How to express ‘express’? – Pedagogical reflections from web resources Yiching Wu National Tsing Hua University Simon Smith Ming Chuan University Chu-Ren Huang Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica Express on the Internet Web resources, dictionaries, thesauri and corpora, are regarded as useful tools in linguistics and applied widely in pedagogy nowadays. (Biber 1993, Wichmann et al. 1997, Biber et al. 1998, Partington 1998, Hunston 1999, Sinclair 2002, Aston et al. (2004)) Viewpoint: non-native language speaker Goal: to gain a better understanding of current function and future directions Resources on the Internet Dictionaries: Cambridge Dictionaries Online Merriam-Webster Online Thesauri: WordNet, FrameNet, HowNet, Proposition Bank Corpora: BNC, Sinica Corpus, Sinorama Online dictionary: CALD The Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (CALD) Three express entries are found, based on the similarity of meaning: express (SHOW) express (FAST) express (CLEAR) Online dictionary: CALD express (SHOW) Examples: Her eyes expressed (vt) deep sadness. I would like to express (vt) my thanks for your kindness. I'm afraid I'm not expressing (vt) myself very clearly. Words can't express (vt) how happy I am. These figures are expressed (vt) as a percentage of the total. Related words: expression (n), expressionless (a), expressive (a) expressively (adv), expressiveness (n) Online dictionary: CALD express (FAST) Examples: Your order will be expressed (v) to you within 24 hours. the Orient Express (n) express (a) train Send this parcel express (adv). Online dictionary: CALD express (CLEAR ) Examples: It is my express (a) wish that after my death, my books be given to my old college library. Related words: expressly (adv) Online dictionaries: MWOD, WordNet The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (MWOD) WordNet Four entries are found based on grammatical function: express (a), express (adv), express (n), express (v) ‘to force out (as the juice of a fruit) by pressure’ ‘to cause (a gene) to manifest its effects in the phenotype’ Two compounds in MWOD: Express Mail, pony express What we can learn meaning grammatical functions: adjective, noun, adverb and verb. derived words: expression, expressiveness, expressionless, expressive, expressively, expressly compounds: Express Mail , pony express phrases: express yourself well-formed sentences Creativity and analogy He expressed his feelings. He expressed his anger. my express wish ? your express hopes ? my express desire to express how happy I am ? to express what a beautiful girl she is What we cannot learn guidance on ungrammatical uses similarities and differences between English and the learners’ mother language frequency of usage meaning: SHOW>FAST>CLEAR ? function: a>n>v>adv ? unmarked (frequent) >marked (rare) (Odlin 1994, Teng 1998) Online corpora: (1) BNC the British National Corpus (BNC) (Leech 1992) data: 100 million English words collected between 1991 and 1994. tool: the Sketch Engine programmed by Dr. Adam Kilgarriff and Dr. Pavel Rychlý Online corpora: (2) Sinorama the Sinorama Chinese-English Parallel Text Corpus (Sinorama) data: 2,373 pairs of articles in Chinese/English, published between 1976 and 2000. (103,252 pairs of sentences translated into about 3.2 million English words and 5.3 million Chinese characters) tool: TOTALrecal on CANDLE led by Professor Hsien-Chin Liou and Jason S Chang at National Tsing Hua University. Part of speech distribution of express in BNC and Sinorama Corpus POS BNC Sinorama count percentage count percentage V 11,959 87.1% 513 98.6% N 1,060 7.7% 2 0.4% A 713 5.2% 5 1.0% 13,732 100.0% 520 100.0% total Online thesauri: (1) FrameNet FrameNet (Fillmore et al. 2004) Statement frame: express (v) Core frame elements: Medium, Message, Speaker, Addressee, Topic. Lexical units: add, address, say, question, speak, state, statement, and discuss etc. Online thesauri: (1) FrameNet – Statement frame Examples: a. Evelyn (Speaker) said (V) that she was not ready to leave (Message). b. Kim (Speaker) questioned (V) me (Addressee) over the phone (Medium). c. Evelyn (Speaker) spoke (V) feelingly about what