Results of Eyetracking & Self-Paced Moving Window Studies DO-Bias Verbs: The referees warned the spectators would probably get too rowdy. The referees warned the game would probably go into overtime. read slowly Clause-Bias Verbs: The bus driver worried the passengers were starting to get annoyed. The bus driver worried the tires were starting to go flat. EQ-Bias Verbs: read slowly The senior senator regretted the decision had ever been made public. The senior senator regretted the reporter had ever seen the report. Ambiguity Effects First-Pass Times in Eyetracking At Disambiguating Verb At Ambiguous NP Plausibility * Plausibility NS Plausibility NS Plausibility Plausibility Plausibility * NS NS Ambiguity Effects Total Times in Eyetracking At Disambiguating Verb Plausibility * Plausibility * Plausibility NS At Ambiguous NP Ambiguity Effects Self-paced Moving Window Times At Disambiguating Verb At Ambiguous NP Plausibility * Plausibility * Plausibility NS Plausibility NS Plausibility NS Plausibility NS Notice direction of Plaus Effects at NP !!! Verbs Rule! But Why? • In these sentences, verb comes before relevant noun, so gets a head start? – BUT, Trueswell (1995) found same for Reduced Relatives, where noun comes first (e.g., “evidence examined” ) • Verb Bias may be retrieved as part of recognizing verb – While plausibility must be computed on-line for particular verbnoun combinations, which probably takes longer? • Verbs determine how everything else in sentence combines, so weighted most heavily? • In English, verbs appear early in sentences, so we learn to rely heavily on the predictive info they provide? – So what do speakers of verb-final languages rely on instead? Plausibility of possible noun combinations??? Correlations between Ambiguity Effect Size at Disambiguation & Verb Bias Strength Across All Verbs First-Pass Times Moving Window Times Correlational Evidence Specifically for Parallel Parsing When Verb Bias & Plausibility provided conflicting cues Clause-Bias Verb + Plausible-as-DO NP As DO-Bias INcreases, difficulty INcreases r = +.56 (First Pass) +.47 (Moving Window) DO-Bias Verb + Implausible-as-DO NP As Clause-Bias INcreases, difficulty DEcreases r = -.58 (First Pass) -.59 (Moving Window) So, when Plausibility cue conflicts w/ Verb Bias - Other structure is considered - To the extent the V is used in that other structure Could ALL Non-Syntactic Influence be on Reanalysis, not Initial Parse??? • Frazier (1995) – “It may be significant that garden paths have never been convincingly demonstrated in the processing of analysis A (the structurally simplest one)… In such cases, if analysis A ultimately proves to be correct, perceivers should show evidence of having been garden-pathed by a syntactically more complex analysis even though the syntactically simpler analysis is correct.” • So, need to demonstrate early influence of nonsyntactic factors even when GP Model predicts no reanalysis – GP Model says simplest alternative tried first – If correct, no reason to try others, so no reanalysis – And thus no reason for non-syntactic factors to influence parse - Interactive models do predict “garden-pathing” in simpler structures, if lexical &/or contextual cues push toward more complex possible structure - But they predict it should be smaller than in more complex structures because … - Structural (& conceptual) simplicity not ignored in such models - Just not the only important factor in initial interpretation - Simpler sentences are generally more common - So other cues have to fight structural frequency effects Wilson & Garnsey (2006) Put both kinds of verbs in both kinds of structures • Clause-Bias Verb: The ticket agent admitted the mistake might not have been caught. The ticket agent admitted the mistake because she had been caught. • DO-Bias Verb: The CIA director confirmed the rumor could mean a security breach. The CIA director confirmed the rumor when he testified before Congress. ALL post-verb NPs plausible as DOs • Since DO-sentence with implausible-as-DO NP is implausible! Length-Corrected Residual RT at Disambiguation * * * * * NS * * NS Convinced??? • According to GP Model, in DO-Structure Sentence – Should never be any reason to reanalyze – So no need to go back & reread • So why do people reread earlier words more in DO-Structure Sentence w/ Clause-Bias Verb? – Because Verb Bias does influence initial interpretation, not just reanalysis? • Why do people – Slow down & stay put in Clause-Structure Sentences w/ DO-Bias Verbs? – But reread earlier words instead in DO-Structure Sentences w/ Clause-Bias Verbs?