Bahan kajian pada MK. Pertanian Berlanjut
EFEK PERTANIAN
TERHADAP
LINGKUNGAN
DAMPAK PESTISIDA
Diabstraksikan oleh: smno.jurstnh.fpub.sept2013
..dampak lingkungan akibat pestisida….
Dampak lingkungan akibat aplikasi pestisida seringkali lebih besar dari apa
yang “diperkirakan” oleh mereka yang menggunakannya.
Lebih dari 98% dari insektisida disemprotkan dan 95% dari herbisida mencapai
“sasaran” selain spesies-target, termasuk spesies nontarget, udara, air, tanah,
sedimen, dan makanan.
Aplikasi pestisida memberikan banyak manfaat, penggunaan yang tidak tepat
dapat meningkatkan munculnya fenomena resistensi hama dan membunuh
musuh-musuh alami dari hama.
Aplikasi Pestisida dapat mencemari tanah dan air , ketika bahan ini
disemprotkan ke pertanaman, atau pembuangan limbahnya ke lingkungan
bebas.
..
Jumlah pestisida yang menigngalkan (ke luar) dari daerah aplikasi nya (lahan
pertanian) dipengaruhi oleh sifat kimia pestisida: kecenderungan untuk
mengikat tanah, tekanan uap, kelarutannya dalam air, dan ketahanan
degradasinya di lingkungan.
Faktor-faktor sifat tanah, seperti tekstur, kemampuannya tanah menahan air,
dan kandungan bahan organik tanah, juga mempengaruhi jumlah pestisida yang
akan meninggalkan area aplikasinya.
Beberapa jenis pestisida berkontribusi pada pemanasan global dan penipisan
ozon lapisan.
..
Dampak pestisida terhadap lingkungan perairan sering dipelajari dengan
menggunakan model transportasi hidrologi untuk mempelajari gerakan dan
perilaku bahan kimia polutan dalam aliran sungai.
Pada awal 1970-an analisis kuantitatif dari air limpasan yang mengandung
pestisida dilakukan untuk memprediksi jumlah pestisida yang akan mencapai
permukaan perairan.
Ada empat rute utama yang dapat ditempuh oleh pestisida untuk mencapai
perairan: melayang di udara ketika disemprotkan; meresap ke dalam tanah, atau
resapan, melalui tanah; dibawa oleh erosi dan air limpasan; atau mungkin
tumpah.
Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kemampuan pestisida untuk mencemari air
meliputi kelarutannya dalam air, jarak lokasi aplikasi dengan perairan, cuaca,
jenis tanah, keberadaan tanaman yang tumbuh, dan metode aplikasinya.
..
Banyak bahan kimia pestisida bersifat persisten dalam tanah, yang dampaknya
dapat bertahan selama puluhan tahun.
Penggunaan pestisida dapat menurunkan keanekaragaman hayati dalam tanah.
Tidak menggunakan bahan kimia dapat mengakibatkan kualitas tanah yang
lebih baik, efek lainnya adalah Kandungan BOT lebih tinggi, sehingga tanah
mampu menyimpan air lebih banyak.
Hal ini membantu untuk meningkatkan hasil pertanian selama periode tahuntahun kering, ketika pertanian organik memiliki hasil 20 -40% lebih tinggi
daripada pertanian konvensional.
Rendahnya kandungan BOT meningkatkan jumlah pestisida yang akan
meninggalkan lokasi aplikasinya, karena bahan organik tanah mampu mengikat
dan membantu mendegradasi residu pestisida.
..
Degradasi dan sorpsi residu pertisida dalam tanah dapat mempengaruhi
persistensi pestisida dalam tanah.
Kedua proses tersebut tergantung pada sifat kimia pestisida, kedua proses ini
juga mengontrol langsung transportasi residu pestisida dalam tanah dan air,
dan pada gilirannya ke udara dan mencapai bahan makanan.
Degradasi senyawa organik melibatkan interaksi mikroorganisme dalam tanah.
Sorpsi (Serapan) mempengaruhi bioakumulasi pestisida yang diikat oleh bahan
organik tanah. Asam organik lemah telah terbukti lemah diserap oleh tanah,
karena pH dan struktur asam. Bahan kimia yang diikat oleh aprtikel tanah
kurang dapat diakses oleh mikroorganisme tanah.
“Semakin lama residu pestisida tinggal dalam tanah”. residu pestisida itu
menjadi lebih tahan terhadap degradasi karena mereka kehilangan aktivitas
biologisnya.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. Soil contamination
Pesticides enter the soil via spray drift during foliage treatment, wash-off from treated
foliage, release from granulates or from treated seeds in soil. Some pesticides such as
soil fumigants and nematocides are applied directly into soil to control pests and plant
diseases presented in soil.
The transport, persistence or degradation of pesticides in soil depend on their chemical
properties as well as physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. All these
factors affect sorption/ desorption, volatilisation, degradation, uptake by plants, runoff, and leaching of pesticides.
Persistent organochlorine pesticides (OC) in soils
Persistence of pesticides in soil can vary from few hours to many years in case of OC
pesticides. Despite OC pesticides were banned or restricted in many countries, they are
still detecting in soils
(Shegunova et al., 20071; Toan et al., 20072; Li et al., 20083; Hildebrandt et al., 20094;
Jiang et al., 20095; Ferencz and Balog 20106).
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. Sorption is the most important interaction between soil and pesticides and
limits degradation as well as transport in soil. Pesticides bound to soil organic
matter or clay particles are less mobile, bio available but also less accessible to
microbial degradation and thus more persistent.
Soil organic matter is the most important factor influencing sorption and
leaching of pesticides in soil. Addition of organic matter to soil can enhance
sorption and reduce risk to water pollution. It has been demonstrated that
amount and composition of organic matter had large impact on pesticides
sorption. For example soil rich on humus content are more chemically reactive
with pesticides than nonhumified soil (Farenhorst 2006).
Farenhorst, A. (2006): Importance of Soil Organic Matter Fractions in SoilLandscape and Regional Assessments of Pesticide Sorption and Leaching in Soil.
Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70(3), pp 1005-1012.
Sumber: https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/articles/70/3/1005
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. High yield agriculture, as it is widely practised in Europa, depletes soil
organic matter and will reduce sorption.
Fast sorption usually occurs in short time after pesticide application. With time
sorption is much slower. However, it has been observed for many pesticides
that increasing time, repeated application could increase their sorption and
formation of bound, non-extractable residues.