happened (Topic). d. Evelyn (Speaker) made a persuasive statement (N). e. The teacher (Speaker) discussed (V) the recent campus incidents (Topic). no annotated sentences of express Online thesauri: (1) FrameNet – Statement frame-express Examples: a. Evelyn (Speaker) expressed (V) that she was not ready to leave (Message). b. Kim (Speaker) expressed (V) me (Addressee) over the phone (Medium). c. Evelyn (Speaker) expressed (V) feelingly about what happened (Topic). d. Evelyn (Speaker) made a persuasive expression (N). e. The teacher (Speaker) expressed (V) the recent campus incidents (Topic). Online thesauri: (2) PropBank The English Proposition Bank (English PropBank) conducted by Professor Martha Stone Palmer and Mitch Marcus at the University of Pennsylvania SAY : express roles: Speaker, Utterance, Addressee SEND : express roles: Sender, Thing Sent, Sent-To Online thesaurus: (2) PropBank- SAY- express, SEND- express SAY : express Mr. Harper (Speaker) expressed (V) confidence that he and Mr. Baum can convince the board of their worthiness to run the company (Utterance). SEND : express John (Sender) expressed (V) his Christmas list (Thing Sent) to the North Pole (Sent-To). Patterns of express (v) ‘to show a feeling, opinion or fact’ a. Speaker [NP] express Message [NP] b. Speaker [NP] express Topic [NP (reflexive)] c. Speaker [NP] express Message [how-clause] d. Speaker [NP] express Message [that-clause] e. Speaker [NP] express Message [NP that-clause] f. Speaker [NP] express Addressee Medium g. Speaker [NP] express (Manner [AdvP]) Topic [about NP/NP] h. Theme [NP] be expressed as Relevant [NP] Online bilingual thesauri: (3) HowNet express Def: express|表示, describe|描寫, post|郵寄 Chinese expressions related to express|表示 biaoming 表明 ‘express clearly’, biaoshi 表示 ‘express’ biaoxian 表現 ‘show’, biaotai 表態 ‘express attitude’ biaoshi guandian 表示觀點 ‘express viewpoint ’ mingque biaoshi lichang 明確表示立場 ‘explicitly express standpoint’ biaoshi zhongxin 表示忠心 ‘express loyalty’ express ‘conveying a message in language’ biaoshi 表示 Express and biaoshi in Sinorama Corpus POS V Sinorama count percentage 513 express : 520 biaoshi 表示: 1,843 98.6% N 2 0.4% A 5 1.0% total 520 100.0% express | biaoshi 表示 : 73 (14%) ( 4%) Why the match rate is low? Hypothesis I: The low match rate results from an asymmetry of grammatical function distribution. express count biao3 shi4 表示 percentage count percentage V N 513 2 98.6% 0.4% 1,841 2 99.9% 0.1% A 5 1.0% 0 0.0% 520 100.0% 1,843 100.0% Total Why the match rate is low? Hypothesis I BNC vs. Sinica Corpus express count V N A Total The 11,959 1,060 713 13,732 biao3 shi4 表示 percentage count 87.1% 7.7% 5.2% 100.0% 5,289 36 0 5,325 percentage 99.3% 0.7% 0 100.0% low match rate does not result from an asymmetry of grammatical function distribution. Why the match rate is low? Hypothesis II: Biaoshi 表示 is also polysemous, only some of the meanings can be mapped to express. Senses and meaning facets of biaoshi 表示 Liu and Wu 2004, Wu 2004 Sense 1: ‘to quote or to describe what a Speaker said’ 他表示：「這樣的定位點不容易被取代。」 ta biaoshi:「zheyang de dingweidian bu rongyi bei qudai.」 he biaoshi: “this kind of anchoring point not easy be replaced.” ‘He said, “This kind of anchoring point is not easy to be replaced.”’ Senses and meaning facets of biaoshi 表示 Sense 2: ‘to convey emotion or attitude in language or by an action ’ 李先生表示同情。 li xiansheng biaoshi tongqing. Li Mr. biaoshi sympathy. ‘Mr. Li expressed his sympathy.’ Senses and meaning facets of biaoshi 表示 Sense 3: ‘to represent one thing in terms of another’ facet 1: ‘to reveal a deductive meaning’ 我這麼說並不表示我不重視可能的弊端 wo zheme shuo bing bu biaoshi wo bu zhongshi keneng de biduan. I so say do not biaoshi I not concern possible malady ‘Saying so doesn’t mean that I am taking the possibility of creating abuses lightly.’ Senses and meaning facets of biaoshi 表示 Sense 3 facet 2: ‘to reveal a substitutive meaning ’ conventional 鮮花表示愛情。 xianhua biaoshi aiqing. fresh flower biaoshi love. ‘Fresh flowers represent love.’ Senses and meaning facets of biaoshi 表示 Sense 3 facet 2: ‘to reveal a substitutive meaning ’ non-conventional 一支國旗表示一萬尾烏魚。 