhance soil aggregation and porosity and thus increasing infiltration and reducing runoff. Earthworms represent the greatest part of biomass of terrestrial invertebrates (>80 %) and play an important role in soil ecosystem. They are used as bioindicator of soil contamination providing an early warning of decline in soil quality. They serve as model organisms in toxicity testing. Earthworms are characterized by high ability to cumulate a lot of pollutants from soil in their tissues, thus they are used for studying of bioaccumulation potential of chemicals. A recent review of pesticides effects on earthworms showed on negative effects on growth and reproduction by many pesticides (Shahla and D'Souza 2010). Shahla, Y., D'Souza, D. (2010): Effects of Pesticides on the Growth and Reproduction of Earthworm: A Review. Applied and Environmental Soil Science 2010, pp Article ID 678360, 9 pages. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . Glyphosate, nonselective herbicide, and chlorpyrifos, insecticide, belong to the most worldwide used pesticides, especially on transgenic resistant crops. An integrated study on a Roundoup resistant soya field in Argentina showed deleterious effect of these pesticides on earthworm population. Earthworms avoided soil with glyphosate, their feeding activity and viability were reduced. Glyphosate and chlorpyrifos caused also several adverse effects at cellular level (DNA damage) that indicated physiological stress. Author concluded that the effects observed on the reproduction and avoidance caused by glyphosate could contribute to earthworm decrease, with the subsequent loss of their beneficial functions (Casabé et al., 2007). Casabé, N., Piola, L., Fuchs, J., Oneto, M.L., Pamparato, L., Basack, S., Giménez, R., Massaro, R., Papa, J.C., Kesten, E. (2007): Ecotoxicological Assessment of the Effects of Glyphosate and Chlorpyrifos in an Argentine Soya Field. Journal of soil sediments 7(4), pp 232-239. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . Other non-target species Effect of pesticides on bees are closely watched because their crop pollination. However, little is known about the impacts of pesticides on wild pollinators in the field. In recent study conducted in Italian agricultural area, authors monitored species richness of wild bees, bumblebees and butterflies were sampled after pesticides application. They detected decline of wild bees after repeated application of insecticide fenitrothion. Lower bumblebee and butterfly species richness was found in the more intensively farmed basin with higher pesticide loads (Brittain et al., 2010). Brittain, C.A., Vighi, M., Bommarco, R., Settele, J., Potts, S.G. (2010): Impacts of a pesticide on pollinator species richness at different spatial scales. Basic and Applied Ecology 11(2), pp 106-115. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . Impact of pesticides on insect is determined by the timing of application because susceptibility to exposure differs between species and at different life stages. Therefore, unconsidered agricultural practises can harm butterfly populations. It has been shown that using herbicides to control of invasive plants can significantly reduce survival, wing and pupa weight of butterfly at treated areas. Author highlighted the importance of careful consideration in the use of herbicides in habitats harboring at-risk butterfly populations. Reduction of adverse effect may be reached by applications in late summer and early fall, post flight season and during larval diapause (Russell and Schultz 2009). Russell, C., Schultz, C.B. (2009): Effects of grass-specific herbicides on butterflies: an experimental investigation to advance conservation efforts. Journal of Insect Conservation 14(1), pp 53-63. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . Water organisms – invertebrates, amphibians, fishes Pesticides can enter fresh water streams directly via spray drift or indirectly via surface runoff or drain flow. Many pesticides are toxic to freshwater organisms. Acute and chronic effects are derived from standart toxicity tests. Within the ecological context, sublethal effects of toxic contaminants are very important. For example, downstream drift of stream macroinvertebrates in common reaction to various types of disturbance, including chemical contamination and may result in significant changes of structure of lotic communities. Downstream drift was shown for several pesticides such as pyrethroid, neonicotinoid, organochlorine, organophosphate insecticides or lampricides. Neurotoxic insecticides exhibited the strongest drift-initiating effects on stream-dwelling insects and crustaceans. Moreover, it was detected that macroinvertebrate drift can be induced even by short-term pulse exposures (within 2 hours) at field-relevant concentrations (already 7–22 times lower than the respective acute LC50 values) (Beketov and Liess 2008). Beketov, M., Liess, M. (2008): Potential of 11 Pesticides to Initiate Downstream Drift of Stream Macroinvertebrates. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 55(2), pp 247-253. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . In ecotoxicologial risk assessment of pesticides, attention is also focused on the ability of treated aquatic ecosystems to recover. After pesticide application structural and functional changes in ecosystem were monitored. Whereas some species can be reduced, other may profit from lower predation and food competition. The time needed for recovery depends on biotic factor such as presence of dormant forms, life cycle characteristics, landscape as well as on the season when exposure occur. It has been detected, isolated ecosystems were more susceptible to damage and community structure changed to lower biodiversity states. Recovery in these ecosystems depends on the availability of immigrating organisms (Caquet et al., 2007). Long-living species might not recover until very long time (7 months of experiment) (Beketov et al., 2008). Beketov, M.A., Schäfer, R.B., Marwitz, A., Paschke, A., Liess, M. (2008): Long-term stream invertebrate community alterations induced by the insecticide thiacloprid: Effect concentrations and recovery dynamics. Science of The Total Environment 405(1-3), pp 96-108. Caquet, T., Hanson, M.L., Roucaute, M., Graham, D.W., Lagadic, L. (2007): Influence of isolation on the recovery of pond mesocosms from the application of an insecticide. II. Benthic macroinvertebrate responses. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26(6), pp 1280-1290. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. Birds Decline of farmland bird species has been reported over several past decades and often attributed to changes in farming practises, such as increase agrochemical inputs, loss of mixture farming or unfarmed structures. Besides lethal and sub lethal effects of pesticides on birds, concern has recently focused on the indirect effects. These effects act mainly via reduction of food supplies (weeds, invertebrates), especially during breeding or winter seasons. As consequence insecticide and herbicide application can lead to reduction of chick survival and bird population. Time of pesticides application plays also important role in availability of food. Several practises (generally Integrated crop management techniques) can be used to minimize unwanted effects of pesticides on farmland birds, such as use of selective pesticides, avoiding spraying in during breeding season and when crops and weeds are in flower, minimise spray drift or creation of headlands. Evidences of this important indirect effect of pesticides has been reported e.g. By Boatman et al., 20042; Taylor et al., 20063. Boatman, N.D., Brickle, N.W., Hart, J.D., Milsom, T.P., Morris, A.J., Murray, A.W.A., Murray, K.A., Robertson, P.A. (2004): Evidence for the indirect effects of pesticides on farmland birds. Ibis 146, pp 131- ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . Effects of pesticides and farming practises on biodiversity Intensive pesticides and fertilizers usage, loss of natural and semi-natural habitats and decreased habitat heterogeneity and all other aspects of agricultural intensification have undoubted impact on biodiversity decline during last years. Intensive agriculture A current Europe-wide survey in eight West and East European countries brought alarming evidence of negative effects of agricultural intensification on wild plants, carabid and bird species diversity. Authors demonstrated that, despite decades of European policy to ban harmful pesticides, pesticides are still having disastrous consequences for biodiversity on European farmland. Insecticides also reduced the biological control potential. They conclude that if biodiversity is to be restored in Europe, there must be a Europe-wide shift towards farming with minimal use of pesticides over large areas (Geiger, F., Bengtsson, J., Berendse, F., Weisser, W.W., Emmerson, M., Morales, M.B., Ceryngier, P., Liira, J., Tscharntke, T., Winqvist, C., Eggers, S., Bommarco, R., Pärt, T., Bretagnolle, V., Plantegenest, M., Clement, L.W., Dennis, C., Palmer, C., Ońate, J.J., Guerrero, I., Hawro, V., Aavik, T., Thies, C., Flohre, A., Hänke, S., Fischer, C., Goedhart, P.W., Inchausti, P. (2010): Persistent negative effects of pesticides on biodiversity and ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES. An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 .. . Taking a landscape in Great Britain as an example, it has been showed that impact of agriculture intensification on biodiversity differs among agricultural land use and depends on specific agricultural pressure like land use changes, land cover or crop management. Authors found out that, as result of eutrohication and N surplus, vegetation diversity surrounding cropped land shifted to a composition typical for more fertile conditions. However, species richness of plants and breeding birds were more affected by broad habitat diversity (Firbank, L.G., Petit, S., Smart, S., Blain, A., Fuller, R.J. 2008. Assessing the impacts of agricultural intensification on biodiversity: a British perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363(1492), pp 777-787.). The pressures of agricultural changes may be reduced by: - minimizing loss of large habitats, - minimizing permanent loss of agricultural land, - maintaining habitat diversity in agricultural landscapes in order to provide ecosystem services, - minimizing pollution from nutrients and pesticides from the crops themselves. Sumber: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1492/777.full Dampak pestisida terhadap perairan ditentukan oleh : .. Persistence: Measured as half-life (time required for the ambient concentration to decrease