Grammar
Discovering useful words and expressions
Answer key for Exercise 1.
defence, likely, Italy, canteen, represent,
dash, approach, association, cheek, flight
Answer key for Exercise 2.
approached, Jordan, cheek, curiously,
dashed, misunderstood, contrary
Answer key for Exercise 3.
crossroads, adult, major, dormitory,
greeted, representing, association,
spoken, Colombia, curious, flight
Grammar
V-ing 形式
一: V-ing 形式由 “do+ing” 构成, 其否
定形式是 “not doing”, V-ing 可以带宾
语或状语构成 V-ing 短语, 没有人称和数
的变化, 但有时态和语态的变化。
语态 主动语态
时态
一般式 (not) doing
被动语态
(not) being done
(not)
完成式 (not)
having done having been done
V-ing 形式在句中作定语和状语是本单
元的学习重点。
1. 作定语
V-ing 形式可以单独充当名词的前置修饰
语, 这时有两种情况。
1) -ing形式表示 “供作......之用”的意思, 这
类作定语的-ing形式过去叫动名词。
A swimming pool
= a pool for swimming
A sleeping car = a car for sleeping
2) -ing形式表示 “......的” 意思, 过去
叫现在分词
A sleeping child
working people
the rising sun
-ing形式短语作定语时一般放在它所
修饰的名词之后, 相当于一个定语从句。
如:
They are visitors coming from several
countries.
The boy standing there is a classmate
of mine.
2. 作状语
可以表示时间, 原因, 结果,条件, 行为
方式或伴随动作等。
Using your head, you’ll find a good
way.
条件
1) Four people entered the room looking
around in a curious way.
= Four people enter the room and
looked around in a curious way.
( 伴随动作)
2) Being poor, he couldn’t afford a TV
set.
(原因)
3) Working hard, you’ll surely succeed.
条件
4) The boy sat in front of the farmhouse, cutting the branch.
伴随
5) He came running back to tell me the
news.
方式
6) (When) Hearing the news, he got
frightened.
= When he heard the news, he got
frightened.
(时间, 可以在分词前保留when )
7) The child slipped and fell, hitting
his head against the door.
结果
Attention Please
-ing形式作状语时, 它的逻辑主语必须与主
句的主语是一致的。
Time permitting, I will pay a visit to the
whole city.
(分词的逻辑主语是time , 而句子的主语是
I , 两者不构成主谓关系, 所以只能用独立主
格结构, 也就是给现在分词补充一个主语。)
His nose touches Mr. Cook’s moving hand.
the Japanese
the Canadian
You see
her step
back
appearing
surprised.
the Columbian
the British lady
You see her step back appearing
surprised.
= You see her step back and she appears
surprised.
They also express their feelings using
unspoken language.
=They also express their feelings by
the way of using unspoken language.
His nose touched Mr. Cook’s moving
hand.
=His nose touched Mr. Cook’s hand
which is moving.
They are visitors coming from several
countries.
= They are visitors who come from
several countries.
This is an exciting experience.
= This is an experience which is exciting.
Rewrite the following sentences.
1. When he approached Ms Smith, he
touched her shoulder and kissed her.
______
When ___________
approaching Ms Smith, he
touched her shoulder and kissed her.
2. The person who is translating the songs
can speak seven languages.
The person _________
songs
translating___
the______can
speak seven languages.
3. The boy standing there is reading a
book about body language.
The boy ____
who __
is ________
standing there is
reading a book about body language.
4. Because he comes from Jordan, he
moves close to ask you a question.
_______ _____
from Jordan, he moves close
Coming
to ask you a question.
5. She sat at the desk and did her
homework.
She sat at the desk ______
doing ____
her
__________.
homework
Grammar work 语法专练
用所给动词的适当形式填空。
1. Not knowing
________(know) his address, I
couldn’t go to see him yesterday.
2. Look out for cars when crossing
_______(cross)
the street.
3. Not having
_________________
been invited (invite) to the
party, Mary was greatly hurt.
4. He dived into the water, ______
leaving(leave)
only his face exposed.
5. When I got back home I saw a message
pinned to the door, _______
reading (read)
“Sorry to miss you; I will call later.”
6. Taking
_______ (take) a deep breath, they
dived into the water.
7. Having
____________
closed (close) the windows and
the door, the students left the room.
Grammar quiz 语法小测
1. When _____
C different cultures, we
often pay attention only to the
differences without noticing many
similarities.
A. compared B. being compared
C. comparing D. having compared
2. Whenever he was asked why he was
late for class, he would answer
carelessly, always ______
the same
A
thing.
A. saying
B. said
C. to say
D. having said
3. There are hundreds of visitors _____
C
in front of the Art Gallery to have a
look at Van Gogh’s paintings.
A. waited
B. to wait
C. waiting
D. wait
4. ______
, the more expensive the
C
camera, the better its quality.
A. General speaking
B. Speaking general
C. Generally speaking
D. Speaking generally
5. “You can’t catch me!” Janet shouted,
_______
away.
B
A. run
B. running
C. to run
D. ran
单句改错
1. Having not seen the film, I can’t tell
you what I think of it.
Not having
2. The men worked for extra hours got an
extra pay.
working
3. Seen from the top of the hill, we find
the city more beautiful. Seeing
4. Generally speak, facial expressions are
helpful communications, too. speaking
5. “ Can’t you read?” the man said,
angrily pointed to the notice on the wall.
pointing
6. Knocking at the door before entering,
please. Knock
7. European football is played in 80
countries, made it the most popular sport
in the world. making
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