ISTORY OF ENGLISH
LECTURE 2
Old English:
language (I)
Lei ZHU
Shanghai International Studies University
1 History and dialects: a panorama
c500 BC
Arrival of Celtic speakers
Pictish
Scottish
Brito-Welsh
1 History and dialects: a panorama
c500 BC
Arrival of Celtic speakers
c 45–c410
Britain becomes part of the Roman
Empire, forming the Roman colony
‘Britannia’.
Collapse of Roman Empire; Romans
leave Britain.
c 410
Pictish
Scottish Brito-Welsh
Latin
1 History and dialects: a panorama
c500 BC
Arrival of Celtic speakers
c 45–c410
Britain becomes part of the Roman
Empire, forming the Roman colony
‘Britannia’.
Collapse of Roman Empire; Romans
leave Britain.
c 410
449
Traditional date for the invasion of
Britain by the Angles, Saxons, and
Jutes. (Teutonic Conquest)
1 History and dialects: a panorama
1 History and dialects: a panorama
Pictish
Scottish
Brito-Welsh
Latin
Kentish
West Saxon
Northumbrian
Anglian
Mercian
Old English dialects
1 History and dialects: a panorama
After the Teutonic Conquest
597
Arrival of Roman mission in England and
introduction of Christianity.
601
Augustine becomes the
first Archbishop of
Canterbury
c700-20 Lindisfarne Gospels
written in Latin
731
Bede completes his
Ecclesiastical History
of the English People in
Latin
Re-entry of Latin
1 History and dialects: a panorama
After the Teutonic Conquest
597
Arrival of Roman mission in England and
introduction of Christianity.
780s
870s
Period of Scandinavian invasion begins.
Scandinavian settlement in England.
Scandinavian
settlements
1 History and dialects: a panorama
After the Teutonic Conquest
597
Arrival of Roman mission in England and
introduction of Christianity.
780s
870s
Period of Scandinavian invasion begins.
Scandinavian settlement in England.
871–899
878
Reign of Alfred (849-901) as King of Wessex.
Battle of Edington, in which Alfred triumphs
over Vikings and agrees on areas of
Scandinavian settlement (later to be known as the
‘Danelaw’).
871-99 Translations of, e.g.
Bede’s Ecclesiastical
History, Boethius’s
Consolation of
Philosophy, Gregory’s
Pastoral Care
c890-1154 The Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle
c1000
Copying of Beowulf
(written c700)
Ælfric (c955-c1020)
Wulfstan (?-1023)
Revival of Old English
1 History and dialects: a panorama
After the Teutonic Conquest
597
Arrival of Roman mission in England and
introduction of Christianity.
780s
870s
Period of Scandinavian invasion begins.
Scandinavian settlement in England.
871(–99)
878
Reign of Alfred as King of Wessex.
Battle of Edington, in which Alfred triumphs
over Vikings and agrees on areas of
Scandinavian settlement (later to be known as the
‘Danelaw’).
1066
Battle of Hastings; William I (the Conqueror)
reigns over England (until 1087).
1 History and dialects: a panorama
Kentish
Celtic
Latin
Scandinavian
(Old Norse)
OE
West Saxon
Northumbrian
Anglian
Mercian
2 Orthography and pronunciation
• Runes
(Futhorc)
2 Orthography and pronunciation
• Latin alphabet
半安色尔体
海岛体
Vowels 元音: Monophthongs单元音
Manuscript
Modern
printing
IPA
examples
Vowels 元音: Diphthongs双元音
Manuscript
Modern
printing
IPA
examples
Consonants辅音: Plosives爆破音 and affricates塞擦音
Manuscript
V+g+V
g+i/e; i/e/æ+g
c+i/e; i/e/æ+c
Modern
printing
IPA
examples
Consonants辅音: Fricatives擦音
Manuscript
V+f+V
V+s+V
V+þ/ð+V
a/o/u/æ+h
i/e/y+h
Modern
printing
IPA
examples
Consonants辅音: Nasals鼻音, liquids流音 and semi-vowels半元音
Manuscript
Modern
printing
IPA
Abbreviations简写形式
and/ond
(and)
þæt
(that)
þer
(there)
omission of m or n
examples
3 Grammar
The Old English Hexateuch
(London, British Library, MS. Cotton Claudius B. iv)
3 Grammar
Adam ða cwæð∙ þis is nu ban of
minum banum∙ & flæsc of minum flæsce∙ beo heo ge
ciged fæmne∙ for ðan ðe heo is of hyre were genumen.
Ādam ðā cwæð: “þis is nū bān of mīnum bānum, & flǣsċ
Nom.sg.
Nom.sg.
Nom.sg.
Dat.pl.
Nom.sg.
of mīnum flǣsċe. Bēo hēo ġeċīġed fǣmne, for ðan ðe
Dat.sg.
Nom.sg.
hēo is of hyre were ġenumen.”
Nom.sg.
Gen.sg. Dat.sg.
Nom.sg.
sg.
Nom. Gen. Dat.
Ādam
þis
bān
flǣsċ
hēo
hyre
flǣsċe
mīnum
pl.