Although bound residues are considered of low significance because they are
inactive and nonavailable, it has been detected that they can release in some
time. Change in soil pH or addition of nitrate fertilizers can induced a release
of this residues. There exist also evidences that some organisms, e.g. plants and
earthworms, can uptake and remobilise old tightly bound residues (Gevao et
al., 2000).
Gevao, B., Mordaunt, C., Semple, K.T., Piearce, T.G., Jones, K.C. (2000):
Bioavailability of Nonextractable (Bound) Pesticide Residues to Earthworms.
Environmental Science & Technology 35(3), pp 501-507.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. . Water contamination
Pesticides can get into water via drift during pesticide spraying,
by runoff from treated area, leaching through the soil. In some
cases pesticides can be applied directly onto water surface e.g. for
control of mosquitoes. Water contamination depends mainly on
nature of pesticides (water solubility, hydrophobicity), soil
properties, weather conditions, landscape and also on the distance
from an application site to a water source. Rapid transport to
groundwater may be caused by heavy rainfall shortly after
application of the pesticide to wet soils.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. During 90ies, herbicide Atrazine and Endosulphan were found most often in surface waters
in the USA and Australia due to their widespread use. Other pesticides detected included
Pronofos, Dimethoate, Chlordane, Diuron, Prometryn and Fluometuron (Cooper 1996).
More recent studies also reported presence of pesticides in surface water and groundwater
close to agriculture lands over the world (Cerejeira et al., 20031; Konstantinou et al., 20062;
Añasco et al., 20105). In general, the compounds most frequently detected were currently
used pesticides (herbicides Atrazine, Simazine, Alachlor, Metolachlor and Trifluralin,
insecticides Diazinon, Parathion methyl, and organochlorine compounds due to their long
persistance (lindane, endosulfan, aldrin, and other organochlorine pesticides).
Cerejeira, M.J., Viana, P., Batista, S., Pereira, T., Silva, E., Valério, M.J., Silva, A., Ferreira, M., SilvaFernandes, A.M. (2003): Pesticides in Portuguese surface and ground waters. Water Research 37(5), pp 10551063.
Cooper, B. (1996): Central and North West Regions Water Quality Program 1995/1996. Report on Pesticide
Monitoring. TS96.048, NSW Department of Land & Water Conservation, Sydney, Australia
Konstantinou, I.K., Hela, D.G., Albanis, T.A. (2006): The status of pesticide pollution in surface waters (rivers
and lakes) of Greece. Part I. Review on occurrence and levels. Environmental Pollution 141(3), pp 555-570.
Añasco, N., Uno, S., Koyama, J., Matsuoka, T., Kuwahara, N. (2010): Assessment of pesticide residues in
freshwater areas affected by rice paddy effluents in Southern Japan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
160(1), pp 371-383.
.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
The geographic and seasonal distribution of pesticide occurrence follows
patterns in land use and pesticide use. Streams and rivers were
frequently more polluted that groundwaters and more near the areas
with substantial agricultural and/or urban land use. Pesticides usually
occurred in mixture of multiple compounds, even if individual pesticide
were detected bellow limits. This potentially can lead to underestimation
of toxicity when assessments are based on individual compounds.
High levels of pesticides chlordecone were detected in coastline, rivers,
sediments and groundwater in the Caribbean island of Martinique due
to its massive application on bananas plantations (Bocquené and Franco
2005).
Bocquené, G., Franco, A. (2005): Pesticide contamination of the coastline of
Martinique. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51(5-7), pp 612-619.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. Effects on organisms
Soil organisms and processes
Soil microorganisms play a key role in soil. They are essential for maintenance of soil structure,
transformation and mineralization of organic matter, making nutrients available for plants. Soil
microorganisms are also able to metabolise and degrade a lot of pollutants and pesticides and thus
are of great concern for using in biotechnology. On the other hand, microbial degradation can lead
to formation of more toxic and persistent metabolites. Although soil microbial population are
characterized by fast flexibility and adaptability to changed environmental condition, the
application of pesticides (especially long-term) can cause significant irreversible changes in their
population. Inhibition of species, which provide key process, can have a significant impact on
function of whole terrestrial ecosystem.
Fungicides were found to be toxic to soil fungi and actinomycetes and caused changes in microbial
community structure (Liebich et al., 20034; Pal et al., 20055).
Liebich, J., Schäffer, A., Burauel, P. (2003): Structural and functional approach to studying pesticide
side-effects on specific soil functions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22(4), pp 784-790.
Pal, R., Chakrabarti, K., Chakraborty, A., Chowdhury, A. (2005): Pencycuron application to soils:
Degradation and effect on microbiological parameters. Chemosphere 60(11), pp 1513-1522.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. A ew studies show that some organochlorine pesticides suppress symbiotic nitrogen
fixation resulting in lower crop yields. Authors found out that pesticides
Pentachlorphenol, DDT and Methyl parathion at levels found in farm soils
interfered signalling from leguminous plant such as alfalfa, peas, and soybeans to
symbiotic soil bacteria. This effect, loosely comparable to endocrine disruption
effects of pesticides in human and animals, significantly disrupt N2 fixation. As
consequence increased dependence on synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer, reduced soil
fertility, and unsustainable long-term crop yields occur. The observations also may
explain a trend in the past 40 years toward stagnant crop yields despite record high
use of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers worldwide (Fox et al., 20078; Potera 20079).
Fox, J.E., Gulledge, J., Engelhaupt, E., Burow, M.E., McLachlan, J.A. (2007): Pesticides
reduce symbiotic efficiency of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and host plants. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences 104(24), pp 10282-10287.
Potera, C. (2007): Agriculture: Pesticides Disrupt Nitrogen Fixation. Environ Health
Perspect 115(12).
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. Soil invertebrates
Nematodes, springtails, mites and further micro-arthropods, earthworms, spiders, insects and
all these small organisms make up the soil food web and enable decomposition of organic
compounds such as leaves, manure, plant residues and they also prey on crop pests. Soil
organisms enhance soil aggregation and porosity and thus increasing infiltration and
reducing runoff.
Earthworms represent the greatest part of biomass of terrestrial invertebrates (>80 %) and
play an important role in soil ecosystem. They are used as bioindicator of soil contamination
providing an early warning of decline in soil quality. They serve as model organisms in
toxicity testing. Earthworms are characterized by high ability to cumulate a lot of pollutants
from soil in their tissues, thus they are used for studying of bioaccumulation potential of
chemicals.