by 50%). Persistence is determined by biotic and abiotic degradational processes. Biotic processes are biodegradation and metabolism; abiotic processes are mainly hydrolysis, photolysis, and oxidation (Calamari and Barg, 1993). Modern pesticides tend to have short half lives that reflect the period over which the pest needs to be controlled. · Degradates: The degradational process may lead to formation of "degradates" which may have greater, equal or lesser toxicity than the parent compound. As an example, DDT degrades to DDD and DDE. .. Fate The environmental fate (behaviour) of a pesticide is (Environmental) affected by the natural affinity of the chemical for : one of four environmental compartments (Calamari and Barg, 1993): solid matter (mineral matter and particulate organic carbon), liquid (solubility in surface and soil water), gaseous form (volatilization), and biota. This behaviour is often referred to as "partitioning" and involves, respectively, the determination of: the soil sorption coefficient (KOC); solubility; Henry's Constant (H); and the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW). These parameters are well known for pesticides and are used to predict the environmental fate of the pesticide. . EFEK EKOLOGIS AKIBAT PESTISIDA Pestisida termasuk polutan organik mikro yang mempunyai dampak ekologis.. Berbagai tipe pestisida mempunyai efek yang berbeda-beda terhadap organisme hidup, sehingga sulit dilakukan generalisasi. Meskipun dampak di darat akibat pestisida juga terjadi, namun jalur-jalur utama yang menyebabkan dampak ekologis adalah air yang tercemar oleh runoff yang mengandung residu pestisida. Ada dua mekanisme yang utama, yaitu bioconcentration dan biomagnifikasi. Bioconcentration: This is the movement of a chemical from the surrounding medium into an organism. The primary "sink" for some pesticides is fatty tissue ("lipids"). Some pesticides, such as DDT, are "lipophilic", meaning that they are soluble in, and accumulate in, fatty tissue such as edible fish tissue and human fatty tissue. Other pesticides such as glyphosate are metabolized and excreted. . BIOMAGNIFICATION:. Istilah ini mendeskripsikan “peningkatkan konsentrasi suatu senyawa kimia sebagai energi-makanan ditransformasikan di dalam rantai-makanan. Kalau organisme kecil dimangsa oleh organisme yang lebih besar, konsentrasi pestisida dan senyawa kimia lainnya menjadi lebih besar di dalam jaringan tubuhnya atau organ tubuhnya. Konsentrasi yang sangat tinggi dapat diamati pada toppredators, termasuk manusia. ...EFEK PESTISIDA… The major types of effects are listed below and will vary depending on the organism under investigation and the type of pesticide. Different pesticides have markedly different effects on aquatic life which makes generalization very difficult. The important point is that many of these effects are chronic (not lethal), are often not noticed by casual observers, yet have consequences for the entire food chain. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Kematian organisme. Kancers, tumours dan kerusakan jaringan tubuh ikan dan binatang. Gangguan atau kegagalan Reproduksi. Penekanan sistem innune. Kerusakan sistem hormon (endocrine). Keruskaan sel dan DNA. Teratogenic effects (physical deformities such as hooked beaks on birds). Poor fish health marked by low red to white blood cell ratio, excessive slime on fish scales and gills, etc. 9. Intergenerational effects (effects are not apparent until subsequent generations of the organism). 10. Efek fisiologis lainnya, seperti menipisnya kulit telur. .. Degradasi Pestisida dalam Tanah… BEBERAPA JENIS pestisida menghilang dengan cepat di tanah. Proses mineralisasi senyawa organik pestisida ini menghasilkan senyawa anorganik sederhana seperti H20, C02, dan NH3 Proses-proses mineralisasi (dekomposisi) ini merupakan reaksi kimia seperti hidrolisis dan fotolisis; katabolisme mikrobiologis dan metabolisme merupakan jalur-jalur mineralisasi. Mikroba tanah memanfaatkan residu pestisida sebagai sumber karbon atau sumber hara lainnya. Beberapa bahan kimia (misalnya 2,4-D) mudah terdegradasi dalam tanah, sedangkan bahan lainnya lebih sulit terdegradasi (2,4,5-T). Beberapa bahan kimia sangat resisten dan hanya terdegradasi secara perlahanlahan (misalnya atrazin) . (Stephenson dan Salomo, 1993). Pesticides in the Environment Label Warnings Environmental Hazards Section • EPA requires pesticides be tested to assess their potential for harming the environment – Pesticide characteristics – Fate of pesticides in the environment • Off-target movement • Degradation pathways – Impacts on non-target organisms • EPA makes some products restricted use due to environmental concerns The Environment: everything that surrounds us 1. Air, soil, water, plants, animals, people, in/outside buildings 2. Beneficial organisms, endangered species 3. There is public concern about the effect of pesticides on the environment Bagaimana Pestisida mempengaruhi Lingkungan 1. Chemical characteristics of pesticides 2. Degradation methods 3. Pesticide movements during and after application 4. Special environmental considerations Karakteristik Pestisida : Kelarutan 1. The ability of a pesticide to dissolve in a solvent, usually water 2. Soluble pesticides are more likely to move with water in surface runoff or through the soil to groundwater Karaktersitik Pestisida: Penjerapan - Adsorption binding of chemicals to soil particles 1. Higher with oil-soluble pesticides 2. Clay and organic matter increase binding 3. Decreases the potential for a pesticide to move through soil Persistensi Pestisida 1. Ability of a pesticide to remain present and active for a long time 2. Provides for longterm pest control, but may harm sensitive plants and animals 3. May lead to illegal residues on rotational crops Persistence is another important characteristic when assessing impacts on the environment. Persistence is the measure of how long a pesticide remains active before it degrades. If you want long-term pest control, seek out a pesticide that’s persistent and doesn’t readily degrade. But realize persistent pesticides don’t break down for some time and they can harm sensitive plants or animals. Persistent pesticides also pose concerns for illegal residues on rotational crops that can pick up the chemical because the product was not labeled for that rotational site and no tolerance was set. Volatilitas Pestisida The tendency of a pesticide to turn into a gas or vapor Volatility is a characteristic of vapor pressure. Depending on the temperature and humidity, and in some situations wind, a chemical changes from a liquid or solid state into a gas or vapor. As a vapor it can move off-target with the air flow. Increases in temperature and wind increase the potential for volatility. Also, lower humidity levels increase the potential for volatility. Temperature Wind Humidity = Higher Volatility Volatilitas Pestisida • Fumigants volatilize and move gas through soil, structures or stored commodities • Several herbicides are quite volatile and pose harm when the vapor moves off target – Labels may state cut-off temperatures for application – Labels may require pesticide to be incorporated into the soil Fumigants are effective in their vapor state. The vapor is the form that moves through soil particles during a soil fumigation or through cracks and crevices in structures, or grain kernels in stored grain. However, under certain field conditions, some herbicides volatilize and move off-target, possibly reaching susceptible plants. Because the manufacturers have screened their products for this characteristic, they put volatility warning statements on labels. So look for cut-off temperatures listed for certain herbicides. This is also why soil fumigant labels require immediate incorporation and soil-sealing. Degradasi oleh Mikroba 1. Important means for destroying pesticide in soils 2. Some soil microorganisms use pesticides as food: Bacteria and fungi Understanding how readily a pesticide degrades and how it degrades are also important. Microbial degradation is a primary means for destroying pesticides in the soil. There are a number of microorganisms, like species of bacteria and fungi that use the pesticide as food. As the microbes feed on pesticides, they break them down. Kondisi Tanah & Degradasi Pestisida - warm soil temperatures - aeration - adequate soil moisture - favorable pH - fertility - adsorption Soil conditions that favor microorganism reproduction increase the degradation process. So, soils that are warm, have adequate moisture and a favorable pH provide the right conditions for rapid pesticide degradation. Also, soils with a good mix of oxygen, sufficient fertility and with pesticide adsorbed onto the soil, have increased degradation. Degradasi Kimiawi Non-living processes also cause degradation. Simple chemical reactions occur in the soil. Something as simple as the mixing of water and the chemical can result in hydrolysis that causes chemicals to break down. Again, soil properties and conditions affect which chemical reactions take place and how quickly. 1. Proses Non-biotik 2. Hydrolysis: a chemical reaction with water, typically with a high pH (alkaline) 3. Soil properties and conditions affect the rate and type of chemical reactions Photodegradation • Degradasi molekul pestisida oleh radiasi matahari • Dapat direduksi dengan membenamkan ke dalam tanah The sun can cause chemical degradation. You’ve probably experienced the effect of photodegradation, where the sun is responsible for chemical breakdown, like when your nylon tarp wears out. Sunshine is very effective in breaking down chemicals. Remember, this is why you hang your laundered pesticide application clothing out to dry in the sun. Some chemicals break down so quickly they must be immediately incorporated into the soil. Others can only be used indoors where the sun doesn’t shine. Pergerakan Pestisida • Oleh Udara – Vapor, particle, spray drift • Oleh Air – Surface runoff – Movement through soil • Oleh Obyek lainnya – Residu pada tanaman dan binatang To understand how pesticides might impact the environment, we have to look at how they move from the application site to other sensitive areas. We’ll look at each of these pathways in detail. The major pathways are through air as vapors, dust or spray droplets, through surface water or soil water, or through plant or animal tissues removed from the WSU application area. Pergerakan Pestisida: di Udara • Movement of airborne pesticide droplets from the target area • Check the label for precautions – mandatory no-spray buffers – spray droplet size requirements – wind speed restrictions – application volume requirements – aerial application restrictions – warnings for sensitive