yi zhi guoqi biaoshi yi wan wei wuyu. one classifier nation flag biaoshi 10,000 classifier grey mullet ‘One flag represents 10,000 grey mullet.’ Mapping of express and biaoshi4表示 express ‘conveying a message in language’ biaoshi 表示-Sense 2: ‘to convey emotion or attitude in language or by an action ’ 李先生表示同情。 ‘Mr. Li expressed his sympathy.’ Hypothesis II: Biaoshi 表示 is also polysemous, only sense 2 can be mapped to express. Mapping of express and biaoshi4表示 Examples from Sinorama a. At the end of last year, Thai Prince Bhisadej expressed on the occasion of the retirement of Sung Ching-yun, "Papa Sung, who has worked shoulder to shoulder with our people for the development of the mountain areas for over twenty years, is now going to retire. And our farms have lost a friend and a father.” Speaker express, ‘Message [clause].’ Mapping of express and biaoshi4表示 Examples from Sinorama "I'm quite certain that old photos of this kind can still be found in every place in Taiwan," Liao Chia-chan expresses confidently. ‘Message [clause]’, Speaker express. Mapping of express and biaoshi4表示 Examples from Sinorama In the aura of benign competition, "for the last two years, the quality of Taiwan's products has seen a lot of progress," expresses Otto Lin, former president of the Industrial Technology Research Institute, who has been invited to serve as a judge in the National Product Awards for the past two years. ‘Message [clause]’, express Speaker. Mapping of express and biaoshi4表示 Examples from Sinorama Kuo Nan-hung expresses that those people usually are professors emeritus at universities. They are doing well, and don't need any modification in their lifestyle. Speaker express Message [that-clause] Mapping of express and biaoshi4表示 Systematic sporadic examples from Sinorama Speaker express, ‘Message [clause].’ ‘Message [clause]’, Speaker express. ‘Message [clause]’, express Speaker. Speaker express Message [that-clause]. express say and biaoshi 表示-sense 1 他表示：「這樣的定位點不容易被取代。」 ‘He said, “This kind of anchoring point is not easy to be replaced.”’ Why the match rate is low? Hypothesis III: (1) Biaoshi 表示 is also polysemous, only sense 1 and sense 2 can be mapped to express. (2) The low match rate results from a low frequency of sense 1 and sense 2 in Sinorama. Sense distribution of biaoshi 表示 in Sinorama Distribution count percentage sense 1 1,743 95% sense 2 43 2% sense 3 58 3% 1,843 100% Sense total Why the match rate is low? Hypothesis II: (1) Biaoshi 表示 is also polysemous, only sense 2 can be mapped to express. (2) The systematic sporadic examples in Sinorama are anomalous exceptions influenced by biaoshi 表示. Objects of predicate express and biaoshi Item Object type Sentential object Other object Total BNC express count percentage Sinica Corpus biaoshi 表示 count percentage 23 0.2% 4,882 92.3% 11,936 99.8% 407 7.7% 11,959 100.0% 5,289 100.0% Objects of predicate express in BNC Sentential objects * Speaker express, ‘Message [clause].’ * ‘Message [clause]’, Speaker express. * ‘Message [clause]’, express Speaker. ? Speaker express Message [that-clause]. (0.06%, 7 out of 11,959 verbal tokens ) Express does not map to biaoshi 表示-sense 1. Reflections Bilingual corpora may be influenced by one of the languages and may not reflect the other language truthfully. Say and express belong to the same lexical frame (Statement in FrameNet), and take the same kind of participant roles (Speaker, Message, Addressee, Topic, Medium), but their syntactic behavior is by no means the same. Nominal objects of predicate express in BNC: Message a. He expressed a hope that we might meet again during the remaining two days of his stay and have a longer conversation. b.各國領袖皆表示希望戰爭儘快結束。 ge guo lingxiu jie biaoshi xiwang zhanzheng jinkuai jieshu. ‘Each leader of the countries all expressed a hope that the war will end as soon as possible.’ biaoshi 表示+xiwang 希望 ‘hope’（N） +appositive clause? Message of predicate express in BNC c. *表示他們的希望戰爭儘快結束 *biaoshi tamen de xiwang zhanzheng jinkuai jieshu ‘express their hope that the war will end as soon as possible’ d. 各國領袖皆表示(他們)希望戰爭儘快結束。 ge guo lingxiu jie biaoshi (tamen) xiwang zhanzheng jinkuai jieshu. ?