A recent review of pesticides effects on earthworms showed on negative effects on growth
and reproduction by many pesticides (Shahla and D'Souza 2010).
Shahla, Y., D'Souza, D. (2010): Effects of Pesticides on the Growth and Reproduction of
Earthworm: A Review. Applied and Environmental Soil Science 2010, pp Article ID 678360,
9 pages.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. Glyphosate, nonselective herbicide, and chlorpyrifos, insecticide, belong to the
most worldwide used pesticides, especially on transgenic resistant crops. An
integrated study on a Roundoup resistant soya field in Argentina showed
deleterious effect of these pesticides on earthworm population. Earthworms
avoided soil with glyphosate, their feeding activity and viability were reduced.
Glyphosate and chlorpyrifos caused also several adverse effects at cellular level (DNA
damage) that indicated physiological stress. Author concluded that the effects
observed on the reproduction and avoidance caused by glyphosate could contribute to
earthworm decrease, with the subsequent loss of their beneficial functions (Casabé et
al., 2007).
Casabé, N., Piola, L., Fuchs, J., Oneto, M.L., Pamparato, L., Basack, S., Giménez, R.,
Massaro, R., Papa, J.C., Kesten, E. (2007): Ecotoxicological Assessment of the Effects
of Glyphosate and Chlorpyrifos in an Argentine Soya Field. Journal of soil sediments
7(4), pp 232-239.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. Other non-target species
Effect of pesticides on bees are closely watched because their crop pollination.
However, little is known about the impacts of pesticides on wild pollinators in
the field. In recent study conducted in Italian agricultural area, authors
monitored species richness of wild bees, bumblebees and butterflies were
sampled after pesticides application. They detected decline of wild bees after
repeated application of insecticide fenitrothion. Lower bumblebee and
butterfly species richness was found in the more intensively farmed basin with
higher pesticide loads (Brittain et al., 2010).
Brittain, C.A., Vighi, M., Bommarco, R., Settele, J., Potts, S.G. (2010): Impacts of a
pesticide on pollinator species richness at different spatial scales. Basic and Applied
Ecology 11(2), pp 106-115.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. Impact of pesticides on insect is determined by the timing of application
because susceptibility to exposure differs between species and at different
life stages. Therefore, unconsidered agricultural practises can harm
butterfly populations.
It has been shown that using herbicides to control of invasive plants can
significantly reduce survival, wing and pupa weight of butterfly at
treated areas. Author highlighted the importance of careful consideration
in the use of herbicides in habitats harboring at-risk butterfly populations.
Reduction of adverse effect may be reached by applications in late summer
and early fall, post flight season and during larval diapause (Russell and
Schultz 2009).
Russell, C., Schultz, C.B. (2009): Effects of grass-specific herbicides on butterflies: an experimental
investigation to advance conservation efforts. Journal of Insect Conservation 14(1), pp 53-63.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. Water organisms – invertebrates, amphibians, fishes
Pesticides can enter fresh water streams directly via spray drift or indirectly via surface
runoff or drain flow. Many pesticides are toxic to freshwater organisms. Acute and
chronic effects are derived from standart toxicity tests. Within the ecological context,
sublethal effects of toxic contaminants are very important. For example, downstream drift
of stream macroinvertebrates in common reaction to various types of disturbance,
including chemical contamination and may result in significant changes of structure of
lotic communities.
Downstream drift was shown for several pesticides such as pyrethroid, neonicotinoid,
organochlorine, organophosphate insecticides or lampricides. Neurotoxic insecticides
exhibited the strongest drift-initiating effects on stream-dwelling insects and crustaceans.
Moreover, it was detected that macroinvertebrate drift can be induced even by short-term
pulse exposures (within 2 hours) at field-relevant concentrations (already 7–22 times
lower than the respective acute LC50 values) (Beketov and Liess 2008).
Beketov, M., Liess, M. (2008): Potential of 11 Pesticides to Initiate Downstream Drift of
Stream Macroinvertebrates. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
55(2), pp 247-253.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. In ecotoxicologial risk assessment of pesticides, attention is also focused on the
ability of treated aquatic ecosystems to recover. After pesticide application
structural and functional changes in ecosystem were monitored. Whereas some
species can be reduced, other may profit from lower predation and food
competition. The time needed for recovery depends on biotic factor such as
presence of dormant forms, life cycle characteristics, landscape as well as on the
season when exposure occur.
It has been detected, isolated ecosystems were more susceptible to damage and
community structure changed to lower biodiversity states. Recovery in these
ecosystems depends on the availability of immigrating organisms (Caquet et al.,
2007). Long-living species might not recover until very long time (7 months of
experiment) (Beketov et al., 2008).
Beketov, M.A., Schäfer, R.B., Marwitz, A., Paschke, A., Liess, M. (2008): Long-term stream invertebrate
community alterations induced by the insecticide thiacloprid: Effect concentrations and recovery
dynamics. Science of The Total Environment 405(1-3), pp 96-108.
Caquet, T., Hanson, M.L., Roucaute, M., Graham, D.W., Lagadic, L. (2007): Influence of isolation on
the recovery of pond mesocosms from the application of an insecticide. II. Benthic macroinvertebrate
responses. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26(6), pp 1280-1290.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
Birds
Decline of farmland bird species has been reported over several past decades and often
attributed to changes in farming practises, such as increase agrochemical inputs, loss of mixture
farming or unfarmed structures. Besides lethal and sub lethal effects of pesticides on birds,
concern has recently focused on the indirect effects. These effects act mainly via reduction of
food supplies (weeds, invertebrates), especially during breeding or winter seasons. As
consequence insecticide and herbicide application can lead to reduction of chick survival and
bird population. Time of pesticides application plays also important role in availability of
food.
Several practises (generally Integrated crop management techniques) can be used to minimize
unwanted effects of pesticides on farmland birds, such as use of selective pesticides, avoiding
spraying in during breeding season and when crops and weeds are in flower, minimise spray
drift or creation of headlands.
Evidences of this important indirect effect of pesticides has been reported e.g. By Boatman et
al., 20042; Taylor et al., 20063.
Boatman, N.D., Brickle, N.W., Hart, J.D., Milsom, T.P., Morris, A.J., Murray, A.W.A., Murray, K.A.,
Robertson, P.A. (2004): Evidence for the indirect effects of pesticides on farmland birds. Ibis 146, pp 131-
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. Effects of pesticides and farming practises on biodiversity
Intensive pesticides and fertilizers usage, loss of natural and semi-natural habitats and
decreased habitat heterogeneity and all other aspects of agricultural intensification have
undoubted impact on biodiversity decline during last years.