crop or sites Spray Drift Spray drift is the movement of spray droplets in the air. The spray droplets are carried in the air beyond the application site. A concentrated dose of droplets that moves off-target can cause damage or leave illegal residues. To minimize off-target spray drift, labels state specific precautions. The label may require a mandatory no-spray buffer between the application site and a sensitive area. The label may stipulate exactly what size droplet classification can be used during the application. Wind speed conditions, both very low winds and high winds, may restrict applications. The label may require you apply a certain volume of spray. Aerial application may be restricted on some labels. Labels may have specific precautions listed for sensitive crops or sites, like schools and day cares. Spray Drift Factors 1. Applicator attitude 2. Equipment set-up 3. Viscosity of spray – a liquid’s resistance to flow 4. Weather conditions Let’s review the four factors that contribute to drift. The applicator’s attitude is very important. The applicator assesses the site and concern level for drift. The applicator selects what application method and chemical formulation is most appropriate and sets up the equipment to either produce larger or smaller droplets. The applicator monitors the weather and makes the decision whether to spray or not. It appears from the picture here, that the applicator had significant drift from his turf weed control application. He made a very bad set of decisions. Spray Drift Factors Applicator Attitude – Assess what sensitive sites are near the application area • No-spray buffer necessary? – Assess weather conditions: air stability, wind direction and speed – Set up equipment with appropriate boom height, nozzles, and pressure – Make decision to spray or not to spray The applicator must conduct a site assessment prior to any application. It’s necessary to identify any sensitive areas or areas of concern. Is there a need for a no-spray buffer to ensure that there’s no contamination of certain sensitive sites? The applicator must assess the weather conditions, such as the possibility of stable air conditions. What’s the wind direction and speed, and the temperature? You must understand these factors in order to manage the application to minimize off-target movement. Understanding the concerns for drift, the applicator selects the appropriate application equipment and sets it up properly. Ultimately, after all the planning and preparation, the applicator must make the decision to spray or not to spray. Equipment Set Up: Droplet Size The basic principle to understanding drift is understanding droplet size. Big droplets don’t drift. Small droplets tend to stay in the air for awhile prior to the effects of gravity causing them to settle to the surface. You can manage drift by managing the droplet size. Consider making larger droplets. Spray Drift Factors Weather Conditions – Read the Wind –What’s downwind? Direction –How far will it move? Speed •0-3 mph: could be very stable with airflow, just not sure which direction the air is moving •3-7 mph: manage for off-target movement downwind •>7 mph: carries more material offtarget You cannot change the weather, but you must be able to read the weather. Wind is a key weather condition that must be measured. Wind direction is the most important factor. You must know what is downwind. You’re going to have some off-target movement with any spray application, so you’d better know what’s downwind. You have to assess what precautions to take to protect that downwind area, when necessary. Wind speed affects whether you can determine wind direction and also affects how far the ‘driftable’ droplets move. When applying in winds that are below 3 mph, you can’t really determine the wind direction without using smoke or some other device. And the direction can easily fluctuate under low wind conditions. Droplets still move, but you don’t know where and you can’t take the necessary precautions. Applying in winds between 3 and 7 mph allows you to easily measure wind direction and you’re able to assess what’s downwind. Since you know some material is going to drift, take steps to minimize off-target movement. Excessive winds carry more product off-target and potentially reduce the effectiveness of your application. It may be unwise to spray under these conditions unless significant drift reduction Spray Drift Factors Weather Conditions – Temperature – droplet evaporates to smaller droplets as temperatures increase – Humidity – droplets do not evaporate as humidity increases Temperature and humidity affect the life of the droplet. As temperatures increase, droplets evaporate into smaller droplets. As humidity decreases, evaporation also increases. So you’d expect more ‘driftable’ droplets under conditions of high temperatures and low humidity. Spray Drift Factors • Weather Conditions – Temperature Inversion – air is STABLE with minor air flow • air at ground has cooled (heavier air) • warm air as risen (lighter air) Warm Air Cool Air result is stagnant, stable air = inversion long distance drift can result from applications made during inversions Kondisi Normal Under normal or unstable air conditions, air is continually mixing. In this graphic you can see the dust actually become diluted as it moves away from other particles. Spray droplets do the same thing. They move apart from each other and become less concentrated. G. Thomasson Vertical air mixing – dilution of material through the air mass Kondisi Udara Stabil : Inversi Temperatur Concentrated suspension of droplets will move off site. Where they settle could be a sensitive site. This illustration shows that smoke is a good indicator of air stability or inversions. You can easily visualize the concentrated mass of smoke particles moving here. Can you imagine if these were spray droplets, how far could they go? Miles. G.Thomasson and C. Ramsay, WSU When can a temperature inversion occur? 