‘Each leader of the countries all expressed that they hope that the war will end as soon as possible.’ biaoshi 表示+Message [clause] express +Encoded Message [NP] (Message [that clause]) Topic of predicate express in BNC a. The Bulgarian authorities have expressed concern over the Greek Electrical Company's programme to dam the River Mesta. b He expressed concern that the officials are under considerable pressure. c. *他表示關心官員們壓力很大。 * ta biaoshi guanxin guanyuanmen yali hen da. d. 他對官員們的壓力很大表示關心。 ta dui guanyuanmen de yali hen da biaoshi guanxin. ‘He expressed concern about the great pressure on the officials.’ Topic of predicate express in BNC: N and P concern over/about, surprise at, belief in, commitment to, view on, etc. Addressee of predicate express in BNC a. He expressed to some colleagues his nervousness. b. 經理向眾人表示員工及投資人均是被害者。 jingli xiang zhongren biaoshi yuangong ji touziren jun shi beihaizhe. ‘The manager expressed to the public that the employers and investors were all victims.’ Speaker ask/*express Addressee [NP] Speaker *ask/express Addressee [to NP] Words of the same frame may not behave the same. Active and Passive sentences of predicate express in BNC Active: 9,326 (78%) , passive 2,633 (22%) a. Concern has been expressed about extending further the Prime Minister’s powers of patronage. b. Doubt was expressed that Richards could maintain the unit. c. That view, albeit qualified somewhat, was also expressed by Ireland . d. The EC Trade and Agriculture Ministers, meeting in Brussels on Jan. 10-11, had restated their reservations (expressed at an earlier meeting on Dec. 23), saying that "insofar as the Dunkel paper calls into question the foundation of the Communities' agricultural policy, the paper is not acceptable". Active and Passive sentences in Mandarin In Mandarin, passive sentences are highly marked (Chu 1973). action verbs: da 打 ‘beat’, ma 罵 ‘scold’ a. 爸爸 打/罵 他。 baba da/ma ta. ‘Father beat/scolded him.’ b. 他被爸爸 打/罵。 ta bei baba da/ma. ‘He was beaten/scolded by Father.’ Active and Passive sentences of biaoshi 表示 a. 他表示關心。 ta biaoshi guanxin. ‘He expressed concern.’ b. *關心被他表示。 guanxin bei ta biaoshi. ‘*Concern was expressed by him.’ Infinitive objects of predicate express in BNC a. The purchaser of Caliban was expressed to be Mr. Perot's son, Mr. Perot junior; at one stage during the negotiation of the contract it was suggested that Mr. Perot's daughters would be the purchasers. b. It will be in the landlord's interest to ensure that all tenancies are expressed to expire on the same date. highly restricted, in passives only 0.5% (60 instances: 50 in legal and 10 in non-legal texts) Some native speakers regard them as anomalous exceptions. Core patterns of express a. Speaker [NP] express (Addressee [to NP]) Encoded Message [NP] (Topic [PP]). b. Speaker [NP] express Encoded Message [NP] (Message [that-clause]). c. Speaker [NP] express Message [why-clause/howclause]. d. Encoded Message [NP] be expressed (Addressee [to NP]) ( Speaker [by NP]) (Message [thatclause]). Reflections and conclusion From a pedagogical point of view, most online dictionaries and thesauri do not provide adequate information about lexical items. Bilingual corpora may not faithfully reflect both languages. Learners should be carefully guided when using a bilingual corpus as an aid, though it may be a useful tool in learning the common core uses of a target language. It cannot be taken for granted that a pedagogical goal can be achieved successfully using the current online resource aids. Reflections and conclusion To meet pedagogical needs, the followings are needed: Information related to the frequency of a target lexical item and its collocated patterns Role internal grammatical types Common marked patterns, e.g. passive sentences and active sentences with N that-clause objects. Similarities and differences between English and Mandarin, i.e. positive input as well as negative input Reflections and conclusion The use of corpora does encourage a keener understanding of lexical nuance, and learners are less likely to blindly use the most obvious second language equivalent to the word they have in mind, when they have access to such resources. Thank you!