Intensive agriculture
A current Europe-wide survey in eight West and East European countries brought
alarming evidence of negative effects of agricultural intensification on wild plants,
carabid and bird species diversity. Authors demonstrated that, despite decades of European
policy to ban harmful pesticides, pesticides are still having disastrous consequences for
biodiversity on European farmland. Insecticides also reduced the biological control
potential. They conclude that if biodiversity is to be restored in Europe, there must be a
Europe-wide shift towards farming with minimal use of pesticides over large areas
(Geiger, F., Bengtsson, J., Berendse, F., Weisser, W.W., Emmerson, M., Morales, M.B., Ceryngier, P., Liira, J.,
Tscharntke, T., Winqvist, C., Eggers, S., Bommarco, R., Pärt, T., Bretagnolle, V., Plantegenest, M., Clement,
L.W., Dennis, C., Palmer, C., Ońate, J.J., Guerrero, I., Hawro, V., Aavik, T., Thies, C., Flohre, A., Hänke, S.,
Fischer, C., Goedhart, P.W., Inchausti, P. (2010): Persistent negative effects of pesticides on biodiversity and
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.
An impression of recent scientific literature. August 2010 ..
. Taking a landscape in Great Britain as an example, it has been showed that impact of
agriculture intensification on biodiversity differs among agricultural land use and
depends on specific agricultural pressure like land use changes, land cover or crop
management. Authors found out that, as result of eutrohication and N surplus, vegetation
diversity surrounding cropped land shifted to a composition typical for more fertile
conditions. However, species richness of plants and breeding birds were more affected by
broad habitat diversity (Firbank, L.G., Petit, S., Smart, S., Blain, A., Fuller, R.J. 2008. Assessing the
impacts of agricultural intensification on biodiversity: a British perspective. Philosophical Transactions
of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363(1492), pp 777-787.).
The pressures of agricultural changes may be reduced by:
- minimizing loss of large habitats,
- minimizing permanent loss of agricultural land,
- maintaining habitat diversity in agricultural landscapes in order to provide ecosystem
services,
- minimizing pollution from nutrients and pesticides from the crops themselves.
Sumber: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1492/777.full
Dampak pestisida terhadap perairan ditentukan oleh :
..
Persistence:
Measured as half-life (time required for the ambient
concentration to decrease by 50%). Persistence is determined
by biotic and abiotic degradational processes. Biotic processes
are biodegradation and metabolism; abiotic processes are
mainly hydrolysis, photolysis, and oxidation (Calamari and
Barg, 1993). Modern pesticides tend to have short half lives
that reflect the period over which the pest needs to be
controlled.
· Degradates:
The degradational process may lead to formation of
"degradates" which may have greater, equal or lesser toxicity
than the parent compound. As an example, DDT degrades to
DDD and DDE.
..
Fate
The environmental fate (behaviour) of a pesticide is
(Environmental) affected by the natural affinity of the chemical for
:
one of four environmental compartments (Calamari
and Barg, 1993): solid matter (mineral matter and
particulate organic carbon), liquid (solubility in
surface and soil water), gaseous form
(volatilization), and biota. This behaviour is often
referred to as "partitioning" and involves,
respectively, the determination of: the soil sorption
coefficient (KOC); solubility; Henry's Constant (H);
and the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW).
These parameters are well known for pesticides and
are used to predict the environmental fate of the
pesticide.
. EFEK EKOLOGIS AKIBAT PESTISIDA
Pestisida termasuk polutan organik mikro yang mempunyai dampak
ekologis.. Berbagai tipe pestisida mempunyai efek yang berbeda-beda
terhadap organisme hidup, sehingga sulit dilakukan generalisasi. Meskipun
dampak di darat akibat pestisida juga terjadi, namun jalur-jalur utama
yang menyebabkan dampak ekologis adalah air yang tercemar oleh runoff
yang mengandung residu pestisida. Ada dua mekanisme yang utama, yaitu
bioconcentration dan biomagnifikasi.
Bioconcentration:
This is the movement of a chemical from the surrounding medium into an
organism. The primary "sink" for some pesticides is fatty tissue ("lipids").
Some pesticides, such as DDT, are "lipophilic", meaning that they are
soluble in, and accumulate in, fatty tissue such as edible fish tissue and
human fatty tissue. Other pesticides such as glyphosate are metabolized
and excreted.
. BIOMAGNIFICATION:.
Istilah ini mendeskripsikan “peningkatkan konsentrasi suatu
senyawa kimia sebagai energi-makanan ditransformasikan di
dalam rantai-makanan.
Kalau organisme kecil dimangsa oleh organisme yang lebih
besar, konsentrasi pestisida dan senyawa kimia lainnya
menjadi lebih besar di dalam jaringan tubuhnya atau organ
tubuhnya.
Konsentrasi yang sangat tinggi dapat diamati pada toppredators, termasuk manusia.
...EFEK PESTISIDA…
The major types of effects are listed below and will vary depending on the organism
under investigation and the type of pesticide. Different pesticides have markedly
different effects on aquatic life which makes generalization very difficult. The
important point is that many of these effects are chronic (not lethal), are often not
noticed by casual observers, yet have consequences for the entire food chain.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Kematian organisme.
Kancers, tumours dan kerusakan jaringan tubuh ikan dan binatang.
Gangguan atau kegagalan Reproduksi.
Penekanan sistem innune.
Kerusakan sistem hormon (endocrine).
Keruskaan sel dan DNA.
Teratogenic effects (physical deformities such as hooked beaks on birds).
Poor fish health marked by low red to white blood cell ratio, excessive slime on fish scales
and gills, etc.
9. Intergenerational effects (effects are not apparent until subsequent generations of the
organism).
10. Efek fisiologis lainnya, seperti menipisnya kulit telur.
.. Degradasi Pestisida dalam Tanah…
BEBERAPA JENIS pestisida menghilang dengan cepat di tanah.
Proses mineralisasi senyawa organik pestisida ini menghasilkan senyawa
anorganik sederhana seperti H20, C02, dan NH3
Proses-proses mineralisasi (dekomposisi) ini merupakan reaksi kimia seperti
hidrolisis dan fotolisis; katabolisme mikrobiologis dan metabolisme
merupakan jalur-jalur mineralisasi.