1. Can occur anytime 2. Usually develops at dusk 3. May continue through night 4. Breaks up when ground warms up in morning 5. It may appear ideal, but is not Temperature inversions can and do occur at anytime, especially in hilly or mountainous terrain. They typically form at dusk as the sun sets and the cool air settles. Inversions often continue through the night and don’t break until the sun is up and starts to warm the ground. Once the ground warms, the cool and warm air start to mix. The major problem with inversions, is that applicators perceive little wind or air movement and assume this is a good time to spray. In actuality, it’s the worst time. If an application is made just as an inversion sets in, let’s say at 4 pm and it doesn’t break until 9 am; that allows for droplets to move with any airflow for 17 hours. With a half mile an hour wind, droplets could move in a concentrated mass for 8.5 miles. Pergerakan Pestisida : di Udara Vapor Drift Now let’s consider vapor drift. 1. Certain products volatilize and move with airflow off-target under warm weather conditions (above 85F) 2. Check the label for precautions for cut-off temperatures 3. Select low-volatile formulations Vapor drift occurs when a pesticide changes to a gas form and moves off-target. This occurs with several herbicides when temperatures warm up during the day. Check the herbicide label for precautions about vapor drift and follow any guidelines that stipulate cut-off temperatures. Some labels state “do not apply if temperatures will exceed 85 degrees during the day”. If you have concerns with volatility, select lowvolatile formulations. Pergerakan Pestisida : di Udara Particle Drift 1. Dust applications can drift 2. Certain pesticides attach to soil particles, remain active and can blow off-target 3. Check the label for soil incorporation precautions Certain pesticides remain active on the soil after application. If the treated soil or road dust moves off-target, it can contain active pesticide. Precautions are listed on the product label if particle drift is a concern. One method to manage for particle or dust drift is to immediately incorporate the pesticide into the soil with tillage, rainfall or irrigation. In this picture, a pesticide was applied along the road shoulder and was not incorporated. Wind blew the soil into the adjacent field and caused damage. Pergerakan Pestisida : dalam Air • Pesticides can move into water from a identifiable occurrence or from general contamination – Point Source • identifiable source – Non-point Source • wide area contamination Pesticides may get into water from either an identifiable source or from a general contamination. We use the term Point Source for pollution that occurs from an identifiable source and we use the term Non-point Source if the source can’t be easily identified. Pergerakan Pestisida : dalam Air • Point-source Pollution is from an identifiable point – Spills and leaks • into sewer • at mix/load sites • wash sites – Backsiphoning when filling sprayer or chemigation – Improper handling and disposal near water sources Point source pollution occurs from an identifiable source, such as a spill or a leak. Contaminated water may enter the water system through the sewer or from contaminated mix/load and wash sites. This can result in contaminated surface or ground water. A direct contamination of water sources can result if back-siphoning occurs when filling a sprayer or when check valves aren’t installed in a chemigation system. Improper handling and disposal can result in point source pollution, so be very careful with your handling procedures. Pergerakan Pestisida : dalam Air • Non-point Source Pollution originates from a wide area Non-point Source Pollution can result from a wide variety of sources and not a single identifiable source. – pesticide movement into surface water from any number of sources Surface water contamination can result from any number of sources like contaminated runoff. – commonly blamed for contaminated water The general contamination of water is usually attributed to non-point pollution. Pergerakan Pestisida : dalam Air Runoff 1. Pesticides move in water over soil into surface water 2. Contaminated ditches, streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes 3. Surface water used for drinking and livestock water, irrigation, etc. Runoff is a key mechanism for moving pesticides into surface waters. By making a pesticide application that’s followed shortly by a rain event or irrigation event the soil becomes saturated. Water then runs off the surface instead of percolating into the soil. As the water runs off, it carries water-soluble pesticides that are at the surface with it. This results in contaminated