Dat.
bānum
mīnum
were
And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh
of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because
she was taken out of Man.
3 Grammar
Declension of nouns
‘stone’
m.
‘ship’
n-declension (weak declension)
‘man’
n.
‘tale’
f.
mutation declension
‘foot’
3 Grammar
Declension of adjectives
‘blind’
definite
indefinite
3 Grammar
Declension of demonstratives
Instr.
þӯ
þӯ
3 Grammar
Declension of interrogative and indefinite pronouns
m./f.
n.
Nom.
hwā
hwæt
Acc. hwone, hwæne
hwæt
Gen.
hwæs
hwæs
Dat. hwǣm, hwām
hwǣm, hwām
Instr.
hwī, hwon
hwī, hwon, hwan
3 Grammar
Declension of personal pronouns
Ādam ðā cwæð: “þis is nū bān of mīnum bānum, & flǣsċ
preterite3sg. present3sg.
(ġe)cweþan
bēon
of mīnum flǣsċe. Bēo hēo ġeċīġed fǣmne, for ðan ðe
future3sg.
bēon
past participle
(ġe)ċīeġan
hēo is of hyre were ġenumen.”
present3sg.
past participle
bēon
(ġe)niman
And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh
of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because
she was taken out of Man.
3 Grammar
Conjugation of verbs
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Participle
Pres. Pret.
I
Weak
II
verbs
III
I
II
III
Strong
IV
verbs
V
VI
VII
Pres. Pret.
Pres.
Infinitive
Pres. Pret. Simple Inflected
3 Grammar
Weak verbs
lufian ‘love’
3 Grammar
Weak verbs
dēman ‘deem’
3 Grammar
Weak verbs
habban ‘have’
3 Grammar
Strong verbs
drīfan ‘drive’
3 Grammar
Strong verbs: the seven classes
3 Grammar
Bēon-wesan ‘be’
Present.
Preterite
Indicative
Sg. 1 eom
2 eart
3 is
Pl.
sind(on), sint
bēo
bist
biþ
bēoþ
wæs
wǣre
wæs
wǣron
Subjunctive
Sg.
sīe
Pl.
sīen
bēo
bēon
wǣre
wǣren
Imperative
Sg.
wes
Pl.
wesaþ
bēo
bēoþ
Participle
wesende
bēonde
ġebēon
Ādam ðā cwæð: “þis is nū bān of mīnum bānum, & flǣsċ
then
now
and
of mīnum flǣsċe. Bēo hēo ġeċīġed fǣmne, for ðan ðe
because
hēo is of hyre were ġenumen.”
And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh
of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because
she was taken out of Man.
3 Grammar
3 Grammar
3 Grammar
Gloss and translate the passage!
For ðan forlǣt se man fæder & mōdor, & ġeðēot hine
to his wīfe, & hī bēoð būta on ānum flǣsce. Hī wǣron ðā
būta ādam & his wīf nacode. & him ðæs ne sċeamode.
forlǣt:
(he/she/it) leaves
ġeðēot:
(he/she/it) joins
būta:
both n.
nacode:
naked n.pl.
sċeamode:
(it) caused shame
3 Grammar
For ðan forlǣt se man fæder & mōdor, & ġeðēot
therefore leaves the man father and mother and joins
Ind.pres.3sg. Nom.sg.m. Acc.sg.m. Acc.sg.f.
hine
him(self)
Ind.pres.3sg. Acc.sg.m.
to his wīfe, & hī bēoð būta on ānum flǣsce. Hī wǣron ðā
to his wife and they shall-be both in
Dat.sg.n.
Nom.pl.Ind.fut.3pl.Nom.n.
one
flesh
they were then
Dat.sg.n. Dat.sg.n. Nom.pl.Ind.pt.3pl.
būta ādam & his wīf nacode. & him ðæs ne sceamode.
both Adam and his wife naked and to-them of-that not caused-shame
Nom.n. Nom.sg.m.
Nom.sg.n.Nom.pl.n.
Dat.pl.
Gen.sg.
Ind.pt.3sg.
3 Grammar
For ðan forlǣt se man fæder & mōdor, & ġeðēot hine
to his wīfe, & hī bēoð būta on ānum flǣsce. Hī wǣron ðā
būta ādam & his wīf nacode. & him ðæs ne sceamode.
Therefore shall the man leave his father and mother,
and shall join himself with his wife, and they shall be
both in one flesh. They were then, both Adam and his
wife, naked. And to them there was no shame of it.
Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother,
and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one
flesh. And they were both naked, the man and his wife,
and were not ashamed. (KJV=King James Version)
4 Reading practice (I)
Peterborough Chronicle for AD 595
(The first sentence is in Latin.)
4 Reading practice (I)
Vocabulary
brytene
engla
godes
godspellodon
gregorius
her
manengum
mid
munucum
papa
sende
þe
þeoda
wel
word
Britain
Angles
god’s
gospelled (=preached)
Gregory
here; in this year
many (scribal mis-spelling)
with
monks
Pope
sent
who (relative pronoun)
nation, people
well (=very)
word
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