Mikroba tanah memanfaatkan residu pestisida sebagai sumber karbon atau
sumber hara lainnya.
Beberapa bahan kimia (misalnya 2,4-D) mudah terdegradasi dalam tanah,
sedangkan bahan lainnya lebih sulit terdegradasi (2,4,5-T).
Beberapa bahan kimia sangat resisten dan hanya terdegradasi secara perlahanlahan (misalnya atrazin) . (Stephenson dan Salomo, 1993).
Pesticides
in
the Environment
Label Warnings
Environmental Hazards Section
• EPA requires pesticides be tested to assess their potential for
harming the environment
– Pesticide characteristics
– Fate of pesticides in the environment
• Off-target movement
• Degradation pathways
– Impacts on non-target organisms
• EPA makes some products restricted use due to environmental
concerns
The Environment:
everything that surrounds us
1. Air, soil, water, plants, animals, people,
in/outside buildings
2. Beneficial organisms, endangered species
3. There is public concern about the effect of
pesticides on the environment
Bagaimana Pestisida mempengaruhi Lingkungan
1. Chemical characteristics of pesticides
2. Degradation methods
3. Pesticide movements during and after application
4. Special environmental considerations
Karakteristik Pestisida : Kelarutan
1. The ability of a pesticide to dissolve in a solvent,
usually water
2. Soluble pesticides are more likely to move with
water in surface runoff or through the soil to
groundwater
Karaktersitik Pestisida: Penjerapan - Adsorption
binding of chemicals to soil particles
1. Higher with oil-soluble pesticides
2. Clay and organic matter increase
binding
3. Decreases the
potential for a
pesticide to move through soil
Persistensi Pestisida
1. Ability of a pesticide
to remain present and
active for a long time
2. Provides for longterm pest control, but
may harm sensitive
plants and animals
3. May lead to illegal
residues on rotational
crops
Persistence is another important characteristic
when assessing impacts on the environment.
Persistence is the measure of how long a
pesticide remains active before it degrades.
If you want long-term pest control, seek out a
pesticide that’s persistent and doesn’t readily
degrade. But realize persistent pesticides don’t
break down for some time and they can harm
sensitive plants or animals.
Persistent pesticides also pose concerns for
illegal residues on rotational crops that can
pick up the chemical because the product was
not labeled for that rotational site and no
tolerance was set.
Volatilitas Pestisida
The tendency of a
pesticide to turn
into a gas or
vapor
Volatility is a characteristic of vapor pressure. Depending on
the temperature and humidity, and in some situations wind, a
chemical changes from a liquid or solid state into a gas or
vapor. As a vapor it can move off-target with the air flow.
Increases in temperature and wind increase the potential for
volatility. Also, lower humidity levels increase the potential for
volatility.
Temperature
Wind
Humidity
=
Higher
Volatility
Volatilitas Pestisida
• Fumigants volatilize and
move gas through soil,
structures or stored
commodities
• Several herbicides are
quite volatile and pose
harm when the vapor
moves off target
– Labels may state cut-off
temperatures for
application
– Labels may require
pesticide to be
incorporated into the soil
Fumigants are effective in their vapor state.
The vapor is the form that moves through soil
particles during a soil fumigation or through
cracks and crevices in structures, or grain
kernels in stored grain.
However, under certain field conditions, some
herbicides volatilize and move off-target,
possibly reaching susceptible plants. Because
the manufacturers have screened their products
for this characteristic, they put volatility
warning statements on labels.
So look for cut-off temperatures listed for
certain herbicides. This is also why soil
fumigant labels require immediate
incorporation and soil-sealing.
Degradasi oleh Mikroba
1. Important means
for destroying
pesticide in soils
2. Some soil
microorganisms
use pesticides as
food:
Bacteria and fungi
Understanding how readily a
pesticide degrades and how it
degrades are also important.
Microbial degradation is a primary
means for destroying pesticides in
the soil.
There are a number of
microorganisms, like species of
bacteria and fungi that use the
pesticide as food. As the microbes
feed on pesticides, they break them
down.
Kondisi Tanah & Degradasi Pestisida
- warm soil temperatures
- aeration
- adequate soil moisture
- favorable pH
- fertility
- adsorption
Soil conditions that favor microorganism reproduction increase the
degradation process. So, soils that are warm, have adequate
moisture and a favorable pH provide the right conditions for rapid
pesticide degradation.
Also, soils with a good mix of oxygen, sufficient fertility and with
pesticide adsorbed onto the soil, have increased degradation.
Degradasi Kimiawi
Non-living processes also
cause degradation. Simple
chemical reactions occur in
the soil.
Something as simple as the
mixing of water and the
chemical can result in
hydrolysis that causes
chemicals to break down.
Again, soil properties and
conditions affect which
chemical reactions take
place and how quickly.
1. Proses Non-biotik
2. Hydrolysis: a chemical
reaction with water, typically
with a high pH (alkaline)
3. Soil properties and
conditions affect the rate and
type of chemical reactions
Photodegradation
• Degradasi molekul
pestisida oleh
radiasi matahari
• Dapat direduksi
dengan
membenamkan ke
dalam tanah
The sun can cause chemical degradation.
You’ve probably experienced the effect of
photodegradation, where the sun is
responsible for chemical breakdown, like
when your nylon tarp wears out.
Sunshine is very effective in breaking down
chemicals. Remember, this is why you hang
your laundered pesticide application
clothing out to dry in the sun.
Some chemicals break down so quickly they
must be immediately incorporated into the
soil. Others can only be used indoors where
the sun doesn’t shine.
Pergerakan Pestisida
• Oleh Udara
– Vapor, particle, spray
drift
• Oleh Air
– Surface runoff
– Movement through soil
• Oleh Obyek lainnya
– Residu pada tanaman
dan binatang
To understand how pesticides might
impact the environment, we have to
look at how they move from the
application site to other sensitive
areas.
We’ll look at each of these pathways
in detail. The major pathways are
through air as vapors, dust or spray
droplets, through surface water or
soil water, or through plant or
animal tissues removed from the
WSU
application area.
Pergerakan Pestisida: di Udara
• Movement of airborne
pesticide droplets from the
target area
• Check the label for
precautions
– mandatory no-spray
buffers
– spray droplet size
requirements
– wind speed restrictions
– application volume
requirements
– aerial application
restrictions
– warnings for sensitive
crop or sites
Spray Drift
Spray drift is the movement of spray droplets in the air. The
spray droplets are carried in the air beyond the application site.