ditches, streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes. The use of the contaminated water source for drinking, livestock watering, irrigation, fish habitat, or any number of other uses, is impacted. Volume Runoff tergantung pada : – grade or slope of the area – soil texture – vegetation • soil moisture • amount and timing of irrigation/rainfall • pesticide characteristics The factors that contribute to whether a runoff event occurs include the grade or slope of the area as well as soil texture and the amount of vegetation. Soil that’s saturated can’t take in the water, so it runs off. The amount and timing of irrigation or rainfall is critical. The pesticide characteristics, especially water solubility, also play a role. Pergerakan Pestisida : dalam Air Pencucian When contaminated water moves in the soil, not over it, we call this leaching. Movement of pesticide by water through soil Move horizonatlly to nearby roots or vertically toward groundwater Chemical characteristics that pose concern: high solubility, low adsorption, persistence Again, pesticides that are water-soluble tend to leach through the soil. The contaminated soil water may move horizontally to nearby roots or it may move vertically through the soil profile down to the groundwater. Pesticides that tend to leach are those that are highly water-soluble, don’t readily adsorb onto soil particles, and don’t degrade quickly. Pencucian tergantung pada …….… • Geology – how permeable is the soil? • Soil texture and structure – Sandy: fast percolation, few binding sites – Silt, clay or organic matter: slower percolations and many binding sites • Depth to groundwater: shallow water tables pose a concern • Amount and timing of rainfall or irrigation How vulnerable a site is to leaching depends on several factors. The geology of the site or how permeable the soil is affects the soil’s leaching potential. Soil texture plays a key role in how fast water moves and how much pesticide is held by the soil. Sandy soil has very fast percolation and few adsorption sites. On the other hand, it takes water a long time to move through clay and organic matter soils and these soils have thousands of adsorption sites to hold some chemicals. The depth of the groundwater is also key. If the groundwater is shallow, your concern about leaching should be great. If the depth is quite deep, the water has to move a very long distance to reach the groundwater and the product will most likely have been degraded. For leaching to occur, you must have water. So saturated soils, heavy rainfall, and over-irrigation contribute to the concern. Groundwater • Surface Water: lakes, rivers and oceans • Recharge: water that seeps through the soil from rain, melting snow or irrigation • Water Table: upper level of the water-saturated zone • Aquifers: permeable zones of rock, sand, gravel, or limestone that are saturated with water Let’s review a few important terms. Surface waters are those waters present at the earth’s surface: lakes, rivers, and oceans. Fresh surface water is also a major source of drinking water. Recharge is the water that seeps through the soil from rain, irrigation, or melting snow. The water table is the uppermost saturated zone of soil. Usually wells are put in deeper than the water table. An aquifer is a layer of sand, gravel or limestone that is fully saturated with water. Memilih Produk setelah menilai Lokasi aplikasinya • Concern for leaching or the site is vulnerable – select a product that does not pose a concern • Little or no concern for leaching – product selection is not a concern High Annual Precipitation Cool Soil Temperature Sandy Soil Soluble Pesticide Shallow Groundwater Product selection is a key consideration in preventing groundwater contamination. If you have a site that’s vulnerable for leaching, make sure you select a product that doesn’t pose a concern for leaching. The label clearly states any concern in the Environmental Hazards Section. If you’re applying to a site for which there is little or no concern for leaching, product selection is not as critical. Jauhkan Pestisida dari Groundwater!! • Use IPM • Consider the geology – Where is the water table? – Are there sinkholes nearby? • Consider soil characteristics – Is it susceptible to leaching? • Select pesticides carefully – Is it susceptible to leaching? • Follow label directions Using other management approaches might be an appropriate decision to minimize the concern for leaching. Again consider the geology of your site and depth of the water table. Know of other concerns like sinkholes that indicate water level concerns. Consider the soil characteristics if you’re using a pesticide that can leach. If your application site is vulnerable to groundwater contamination, be very careful about which product you select. After selecting a product, make sure you follow the use directions and adhere to the rate of application stated on the label. Over-application can overload the soil and result in water contamination. Jauhkan Pestisida dari Groundwater • Identify vulnerable areas – Sandy soils – Sinkholes – Wells – Streams – Ponds – Shallow groundwater • Handle pesticides to ensure pesticide or wastes do not contaminate soils Prior to product selection, conduct a vulnerability assessment of your application site. Does it have sandy soils or sinkholes? Water moves easily and quickly through sandy soils. Are there any wells, streams or ponds nearby? How shallow is the groundwater? Make sure you handle pesticides and their wastes to prevent soil contamination. T. Wolf Jauhkan Pestisida dari Groundwater 1. Clean up and avoid spills 2. Dispose of wastes properly 1. Triple rinse containers; use the rinsewater in spray tank 3. Store pesticides away from water sources Avoid spills and clean them up immediately if they occur. Decontaminate the area. Handle your waste properly. For pesticide containers, immediately triple or pressure rinse them and use the container rinsewater in the batch of spray you’re making up. Be careful where you locate your storage facility. Make sure it is away from water sources. Lindungi Area yang sensitif 1. Schools, playgrounds, parks, hospitals 2. Wildlife refuges, bee hives 3. Yards, gardens, crop fields 4. Indoors: homes, offices, stores, clinics, restaurants, factories, animal facilities R.R. Maleike 5. Endangered/threatened species and their habitats Lindungi Organisme Non-target Hover fly H. Riedl 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Tanaman Bees, other pollinators Other beneficial insects Fish and other wildlife Manusia Pesticides can directly and indirectly impact non-target organisms like plants, bees and other pollinators, beneficial insects, fish, wildlife and humans. Virgin River Chub Jerry Stein, Nev. DOW Tanaman dapat menjadi organisme Non-target ! 1. Herbicides are the primary cause of non-target plant injury 2. Phytotoxicity: plant injury from a chemical application 3. Symptoms of pesticide injury are similar to other problems 4. Read the label 5. Avoid drift! When applying herbicides be very careful you don’t affect nearby plants. Damage symptoms may be obvious and it may be fairly easy to determine the source. However, some plant pathogens cause damage symptoms similar to herbicide damage. Check the label for any precautions about phytotoxicity or off-target drift. Lindungi Lebah & Polinator lainnya 1. Jangan menggunakan pestisida toksik kalau ada “bloom” di area target atau di sekitarnya 3. Reduksi drift Be aware of blooms in the area, whether it’s the crop or weeds that are blooming, or flowers in an ornamental bed. Broad-spectrum insecticides can kill individual bees, or be taken back by foraging bees and fed to the entire colony. If you have blooms, either mow them prior to making the application or don’t make the application. Be careful with spray drift that can reach blooming plants. 4. Aplikasi di awal atau akhir pada saat tidak ada “|foraging” Bees tend to be lazy and don’t forage early in the morning or late in the afternoon, so you may be able to time your application when they’re not present. 2. Mow cover blooming crops and weeds Lindungi Lebah & Polinator lainnya • Select pesticides least harmful to bees – Use low hazard formulations, avoid microencapsulated formulations, dusts and powders – Check the label for toxicity – Spot treat if appropriate • Cooperate with beekeepers! Some insecticides aren’t harmful to bees. Also, some formulations are low hazard. Microencapsulated insecticide formulations, dusts and wettable powders can be very harmful, since bees can capture these formulations in their leg hairs when they collect pollen. Read the label for notes on bee toxicity. If possible, spot treat instead of doing a broadcast application. If you have hives in the vicinity, communicate with the beekeeper. Lindungi Serangga yg bermanfaat 1. Mengenali serangga bermanfaat 2. Valuable allies in pest management 3. Meminimumkan penggunaan insektisida 4. Menggunakan insektisida selektif atau insiktisida yang daya racunnya ringan Not all insects are pests. You need to be able to recognize the beneficial insects that are present in your agricultural fields or in your landscapes. These beneficials play a role in managing pest populations. The top image shown here is a parasitic wasp laying its egg into the body cavity of a caterpillar. The bottom image is the larval stage of a ladybird beetle. Be careful what insecticide you select and how you apply it. Lindungi Ikan Menjaga pestisida tidak masuk perairan permukaan: • Pencemaran pestisida dapat membunuh ikan • Mengelola tumpahan, semprotan, runoff, dan pencucian pestisida • Membuang limbah pestisida dengan tepat Fish can be directly affected when exposed to insecticides and algaecides. Herbicides can alter plant communities and oxygen levels which can harm fish populations. If you have a spill, protect runoff into waterways. Be careful that your applications don’t drift into water systems. Dispose of your waste properly. Lindungi ternak dan kehidupan liar • Burung dan mamalia kecil dapat mati karena : … – ingestion of granules, baits or treated seed – direct exposure to spray – consumption of treated food – drinking contaminated water • Keracunan sekunder: feeding on pesticidecontaminated prey Livestock, birds, and wildlife can also be impacted by pesticide applications. Birds and mammals may eat treated seed, baits, or pesticide granules. Follow directions regarding the placement of some of these products to ensure that non-targets don’t get access to them. An application can directly expose and impact animals. Consuming contaminated food or water can affect animals. Even animals that feed on contaminated prey may be poisoned – we call this secondary poisoning. Store your products carefully.