A concentrated dose of droplets that moves off-target can cause
damage or leave illegal residues. To minimize off-target spray
drift, labels state specific precautions.
The label may require a mandatory no-spray buffer between
the application site and a sensitive area.
The label may stipulate exactly what size droplet classification
can be used during the application.
Wind speed conditions, both very low winds and high winds,
may restrict applications.
The label may require you apply a certain volume of spray.
Aerial application may be restricted on some labels.
Labels may have specific precautions listed for sensitive crops
or sites, like schools and day cares.
Spray Drift Factors
1. Applicator attitude
2. Equipment set-up
3. Viscosity of spray
– a liquid’s
resistance to flow
4. Weather conditions
Let’s review the four factors that contribute to
drift.
The applicator’s attitude is very important.
The applicator assesses the site and concern
level for drift. The applicator selects what
application method and chemical formulation
is most appropriate and sets up the equipment
to either produce larger or smaller droplets.
The applicator monitors the weather and
makes the decision whether to spray or not.
It appears from the picture here, that the
applicator had significant drift from his turf
weed control application. He made a very bad
set of decisions.
Spray Drift Factors
Applicator Attitude
– Assess what sensitive
sites are near the
application area
• No-spray buffer
necessary?
– Assess weather
conditions: air
stability, wind
direction and speed
– Set up equipment
with appropriate
boom height, nozzles,
and pressure
– Make decision to
spray or not to spray
The applicator must conduct a site assessment prior to any
application. It’s necessary to identify any sensitive areas
or areas of concern. Is there a need for a no-spray buffer
to ensure that there’s no contamination of certain sensitive
sites?
The applicator must assess the weather conditions, such as
the possibility of stable air conditions. What’s the wind
direction and speed, and the temperature? You must
understand these factors in order to manage the
application to minimize off-target movement.
Understanding the concerns for drift, the applicator
selects the appropriate application equipment and sets it
up properly.
Ultimately, after all the planning and preparation, the
applicator must make the decision to spray or not to spray.
Equipment Set Up: Droplet Size
The basic principle to understanding drift is understanding droplet size.
Big droplets don’t drift. Small droplets tend to stay in the air for awhile prior to the
effects of gravity causing them to settle to the surface.
You can manage drift by managing the droplet size. Consider making larger
droplets.
Spray Drift Factors
Weather Conditions – Read
the Wind
–What’s downwind?
Direction
–How far will it move?
Speed
•0-3 mph:
could be very stable with
airflow, just not sure which
direction the air is moving
•3-7 mph:
manage for off-target
movement downwind
•>7 mph:
carries more material offtarget
You cannot change the weather, but you must be able to read the
weather.
Wind is a key weather condition that must be measured.
Wind direction is the most important factor. You must know what
is downwind. You’re going to have some off-target movement
with any spray application, so you’d better know what’s
downwind. You have to assess what precautions to take to protect
that downwind area, when necessary.
Wind speed affects whether you can determine wind direction and
also affects how far the ‘driftable’ droplets move.
When applying in winds that are below 3 mph, you can’t really
determine the wind direction without using smoke or some other
device. And the direction can easily fluctuate under low wind
conditions. Droplets still move, but you don’t know where and
you can’t take the necessary precautions.
Applying in winds between 3 and 7 mph allows you to easily
measure wind direction and you’re able to assess what’s
downwind. Since you know some material is going to drift, take
steps to minimize off-target movement.
Excessive winds carry more product off-target and potentially
reduce the effectiveness of your application. It may be unwise to
spray under these conditions unless significant drift reduction
Spray Drift Factors
Weather Conditions
– Temperature –
droplet evaporates to
smaller droplets as
temperatures
increase
– Humidity – droplets
do not evaporate as
humidity increases
Temperature and humidity affect the life
of the droplet.
As temperatures increase, droplets
evaporate into smaller droplets. As
humidity decreases, evaporation also
increases.
So you’d expect more ‘driftable’ droplets
under conditions of high temperatures
and low humidity.
Spray Drift Factors
• Weather Conditions
– Temperature Inversion – air is STABLE with minor
air flow
• air at ground has cooled (heavier air)
• warm air as risen (lighter air)
Warm Air
Cool Air
 result is stagnant, stable air = inversion
 long distance drift can result from
applications made during inversions
Kondisi Normal
Under normal or unstable air
conditions, air is continually mixing.
In this graphic you can see the dust
actually become diluted as it moves
away from other particles.
Spray droplets do the same thing.
They move apart from each other
and become less concentrated.
G. Thomasson
Vertical air mixing –
dilution of material
through the air mass
Kondisi Udara Stabil : Inversi Temperatur
Concentrated suspension of droplets will move off site. Where they settle could be a
sensitive site.
This illustration shows that
smoke is a good indicator of
air stability or inversions.
You can easily visualize the
concentrated mass of smoke
particles moving here.
Can you imagine if these
were spray droplets, how
far could they go? Miles.
G.Thomasson and C. Ramsay, WSU
When can a temperature inversion occur?
1.
Can occur anytime
2.
Usually develops at dusk
3.
May continue through night
4.
Breaks up when ground warms up in morning
5.
It may appear ideal, but is not
Temperature inversions can and do occur at anytime, especially in
hilly or mountainous terrain. They typically form at dusk as the sun
sets and the cool air settles. Inversions often continue through the
night and don’t break until the sun is up and starts to warm the
ground. Once the ground warms, the cool and warm air start to mix.
The major problem with inversions, is that applicators perceive little
wind or air movement and assume this is a good time to spray. In
actuality, it’s the worst time. If an application is made just as an
inversion sets in, let’s say at 4 pm and it doesn’t break until 9 am;
that allows for droplets to move with any airflow for 17 hours. With
a half mile an hour wind, droplets could move in a concentrated mass
for 8.5 miles.
Pergerakan Pestisida : di Udara
Vapor Drift
Now let’s consider vapor drift.
1. Certain products
volatilize and move with
airflow off-target under
warm weather
conditions (above 85F)
2. Check the label for
precautions for
cut-off temperatures
3. Select low-volatile
formulations
Vapor drift occurs when a pesticide changes to a gas
form and moves off-target. This occurs with several
herbicides when temperatures warm up during the
day.
Check the herbicide label for precautions about
vapor drift and follow any guidelines that stipulate
cut-off temperatures. Some labels state “do not
apply if temperatures will exceed 85 degrees during
the day”.
If you have concerns with volatility, select lowvolatile formulations.
Pergerakan Pestisida : di Udara
Particle Drift
1. Dust applications can drift
2. Certain pesticides
attach to soil
particles, remain
active and can
blow off-target
3. Check the label for soil
incorporation precautions
Certain pesticides remain active on the soil after
application. If the treated soil or road dust
moves off-target, it can contain active pesticide.
Precautions are listed on the product label if
particle drift is a concern.
One method to manage for particle or dust drift
is to immediately incorporate the pesticide into
the soil with tillage, rainfall or irrigation.
In this picture, a pesticide was applied along the
road shoulder and was not incorporated. Wind
blew the soil into the adjacent field and caused
damage.
Pergerakan Pestisida : dalam Air
• Pesticides can move into
water from a identifiable
occurrence or from
general contamination
– Point Source
• identifiable
source
– Non-point Source
• wide area
contamination
Pesticides may get into water from either
an identifiable source or from a general
contamination.
We use the term Point Source for
pollution that occurs from an identifiable
source and we use the term Non-point
Source if the source can’t be easily
identified.
Pergerakan Pestisida : dalam Air
• Point-source Pollution is
from an identifiable point
– Spills and leaks
• into sewer
• at mix/load sites
• wash sites
– Backsiphoning when
filling
sprayer or chemigation
– Improper handling and
disposal near water
sources
Point source pollution occurs from an identifiable
source, such as a spill or a leak.
Contaminated water may enter the water system
through the sewer or from contaminated mix/load
and wash sites.
This can result in contaminated surface or ground
water.
A direct contamination of water sources can result
if back-siphoning occurs when filling a sprayer or
when check valves aren’t installed in a chemigation
system.
Improper handling and disposal can result in point
source pollution, so be very careful with your
handling procedures.
Pergerakan Pestisida : dalam Air
• Non-point Source
Pollution originates
from a wide area
Non-point Source Pollution can result
from a wide variety of sources and not a
single identifiable source.
– pesticide movement
into surface water
from any number
of sources
Surface water contamination can result
from any number of sources like
contaminated runoff.
– commonly blamed for
contaminated water
The general contamination of water is
usually attributed to non-point pollution.
Pergerakan Pestisida : dalam Air
Runoff
1. Pesticides move in
water over soil into
surface water
2. Contaminated ditches,
streams, rivers, ponds,
and lakes
3. Surface water used for
drinking and livestock
water, irrigation, etc.
Runoff is a key mechanism for moving
pesticides into surface waters.
By making a pesticide application that’s
followed shortly by a rain event or irrigation
event the soil becomes saturated.
Water then runs off the surface instead of
percolating into the soil. As the water runs off,
it carries water-soluble pesticides that are at
the surface with it.
This results in contaminated ditches, streams,
rivers, ponds, and lakes.
The use of the contaminated water source for
drinking, livestock watering, irrigation, fish
habitat, or any number of other uses, is
impacted.
Volume Runoff tergantung pada :
– grade or slope of the
area
– soil texture
– vegetation
• soil moisture
• amount and timing of
irrigation/rainfall
• pesticide characteristics
The factors that contribute to whether a runoff event occurs
include the grade or slope of the area as well as soil texture and the
amount of vegetation.
Soil that’s saturated can’t take in the water, so it runs off. The
amount and timing of irrigation or rainfall is critical.
The pesticide characteristics, especially water solubility, also play a
role.
Pergerakan Pestisida : dalam Air
Pencucian
When contaminated water moves in the soil, not
over it, we call this leaching.
 Movement of pesticide
by water through soil
 Move horizonatlly to
nearby roots or vertically
toward groundwater
 Chemical characteristics
that pose concern: high
solubility, low
adsorption, persistence
Again, pesticides that are water-soluble tend to
leach through the soil.
The contaminated soil water may move
horizontally to nearby roots or it may move
vertically through the soil profile down to the
groundwater.
Pesticides that tend to leach are those that are
highly water-soluble, don’t readily adsorb onto
soil particles, and don’t degrade quickly.
Pencucian tergantung pada …….…
• Geology – how permeable is
the soil?
• Soil texture and structure
– Sandy: fast percolation, few
binding sites
– Silt, clay or organic matter:
slower percolations and many
binding sites
• Depth to groundwater:
shallow water tables pose a
concern
• Amount and timing of
rainfall or irrigation
How vulnerable a site is to leaching depends on several
factors. The geology of the site or how permeable the
soil is affects the soil’s leaching potential. Soil texture
plays a key role in how fast water moves and how
much pesticide is held by the soil. Sandy soil has very
fast percolation and few adsorption sites. On the other
hand, it takes water a long time to move through clay
and organic matter soils and these soils have thousands
of adsorption sites to hold some chemicals.
The depth of the groundwater is also key. If the
groundwater is shallow, your concern about leaching
should be great. If the depth is quite deep, the water
has to move a very long distance to reach the
groundwater and the product will most likely have
been degraded.
For leaching to occur, you must have water. So
saturated soils, heavy rainfall, and over-irrigation
contribute to the concern.
Groundwater
• Surface Water: lakes, rivers
and oceans
• Recharge: water that seeps
through the soil from rain,
melting snow or irrigation
• Water Table: upper
level of the
water-saturated zone
• Aquifers: permeable
zones of rock, sand,
gravel, or limestone that
are saturated with water
Let’s review a few important terms. Surface waters
are those waters present at the earth’s surface:
lakes, rivers, and oceans.
Fresh surface water is also a major source of
drinking water. Recharge is the water that seeps
through the soil from rain, irrigation, or melting
snow.
The water table is the uppermost saturated zone of
soil.
Usually wells are put in deeper than the water table.
An aquifer is a layer of sand, gravel or limestone
that is fully saturated with water.
Memilih Produk setelah menilai Lokasi aplikasinya
• Concern for leaching
or the site is
vulnerable
– select a product
that does not pose
a concern
• Little or no concern for leaching
– product selection is not a concern
High Annual
Precipitation
Cool Soil
Temperature
Sandy Soil
Soluble
Pesticide
Shallow
Groundwater
Product selection is a key consideration in preventing groundwater contamination. If
you have a site that’s vulnerable for leaching, make sure you select a product that
doesn’t pose a concern for leaching.
The label clearly states any concern in the Environmental Hazards Section. If you’re
applying to a site for which there is little or no concern for leaching, product selection
is not as critical.
Jauhkan Pestisida dari Groundwater!!
• Use IPM
• Consider the geology
– Where is the water table?
– Are there sinkholes
nearby?
• Consider soil
characteristics
– Is it susceptible to
leaching?
• Select pesticides carefully
– Is it susceptible to
leaching?
• Follow label directions
Using other management approaches might be an
appropriate decision to minimize the concern for
leaching.
Again consider the geology of your site and depth of
the water table. Know of other concerns like
sinkholes that indicate water level concerns.
Consider the soil characteristics if you’re using a
pesticide that can leach. If your application site is
vulnerable to groundwater contamination, be very
careful about which product you select.
After selecting a product, make sure you follow the
use directions and adhere to the rate of application
stated on the label.
Over-application can overload the soil and result in
water contamination.
Jauhkan Pestisida dari Groundwater
• Identify vulnerable areas
– Sandy soils
– Sinkholes
– Wells
– Streams
– Ponds
– Shallow groundwater
• Handle pesticides to ensure
pesticide or wastes do not
contaminate soils
Prior to product selection, conduct a vulnerability
assessment of your application site.
Does it have sandy soils or sinkholes?
Water moves easily and quickly through sandy
soils. Are there any wells, streams or ponds
nearby?
How shallow is the groundwater? Make sure you
handle pesticides and their wastes to prevent soil
contamination.
T. Wolf
Jauhkan Pestisida dari Groundwater
1. Clean up and avoid
spills
2. Dispose of wastes
properly
1. Triple rinse containers;
use the rinsewater in
spray tank
3. Store pesticides away
from water sources
Avoid spills and clean them up immediately if
they occur.
Decontaminate the area.
Handle your waste properly.
For pesticide containers, immediately triple
or pressure rinse them and use the container
rinsewater in the batch of spray you’re
making up.
Be careful where you locate your storage
facility.
Make sure it is away from water sources.
Lindungi Area yang sensitif
1. Schools, playgrounds, parks, hospitals
2. Wildlife refuges, bee hives
3. Yards, gardens, crop fields
4. Indoors: homes, offices, stores, clinics, restaurants,
factories, animal facilities
R.R. Maleike
5. Endangered/threatened species and their habitats
Lindungi Organisme Non-target
Hover fly
H. Riedl
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Tanaman
Bees, other pollinators
Other beneficial insects
Fish and other wildlife
Manusia
Pesticides can directly and indirectly
impact non-target organisms like
plants, bees and other pollinators,
beneficial insects, fish, wildlife and
humans.
Virgin River Chub
Jerry Stein, Nev. DOW
Tanaman dapat menjadi organisme Non-target !
1. Herbicides are the primary
cause of non-target plant
injury
2. Phytotoxicity: plant injury
from a chemical
application
3. Symptoms of pesticide
injury are similar to other
problems
4. Read the label
5. Avoid drift!
When applying herbicides be very careful you
don’t affect nearby plants.
Damage symptoms may be obvious and it
may be fairly easy to determine the source.
However, some plant pathogens cause damage
symptoms similar to herbicide damage.
Check the label for any precautions about
phytotoxicity or off-target drift.
Lindungi Lebah & Polinator lainnya
1. Jangan
menggunakan
pestisida toksik kalau
ada “bloom” di area
target atau di
sekitarnya
3. Reduksi drift
Be aware of blooms in the area, whether it’s the crop
or weeds that are blooming, or flowers in an
ornamental bed.
Broad-spectrum insecticides can kill individual bees,
or be taken back by foraging bees and fed to the
entire colony.
If you have blooms, either mow them prior to
making the application or don’t make the
application. Be careful with spray drift that can
reach blooming plants.
4. Aplikasi di awal atau
akhir pada saat tidak
ada “|foraging”
Bees tend to be lazy and don’t forage early in the
morning or late in the afternoon, so you may be able
to time your application when they’re not present.
2. Mow cover blooming
crops and weeds
Lindungi Lebah & Polinator lainnya
• Select pesticides least
harmful to bees
– Use low hazard
formulations, avoid
microencapsulated
formulations, dusts and
powders
– Check the label for
toxicity
– Spot treat if
appropriate
• Cooperate with
beekeepers!
Some insecticides aren’t harmful to bees.
Also, some formulations are low hazard.
Microencapsulated insecticide
formulations, dusts and wettable powders
can be very harmful, since bees can
capture these formulations in their leg
hairs when they collect pollen.
Read the label for notes on bee toxicity.
If possible, spot treat instead of doing a
broadcast application.
If you have hives in the vicinity,
communicate with the beekeeper.
Lindungi Serangga yg bermanfaat
1. Mengenali serangga
bermanfaat
2. Valuable allies in pest
management
3. Meminimumkan
penggunaan insektisida
4. Menggunakan
insektisida selektif atau
insiktisida yang daya
racunnya ringan
Not all insects are pests.
You need to be able to recognize the beneficial
insects that are present in your agricultural fields
or in your landscapes.
These beneficials play a role in managing pest
populations. The top image shown here is a
parasitic wasp laying its egg into the body cavity of
a caterpillar.
The bottom image is the larval stage of a ladybird
beetle.
Be careful what insecticide you select and how you
apply it.
Lindungi Ikan
Menjaga pestisida tidak masuk
perairan permukaan:
• Pencemaran pestisida dapat
membunuh ikan
• Mengelola tumpahan, semprotan,
runoff, dan pencucian pestisida
• Membuang limbah pestisida
dengan tepat
Fish can be directly affected when
exposed to insecticides and
algaecides.
Herbicides can alter plant
communities and oxygen levels
which can harm fish populations.
If you have a spill, protect runoff
into waterways.
Be careful that your applications
don’t drift into water systems.
Dispose of your waste properly.
Lindungi ternak dan kehidupan liar
• Burung dan mamalia kecil
dapat mati karena : …
– ingestion of granules, baits
or treated seed
– direct exposure to spray
– consumption of treated food
– drinking contaminated
water
• Keracunan sekunder:
feeding on pesticidecontaminated prey
Livestock, birds, and wildlife can also be
impacted by pesticide applications.
Birds and mammals may eat treated seed,
baits, or pesticide granules.
Follow directions regarding the placement
of some of these products to ensure that
non-targets don’t get access to them.
An application can directly expose and
impact animals. Consuming contaminated
food or water can affect animals.
Even animals that feed on contaminated
prey may be poisoned – we call this
secondary poisoning.
Store your products carefully.
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Chapter 12: Effects of Agriculture on the Environment